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Before the Manifesto: The Life Writings of Mary 
Lois Walker Morris 

Melissa Lambert Milewski 

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Morris, M. L. W., & Milewski, M. L. (2007). Before the manifesto: The life writings of Mary Lois Walker Morris. Logan, Utah: Utah 
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Before the Manifesto 

The Life Writings of 
Mary Lois Walker Morris 

Volume 9 
Life Writings of Frontier Women 

An 1852 painting of Mary Lois Morris at age seventeen 
by her first husband John T. Morris. 

Before the Manifesto 

The Life Writings of 
Mary Lois Walker Morris 

Edited by 

Melissa Lambert Milewski 

Utah State University Press 

Logan, Utah 


Copyright © 2007 Utah State University Press 
All rights reserved 

Utah State University Press 
Logan, Utah 84322-7800 

Manufactured in the United States of America 

Printed on acid-free paper 

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data 

Morris, Mary Lois Walker, 1835-1919. 

Before the manifesto : the life writings of Mary Lois Walker Morris, 
p. cm. - (Life writings of frontier women ; v. 9) 

Includes bibliographical references and index. 

ISBN-13: 978-0-87421-644-8 (cloth : alk. paper) ISBN : 978-0-87421-547-2 (e-book) 

1. Morris, Mary Lois Walker, 1835-1919. 2. Mormon women-Utah-Salt Lake 
City-Biography. 3. Salt Lake City (Utah)-Church history. 4. Salt Lake 
City (Utah)-History. I. Title. 

BX8695.M67A3 2006 





Preface vii 

Introduction 1 



Sketch of the Life of Mary L. Morris 53 



"Had a Host of Callers" 204 


"I Can Earn a Triful" 241 


"Conclude to Trust in God" 289 


"Felt Most Acutely My Baby Was Gone" 327 


"Arose from My Pillow to Behold a Great Fire" 358 


"To Take Charge of the Primary Department of the Ward" 385 


"My Husband Has Thought It Wisdom to Absent Himself 420 


"Going South in the Morning" 457 


"Went to Court to Testily in Favor of My Husband" 496 



Exile in Mexico 534 

Abbreviations 575 

Bibliography 576 

Biographical Register of Names 585 

Index 629 


Mary Lois Morris frontis 

Mary Lois's first ten diaries viii 

Mary Lois's first seven books of memoirs x 

Mary Lois's complete surviving diaries and memoirs xii 

Pages from Mary Lois's handwritten memoir 4 

Mary Lois's first husband, John Thomas Morris 8 

Painting of John Thomas Morris 9 

Elias Morris, Mary Lois Morris's second husband 12 

Map of locations in Salt Lake City 13 

The Ontario Mine in Park City 18 

The Morris & Sons marble yard 18 

Salt Lake Fifteenth Ward chapel 19 

1 885 Map of Salt Lake City 20 

A Salt Lake Fifteenth Ward group outing 23 

The Salt Lake Theatre 25 

Effie Walker Morris Ashton 28 

Marian Adelaide Morris 28 

Katherine Vaughan Morris 28 

Ceorge Quayle Morris 29 

Nephi Lowell Morris 29 

Elias Morris, his first wife Mary Parry, and their children 32 

Warrant for the arrest of Elias Morris 36 

Mary Lois and her five children 43 

Mary Lois and descendants at a family reunion 45 

Mary Lois Morris's gravestone 47 

Mary Lois Morris 51 

A page from Mary Lois's handwritten memoir 52 

Charles Lowell Walker 62 

Mary Lois Walker and her father William Gibson Walker 94 

John T. Morris's gravestone in Cedar City 118 

Mary Parry Morris 125 

The Salt Lake Fifteenth Ward Relief Society Hall 1 55 

Edward Treharne Ashton 1 79 

George M. Cannon 187 

First page of Mary Lois's first day book 202 

Mary Lois Morris 203 

Mary Lois's diary entries from August 1879 228 

The Salt Lake City Temple Block in 1 883 290 

Effie and Edward Ashton's four oldest children 328 

East Side of Main Street in Salt Lake City 359 

Salt Lake Fifteenth Ward chapel 411 

Elias Morris 421 

Indictment of Elias Morris for unlawful cohabitation 464 

Jury verdict finding Elias Morris not guilty 522 

Painting of Mary Lois Morris 533 


If not for the voluminous writings that Mary Lois Walker Morris left 
behind, she might only be remembered as a woman much like many oth- 
ers, but Mary Lois wrote detailed accounts of her life — a four-inch thick 
memoir, day books containing daily accounts of forty years, and an eighty- 
page book of poetry. Because of the sheer volume of her writings, it is 
for now impractical to publish them all. This volume contains her extant 
record of the first half century of her life, including the portion of her 
memoir recounting her life until 1887 and the diary she kept between 
1879 and 1887. 

The Historical Department of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter- 
day Saints and the Utah State Historical Society both hold microfilm cop- 
ies of Mary Lois Morris's diaries. The original diary and memoir were 
in the possession of Marion Ramsey Morris, a granddaughter, when the 
LDS Historical Department filmed them in 1963. Linda Kidd, Mary Lois's 
great-granddaughter, now has them. The diary comprised eighty-nine 
day books; the copies of those still extant take up five rolls of microfilm. 1 
Seventeen of the day books (numbers 19, 34 to 35, 39 to 52) are miss- 
ing, leaving gaps between December 4, 1894 to July 16, 1895, March 12, 
1902 to September 26, 1902, and August 31, 1903 to February 18, 1906. 
For 1879 through 1887 the day books range from 4 to 4.5 inches wide 
and 6.5 to 7 inches long and are bound in different shades of tan, red, 
and black leather. In later years Mary Lois generally wrote in red or black 
leather day books of the same proportions, although she also occasion- 
ally used small, tan unbound notebooks 3.5 by 6.5 inches or small leather 
day books 3.75 by 6 inches. She wrote the diary entries with a pen in cur- 
sive script. Occasionally, she made a notation in the margin or inserted a 
separate, loose sheet between a day book's pages. 

Mary Lois's surviving diary begins on January 1, 1879. She may have 
kept a diary earlier, but no record of such survives in historical archives 
or catalogs. As she began her 1879 diary by calling it her first day book 

See also the description of the diary and memoir in Davis Bitton, Guide to Mormon 
Diaries and Autobiographies, 248. 

Before the Manifesto 


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Photo by autho 

Mary Lois's first ten diaries, covering 1879 to 1889. 

and wrote on January 1, 1881, "Two years ago to day I began to Keep a 
Jornal," she probably did not keep a diary earlier. Once she began, she 
became a faithful diarist for the remainder of her life. Her daily record 
continued for the next forty years, with relatively few breaks until it ended 
six months before her death, in 1919 at the age of eighty-four. During 
Mary Lois's later years, her handwriting worsened and in her last year of 
diary entries, she skipped quite a few days, instead writing a general sum- 
mary for the days missed. 

Although she left an entry for almost every day, Mary Lois does not 
seem to have written daily. She wrote on January 1, 1881, "I began to Keep 
a Jornal and have written something for every day scince I belive though 
sometimes being to busy to write for several days have gone back and 
given an acount of events as they have occurred; having wonce been two 
weeks without having time to write which was a great tax upon my mem- 
ory but ccomplished it." Mary Lois never explained why she kept a diary, 
although in the same 1881 entry she added, "I find that my day book has 
been useful to refer to and intresting to read." 2 

The diary entries are often repetitive, but this very repetition shows 
the daily fabric of Mary Lois's life. Careful reading allows one to piece 
together her daily routine and experiences, which largely go unrecorded 
in her memoir. She seems to have followed the form of contemporary 
almanacs, which began daily entries with a description of the weather. The 

2. January 1, 1881 (Dates given without a source correspond to date of diary entries). 

Preface ix 

items she most commonly noted were housework, her and her family's 
activities, people she visited or was visited by, local events, and church 
meetings and duties. 3 

Mary Lois's diaries between 1879 and 1887 are among the most 
dramatic and significant in her life. During this time, the federal govern- 
ment's attempts to end polygamy redefined her marriage. A plural wife, 
she and Elias Morris, her husband, lived together in 1879 during every 
other week, but as the 1880s progressed, they saw each other less and less 
often because of the prosecution of polygamy. In 1885 and 1886, she went 
into hiding to protect her husband from conviction for illegal cohabi- 
tation, the specific crime of which polygamists were usually accused. 
Then after 1887, when Elias Morris was arrested and tried, she publicly 
denied their marriage. During this period, she raised her young children, 
watched her older daughter court and marry, and worked as a milliner to 
support her household. Devoted to her church, she recorded performing 
spiritual healings, visiting the sick and elderly of her congregation, and 
serving as president of her congregation's fledgling primary organiza- 
tion, which was dedicated to the religious education of children. 

Mary Lois also left behind the much more polished account of 
her life contained in her four-hundred-page memoir, "Sketch of the 
Life of Mary L. Morris." According to Mary Lois's own account, she 
worked on writing her memoir for about fifteen years, using her dia- 
ries as a guide in remembering events. The handwritten memoirs that 
are extant today were written in tan, orange, and blue paper-covered 
notebooks, ranging in size from 8 by 10 inches to 4.75 by 8.75 inches. 
She began the memoir in October 1901 and a transcription seems to 
have been completed in 1916, three years before her death. Mary Pye, a 
friend in Salt Lake City and a fellow member of the LDS church, appar- 
ently transcribed from the handwritten draft. Mary Lois took an active 
part in the transcription process, going over the final manuscript with 
Pye on at least three occasions at the end of 1915 as well as keeping up a 
letter correspondence with her transcriber. She wrote, for instance, on 
November 10, 1915 that Mary Pye "arrived to read the sketch as far as 
she had transcribed it. We spent the afternoon quietly she reading and 
I listening. After her departure the wearyness of the day came upon me 
and I had to retire." Later, after the memoir's completion, several typed 
copies of it were bound and distributed to family members by Mary 

Such entries are common among other Mormon and non-Mormon women's diaries 
of the time. See Juanita Brooks, ed., Not by Bread Alone: The Journal of Martha Spence 
Heywood, 1850—1855; Donna Toland Smart, ed., Mormon Midwife: The 1846-1888 Diaries 
of Patty Bartlett Sessions- Charles M. Hatch and Todd M. Compton, eds., A Widow's Tale: 
The 1884—1896 Diary of Helen Mar Kimball Whitney; Maurine Carr Ward, ed., Winter 
Quarters: The 1846-1848 Life Writings of Mary Haskin Parker Richards. 

Before the Manifesto 

<W¥F f- 

Phola by author 

The first seven books of Mary Lois's surviving handwritten 
memoirs, which cover the first part of Mary Lois's life. 

Lois's son George Q.. Morris. These were likely copies of the transcrip- 
tion made by Mary Pye, but there is not a clear record of the relation- 
ship between the two. 

In 1963, the extant portion of the twenty-three original handwritten 
volumes of Mary Lois's memoir was copied onto one roll of microfilm 
by the Historical Department of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter- 
day Saints in conjunction with her diary. The original holographs in the 
possession of Linda Kidd and the microfilm copy are missing volumes 1 , 
9-13, 16-17, and 20-22. A copy of the more polished, typed version of 
the complete memoir is in the Special Collections of the Harold B. Lee 
Library, Brigham Young University, Provo, and descendants own several 
other, leather-bound copies of this typed memoir. 

The handwritten and typed drafts differ in a few ways. The hand- 
written text is not chronological, while the typed memoir has been rear- 
ranged in that order. Second, the handwritten memoir has words crossed 
out and others written above the line; the typed version incorporates 
these alterations. Third, punctuation and word order within sentences 
sometimes varies between the two versions. Finally, some words or phrases 
in the first draft have been replaced with synonyms in the later version 

Preface xi 

and other words that were mispelled in the first draft are spelled correctiy 
in the typed version. Otherwise, the text, with light editing, is the same in 
the two documents. Although the handwritten draft of the memoir might 
be seen as more authentic because it is in Mary Lois's own hand and the 
later version of the memoir was typed by someone else, I have chosen to 
include the typed memoir in this book because of the many missing sec- 
tions of the holographic version and Mary Lois's active participation in 
the transcription of the manuscript. 4 

Mary Lois explained that she wrote the memoir for her descendants 
at the urging of her children George and Kate. Aware of her audience, 
she emphasized the importance of obedience to God, writing in the pref- 
ace, "After having tried to mould my life according to the principles of 
the Gospel and the commandments of God, I can assure you, my precious 
children, in all soberness, that if you will seek to serve your God in all 
things He will surely bring you off conquerors.""' She also placed special 
emphasis on spiritual events and the experiences of her family. In addi- 
tion, she may have written her memoir to familiarize her children with 
her first husband John Thomas Morris, whom they had never known. 

The memoir included in this book chronicles Mary Lois's life from 
her childhood but complements the included portion of the diary by 
ending in 1887. One twenty-one-page section that appears within the pre- 
1887 memoir has not been included here and is indicated by an ellip- 
sis. It details work for the LDS Primary Association after 1887, including 
some of the primary curriculum that she composed as a member of her 
stake primary presidency, a position in which she helped direct the chil- 
dren's programs of several congregations. Later in the memoir Mary Lois 
recounted accompanying her daughter Kate, also a plural wife, on the 
Mormon polygamist underground to Mexico from 1902 to 1905. That 
account appears in this book as an epilogue. 

Diaries and memoirs are created and record lives in different ways, 
differing particularly in an author's distance from the events that she 
writes about. While diaries are generally written within a few days of the 
events described, memoirs may be written decades later. Thus diaries offer 

For more about Mary Lois's reasons for writing the memoir and the period of time in 
which it was written, see Mary Lois Walker Morris, "Sketch of the Life of Mary L. Morris, 
1904," 463 (hereinafter cited as Memoir). For more information about Mary Lois's 
participation in the typed transcription of her handwritten memoir see her diary entries 
on November 10, 1915; December 2, 1915; December 3, 1915; February 2, 1916; July 28, 
1916. Mary Lois Walker Morris, "Diaries and Reminiscences, 1879-1919," original in the 
possession of Mary Lois's great-granddaughter, Linda Kidd, of Camarillo, California; 
microfilm copy, Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints Archives Division.; typescript 
Memoir Special Collections, Harold B. Lee Library, Brigham Young University. 
Memoir preface; p. 53. 

Before the Manifesto 

Pholn by author 

Mary Lois 's complete surviving diaries and memoirs. 

the rough-around-the-edges immediacy of everyday life, while memoirs 
contain only events in the author's life, filtered through the fog of mem- 
ory, that on reflection she wants remembered by posterity. Yet, because 
it is told from a longer perspective, a memoir may better highlight the 
significance of certain events and dimensions of a person's life, including 
those that might not have been recognized as particularly important while 
the author experienced them. Though still filtered by what she chose to 
write about, Mary Lois's diary is a more inclusive historical source that 
chronicles the wide variety of ordinary — as well as extraordinary — experi- 
ences of her daily life. She wrote the memoir, in contrast, in a narrative 
format and described in detail the events she later deemed significant, as 
well as to a much greater degree her emotions and thoughts during those 
events. While her memoir is engaging, such large parts of her life are left 
out that only by reading it alongside her diary can one gain an adequate 
perspective on her changing marriage and life during the 1880s. At the 
same time, the background in the memoir about the first forty years of 
her life and the emotional and intellectual frame it adds to later experi- 
ences provide better understanding of her diary entries. 

Both documents have many gaps, but because their gaps are differ- 
ent, they supplement each other. For instance, the memoir describes in 
great detail Mary Lois's courtship and marriage to her first husband, John 

Preface xiii 

Thomas Morris. The references in her memoir to her second husband Elias 
Morris are much more limited, perhaps because she wrote it after many years 
of separation from him due to antipolygamy laws and then death. While 
she dedicated several pages to discussing Elias Morris's career and, later, 
his death, he rarely appears in her accounts of family activities, although he 
lived with her every other week (except when absent on a mission or busi- 
ness) for almost thirty years. In contrast, Mary Lois's diary contains only a 
handful of references to John Morris, on days such as their wedding anni- 
versary. However, she wrote the diary entries included here while she was 
still living with Elias and as she redefined her relationship with him, and he 
has a definite presence in them. She provided a detailed account of their 
changing marriage as the prosecution of polygamy increased. 

Mary Lois does not mention in her memoir the rich cultural life 
of books and plays that she enjoyed, her daily housework, her frequent 
church attendance, or her community service and visiting. Yet it is these 
very details, recorded regularly in her diary, that paint a fuller picture 
of her life. Her diary has gaps as well. The contemporary atmosphere of 
secrecy about polygamy may have affected what Mary Lois wrote about 
her marriage. 6 In addition, in contrast to her memoir, her diary expresses 
litde emotion. Perhaps it was more difficult to address her feelings when 
she was in the thick of an event than when looking back at it years later. 

Editorial Methods 

This book adheres to the original texts of the diary and memoir as closely 
as possible. Spelling, capitalization, and punctuation appear as written. 
Strikethroughs and underscores show words or phrases crossed out and 
underlined in the original text. The transcript here retains writing errors, 
abbreviations, and contractions. Blank spaces in the text and illegible 
words or letters are indicated by a bracketed explanation in italics. Any text 
written in the margins now appears in brackets within the text. Text writ- 
ten on separate pieces of paper inserted into the diary is quoted in foot- 
notes. Brief interlineations by the author have been included within the 
text at the point marked by the author, without special notation by the edi- 
tor. Bracketed insertions or comments from the editor have been italicized 
while insertions that are extensions of Mary Lois's wording, such as full 
names, appear in roman. The dates beginning diary entries recreate the 
format of the original. Superscript letters are brought down to the line. 

Where possible, the first time Mary Lois mentions a person, a brack- 
eted insertion gives his or her full name. A biographical register appended 

6. B. Carmon Hardy, appendix 1, "Lying for the Lord: An Essay," in Solemn Covenant: The 
Mormon Polygamous Passage, 372. 

xiv Before the Manifesto 

to the book contains information about these people. While the editor 
used several sources to identify people, the sheer number of people and 
Mary Lois's tendency to write only last names or initials may have caused 
some misidentifications. The 1880 census, the Family History Library of 
the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, and various Utah biograph- 
ical encyclopedias especially helped in the identification process. In cases 
where positive identification was not possible, the most likely person was 
identified. Generally, this was the person by that name who lived nearest 
to Mary Lois and whose life corresponded with details she provided, such 
as birth or death dates. When such a choice was not available and there 
was no alternative method of choosing between multiple possibilities, the 
name in question does not appear in the biographical register. Several 
women appear in the register under both their maiden and married 
names. The full entry is under the name by which the woman first appears 
in Mary Lois's writings and is cross-referenced from the other name. 

The original typewritten memoir has numbered subheadings instead 
of page numbers. To aid readers who wish to trace citations to that type- 
script, I have used the subhead number rather than a page number when 
citing the original memoir but have also included cross-references to the 
memoir pages in this book, in the form, for example, Memoir 36; p. 73. 


I express gratitude to John R. Alley, executive editor of Utah State 
University Press, and Maureen Ursenbach Beecher, who served until 
recentiy as the series editor, for seeing the worth in Mary Lois Morris's 
writings. Jill Mulvay Derr first encouraged me to consider publication of 
the diary, introduced me to Maureen Beecher, and, along with Thomas 
Alexander and Grant Underwood, gave valuable insights. Claudia 
Bushman was instrumental through her suggestion that I consider the 
diary as a worthy project for my master's thesis. I am also grateful to 
William W. Slaughter of the Historical Department of the Church of Jesus 
Christ of Latter-day Saints for his assistance, especially for allowing me to 
borrow a microfilm copy of the diary from the Historical Department. 
Ronald Dennis was of great help in locating photographs; and Lorraine 
Ashton, Suzanne Hansen, and Robert Wheatley shared many of their fam- 
ily photographs. Briant Badger, Gabrielle Woods, and Jack and Mary Lois 
Wheatiey also generously shared their family history, photographs, paint- 
ings, and documents. In addition, Linda Kidd allowed me to review and 
photograph the original memoirs and diary that are in her possession. I 
also thank my mother, Elizabeth Lambert, who painstakingly helped to 
check the final transcription of the diary. Finally, my husband, Anthony 
Milewski, provided unfailing love and support throughout the process. 


After enduring a ship voyage from her native England to an unknown life 
in America, a long walk across the plains to Utah, the death of her first 
husband when she was only nineteen, and the loneliness of a plural mar- 
riage, Mary Lois Walker Morris may have thought that she had overcome 
the major challenges in her life. Yet, as the 1880s began, her life was about 
to turn upside down again. During the next decade, as the federal govern- 
ment challenged the practice of polygamy and pressure mounted for Utah 
to become more integrated in the United States, Mary Lois's church lead- 
ers and fellow Mormons faced prosecution and imprisonment. The pursuit 
of polygamists threatened her own marriage, and in 1885, after twenty-nine 
years of marriage, she and her husband, under duress, publicly separated. 
Mary Lois's memoir and diary provide a deeply felt account of how she 
experienced and negotiated this time of great change in Utah. 

The daily regularity of Mary Lois's diary allows readers to better under- 
stand the everyday fabric of a woman's life in Salt Lake City in the 1880s. 
Meanwhile, the dramatic stories in her memoir provide a glimpse into the 
thoughts and experiences that a nineteenth-century immigrant woman 
most wanted remembered. Her voluminous writings also give insight into 
the rich cultural life, divisive legal batdes, and tightiy knit Latter-day Saints 
(LDS) community in Salt Lake City, including the life of the Mormon elite, 
of which her husband's prominent business position made her a part. 

Having experienced both a monogamous and a polygamous mar- 
riage, Mary Lois had a special perspective from which to view the social 
transitions taking place in Utah as polygamy came under attack. At the 
age of nineteen, she made a bedside promise to her dying husband to 
enter into a biblical levirate marriage with his married brother, Elias 
Morris. Despite grave misgivings about becoming Elias's second wife, she 
kept this vow. By 1879, when her diary began, she had seven children with 
Elias — five were still living — and lived with him every other week in a two- 
story home in Salt Lake City. 1 

Elias's first wife, Mary Parry Morris (1834-1919), was born in Newmarket, Flint, Wales, 
the daughter of John Parry and Elizabeth Parry. She married Elias Morris on May 23, 


2 Before the Manifesto 

Mary Lois's wide web of friendships and acquaintances makes her 
life writings particularly valuable in chronicling the daily interactions of 
the Utah Mormon community and the effect of their strong personal and 
religious ties on the struggle over polygamy. Hundreds of other people 
crowded her life. She spent her days visiting friends, helping lay out the 
dead, sitting up with the sick, taking food to the elderly, and teaching 
religious classes for children. Her home served as an extension of this 
LDS community. There she welcomed an unending stream of callers and 
gave recent immigrants and elderly women rooms until they got on their 
feet again. Her off-and-on work as a milliner, supplementing the money 
she received from her husband, further tied her to the community. With 
increased enforcement during the 1880s of federal laws outiawing polyg- 
amy, Mary Lois's relationships with her fellow church members enhanced 
her feelings of being under siege. 

These circumstances led Mary Lois to move outside the boundaries 
of the law. Forced to choose whether to follow federal law or her church, 
Mary Lois chose her religion. When a warrant was issued for her hus- 
band's arrest and federal officers wanted her to testify, she went into hid- 
ing off and on for over a year. Then, to protect her husband from going 
to jail for unlawful cohabitation, she and other family members, perjured 
themselves during his trial, and he was found not guilty. 

Although other Mormon women also defied the federal govern- 
ment during this time, Mary Lois's perspective is especially interesting 
because of her husband's involvement in mining, a business dominated 
by non-Mormons, where he worked closely with many men who probably 
supported federal prosecution of polygamy. The pressure on Mormons 
to assimilate by abandoning their exceptional marriage practices went 
hand in hand with economic pressure to give up their quest for self-suf- 
ficiency and respond to nationwide market forces, such as the demand 
for mineral ore. 2 Mary Lois describes her husband bridging the economic 
divide between the largely agricultural Mormons and the mining-oriented 
non-Mormons. A local leader in the LDS church, he also built many of 
the smelters, furnaces, and mills necessary to extract and process ore 
from local mines. His frequent dealings with non-Mormons in the min- 
ing industry contrasted sharply with Mary Lois's increasing separation 

1852, at Council Bluff's, Iowa. The couple had twelve children. Mary Parry lived with 
her family at 230 South Third West in Salt Lake City. Virginia Coff Howe, comp., "A 
Sketch of the Life of Mary Parry Morris," May 20, 1932, private possession of Briant G. 
Badger; Salt Lake City directory, for the year commencing Aug. 1 1885, 134. 
Richard W. Sadler, "The Impact of Mining on Salt Lake City," 236-53; Leonard J. 
Arrington, "Abundance from the Earth: The Beginnings of Commercial Mining in 
Utah," 201-19; Leonard Arrington, Great Basin Kingdom: An Economic History of the 
Latter-day Saints, 1830-1900, 202-5, 240-43. 

Introduction 3 

from those outside the Mormon community and shows the complicated 
and often painful transition that Mormons went through as they emerged 
from their earlier near isolation into a more nationally integrated society. 


Polygamy seemed alien to Mary Lois when she was asked to enter into 
it because it flew in the face of the ingrained tradition with which she 
was raised. Born in the northern English town of Leek 3 on May 14, 1835, 
Mary Lois was the youngest child of Mary Godwin and William Gibson 
Walker. Her mother was well-educated and spoke French fluently. She 
worked as a professional milliner and, at the time of Mary Lois's birth, 
had apprentices and journeywomen. 4 From the handful of letters from 
Mary Godwin that survive, it is evident that she emphasized proper 
behavior and refinement to her daughters. She also seems to have valued 
education and continual self-improvement. For instance, in an 1847 let- 
ter to her older daughter, Ann Agatha, who had recently emigrated to 
America, Mary Godwin wrote, "I am sorry to see you spell so incorrectly, 
but as you have a dictionary never write a letter without having it at hand, 
and habituate yourself to looking for any word that you cannot spell, by 
so doing you will spell correctiy." In the same letter, she added, "And now 
my dear child let me beg of you, as perhaps a last request, to refrain from 
singing vain silly songs, you litde think how they degrade you in the eyes 
of those whose esteem you should covet." 5 This early training would have 
a great effect on Mary Lois, leading her throughout her life to seek out 
new avenues of learning and improvement. 

Mary Lois's father William Walker earned his living as a school 
teacher and bookkeeper and was described by Mary Lois as "naturally 
religious and intellectual and . . . fond of books." This love of books 
passed to his daughter, who was herself an avid reader and often noted 
interesting points from her reading in her diary. According to Mary Lois, 
her father was a preacher in the Methodist church as a young man and 
then later joined the Congregational church, of which he was a member 
until about 1840. 6 

3. The English town of Leek was located on the main road between London and 
Manchester and had a population of about forty-three hundred inhabitants in 1831. At 
that time, the main industries in Leek were the manufacture of ribbons, articles of silk, 
and cheese. Places of worship for the Methodists, Society of Friends, and Independents 
were located in Leek. Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England, 3:49-50. 

4. Memoir 9-21; pp. 58-62. 

5. Mary Godwin Walker to Ann Agatha Walker, February 15, 1847, LDS Archives. 

6. Memoir 6-7; pp. 56-57. 




















5 . 




■ S 











■— - 










Introduction 5 

Around 1837, the family moved from Leek to the larger city of 
Manchester, 7 where about 1840 they first heard missionaries teaching 
the religion of Mormonism. Manchester was one of the centers of the 
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in England, and in the early 
1840s a number of the church's aposties preached as missionaries there. 8 
Despite some initial reluctance on the part of Mary Lois's father, who 
feared losing his job as a teacher at an ecclesiastical children's school, the 
family joined the LDS church. Then, around 1843, William Walker was 
sent on a six-year mission to preach in other parts of England. He seems 
to have briefly returned to Manchester in 1845, where he baptized Mary 
Lois on April 24. 9 A year later, in 1846, Mary Lois's sixteen-year-old sister 
Ann Agatha sailed to America with a company of Mormons, and soon 
after she became the tenth wife of LDS aposde Parley P. Pratt. 10 Their 
older brother Charles also emigrated to America to join the Mormons in 
St. Louis, Missouri. 11 

Meanwhile, Mary Lois and her mother struggled to pay the rent. 
As her mother's millinery business did not always make ends meet, when 

7. Manchester, a large marketing and manufacturing town, was one of the centers of the 
English industrial revolution. In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, Manchester 
was especially well known for its cloth factories, which produced large quantities of 
cotton, silk, and linen. The town's population increased sharply during the nineteenth 
century as a result of the industrial revolution. Anthony Wood, Nineteenth Century 
Britain, 1815-1914, 18, 102; Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England, 3:233-46. 

8. For a discussion of the LDS church in the 1840s in England, see Richard L.Jensen and 
Malcolm R. Thorp, eds., Mormons in Early Victorian Britain; Ronald W. Walker, "Cradling 
Mormonism: The Rise of the Gospel in Early Victorian England." The LDS church 
in early Victorian Manchester is examined in Jan G. Harris, "Mormons in Victorian 
Manchester," and William Clayton, Manchester Mormons: The Journal of William Clayton, 
1840 to 1842. In addition, Leonard Arrington examines Mormon women in nineteenth- 
century Great Britain in "Mormon Women in Nineteenth-Century Britain." 

9. Susan Easton Black, comp., Membership of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 
1830-1848, 44:581. 

10. Ann Agatha Walker Pratt (1829-1908), Mary Lois's older sister, was born in Leek, 
Staffordshire, England, on June 11, 1829. She married Parley P. Pratt (1807-1857) on 
April 28, 1847, becoming his tenth wife. In 1860, three years after the death of her 
first husband, she married Joseph Ridges (1827-1914), the builder of the Salt Lake 
Tabernacle organ. They separated in 1 866, around the time that Joseph Ridges married 
Ann Agatha's daughter by her first marriage, Agatha (Aggie) Pratt (1848-1914), as a 
plural wife. Portions of Ann Agatha Walker Pratt's diary and memoir are recorded in 
Ann Agatha Walker Pratt, "Reminiscences of Mrs. A. Agatha Pratt. January 07," LDS 
Archives; "The Pratt Story: As Told by the 10th Wife," 17:223-45. In addition, a number 
of Ann Agatha Pratt's letters and papers, some of which mention her sister Mary Lois, 
survive in the LDS Archives. 

11. Mary Lois's older brother, Charles Lowell Walker (1832-1904), migrated to St. Louis 
in 1849, working there and in Illinois until 1855, when he moved to Salt Lake City. In 
September 1861, he married Abigail Middlemass; and in 1862 the couple was called to 
the LDS Cotton Mission in St. George, Utah, where Charles remained until his death. 

6 Before the Manifesto 

Mary Lois reached the age of twelve, she began working full time, doing 
housework and washing for a family next door. Even as a child, she 
believed that the Mormon religion was true. She listened to the messages 
of LDS aposdes such as Orson Hyde, Parley P. Pratt, and John Taylor, writ- 
ing of one such missionary, "I well remember how powerfully he spoke 
and how joyfully my heart responded to his inspired words as I sat and 
listened to him in those humble cottage meetings." 12 She later recalled in 
her diary that "at the earley age of ten" she felt "the spirit of God" burn- 
ing in her heart so that she "could not sit still." 13 

Finally, her father returned from his mission, and in February 1850 
at the age of fourteen, Mary Lois set sail for America with her parents. 
They landed in New Orleans and then sailed up the Mississippi to St. 
Louis, arriving there in May 1850. Other members of the LDS church 
were also assembling in St. Louis as they prepared to travel west to Salt 
Lake City. Mary Lois soon found work as a servant in the home of a 
wealthy St. Louis family and began to save money for her family's jour- 
ney to Utah. Then, about a year after their arrival, in August 1851, her 
mother died, leaving at home only her and her father. 


In her memoir Mary Lois recalled that in March 1852, as her seventeenth 
birthday approached, she went to visit family friends with her father. They 
introduced her to John Thomas Morris, a Mormon convert who also was 
visiting their home. A twenty-four-year-old painter, Morris had recendy 
emigrated from North Wales. Mary Lois recalled, "The moment I met 
Mr. Morris, I had the impression that he would become my husband." 
A few days later, she saw him again at the home of their mutual friends 
and briefly "passed the time of day" with him. That evening, he sent her a 
beautifully painted card. "The moment I received it I knew its contents," 
she recorded. 14 It asked her to marry him. A dutiful daughter, she asked 
her father to answer it, and unable to part with his youngest daughter, he 
wrote John Morris a letter denying his request. 

Months went by, and Mary Lois and John seldom saw each other. 
Then he started calling at intervals. One evening while out walking 

Nicknamed "Dixie's Poet," he wrote a number of poems about life in St. George as well 
as the song sung at the St. George Temple dedication. A. Karl Larson and Katharine 
Miles Larson, eds., Diary of Charles Lowell Walker, vii-xviii (hereinafter cited as CWD). 

12. Memoir 36; p. 73. 

13. February 4, 1879. 

14. Memoir 67-68; pp. 94-96. John Thomas Morris (1828-1855) was born in Llanfair, 
Denbighshire, Wales, the son of John Morris and Barbara Thomas. 

Introduction 7 

together, he told her, "I wish you would answer that note I sent you." Mary 
Lois made no reply. She recalled, "During the next few days I thought 
a great deal and prayed constandy for Divine guidance in making my 
decision." At the end of this time, she wrote Morris a note accepting his 
proposal. 15 They were married on September 5, 1852. 

In recounting their courtship in her memoir, Mary Lois lovingly 
recalled conversations they had and reproduced letters they sent to each 
other, including the note in which he asked her to marry him. Their 
relationship was apparently romantic in nature, and she narrated it in 
the terms of a love story. In many ways, it could be the story of courtship 
and marriage of any young immigrant couple in the nineteenth-century 
United States. 16 Mary Lois did not write the narrative of this courtship in 
her memoir until the end of her life, in the first two decades of the twenti- 
eth century. By that time, the LDS church no longer sanctioned polygamy, 
and both of her husbands had died. In still recalling her monogamous 
relationship to her first husband in sentimental, romantic terms, she was 
projecting back across a long interval of intervening personal and cul- 
tural history. The image she drew stands in stark contrast to the picture 
she presents in her diary and memoir of her second marriage, as a plural 
wife, which she never described romantically. 

Death of First Husband 

Mary Lois and John Morris embarked from St. Louis on their journey 
to the Salt Lake Valley on May 17, 1853. Traveling in the Joseph Young 
Company with the Morris family, she recorded walking twenty miles 
beside their wagon each day. Five months later, on October 10, 1853, the 
company arrived in Salt Lake City. 17 

The young couple rented a small room in Salt Lake City, and 
Morris obtained commissions to paint several portraits, including life- 
size paintings of Mormon apostles Parley P. Pratt and George A. Smith. 
At least two of John Morris's paintings survive — a portrait of seven teen- 

15. Memoir 69-70; p. 97. 

16. For more about the historical context of marriage and love in the nineteenth century, 
see Nancy F. Cott, Public Vows: A History of Marriage and the Nation; Hendrik Hartog, 
Man and Wife in America: A History, Karen Lystra, Searching the Heart: Women, Men, and 
Romantic Love in Nineteenth-Century America. 

17. Journal History of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, September 22, 1853. 
The Journal History lists the members of the 1853 Ten Pound Company led by Joseph W. 
Young. The company included John Morris, Barbara Thomas Morris, Barbara Elizabeth 
Morris, Hugh Conway Morris, John Thomas Morris, Mary Lois Walker Morris, Isaac 
Conway Morris, and Elizabeth Rowland Williams Morris. For a broader study of women 
journeying west that puts Mormon women's experience into the larger context, see 
Sandra L. Myres, Westering Women and the Frontier Experience, 1800-1915. 

8 Before the Manifesto 

Mary Lois 's first hus- 
band, John Thomas 
Morris, an artist, 
most likely photo- 
graphed in St. Louis, 
Missouri about 

Courtesy oj llw A\htou linuily Organization 

year-old Mary Lois Walker and what seems to be a self-portrait. As well as 
painting portraits, Morris added beauty to homes with marbling, grain- 
ing, and fresco work and was even employed to paint horse carriages. 18 
In October 1854, Mary bore a son, whom they named John Walker 
after his father. As winter advanced, the health of John Thomas and of 
the baby began to decline. A doctor found they had the same diffi- 
culty breathing. Believing that the climate of southern Utah was milder 
and might be beneficial for their health, in January 1855 the Morrises 
journeyed south to Cedar City to visit John's family. Soon after arriv- 
ing, baby John passed away, and although Mary Lois devoted her time 
to caring for her husband, he grew steadily worse. One evening, he 
seemed to be approaching death. Mary Lois, John's older brother Elias 
Morris, and his parents sat up all night at John's bedside. As morning 

18. Memoir 89-92; pp. 111-12. John Thomas Morris's painting of Mary Lois Morris is 
labeled "Mary Lois Walker at Seventeen, St. Louis, Mo. — 1850-3." In addition, an 
unsigned painting of John Thomas Morris in the possession of Mary Lois's descendants 
was mostly likely a self-portrait. This painting is the private possession of Jack and Mary 
Lois Wheatley. 


Painting of John Thomas 

Morris, probably 

a self-portrait. 

Courtesy of Jink and Mary Lois Wkeatky 

approached, Mary Lois asked her young husband if he had any last 
words. After a silence, he said, "If anything should happen that I do 
die, I do not want you to leave the family." She replied that she had no 
desire to do so. Then turning to his brother Elias, who had married his 
Welsh sweetheart almost three years earlier, John said, "Will you take 
Mary, and finish the work that I have begun[?]" Elias said, "I have no 
objection, if she is willing." Mary Lois agreed to a plural marriage with 
Elias Morris, and a few hours later on February 20, 1855, John Morris 
passed away. 19 

In her memoir, Mary Lois explained that she and John had learned 
the principle of levirate marriage from The Seer, a religious periodical to 
which they subscribed. Edited by LDS aposde Orson Pratt, the periodical 
used the Bible to defend Mormonism and its practice of polygamy. Mary 
Lois wrote that she and her husband "read and believed" the teachings 
of The Seer, including its doctrine "from the law of Ancient Israel, — that 
if a man died without issue, his brother should take the widow to wife 

19. Memoir 95-97; pp. 114-16. 

1 Before the Manifesto 

and raise up children to his deceased brother, that in the morning of the 
Resurrection he might take her and children she had borne in the sec- 
ond marriage and present them to his brother." 20 

In the form of levirate marriage outlined in Deuteronomy, when 
a man dies without children, his brother marries his widow and raises 
children with her to carry on his brother's name. In the Genesis account 
of Onan and Tamar, Onan is slain by the Lord because he does not ful- 
fill his duty to raise up children for his dead brother with his brother's 
wife. Although Deuteronomy defines levirate marriage as applying to 
brothers, in the biblical account of Ruth, when no brothers survive, it 
also applies to close kinsmen. Therefore, when Ruth's first husband 
died, she married her husband's kinsman Boaz. 21 The doctrine of levi- 
rate marraige made Ruth's children with Boaz the heirs of her first hus- 

According to the LDS view of levirate marriage, Mary Lois's sec- 
ond spouse, Elias Morris, while her husband in name and practice, 
was only a temporary replacement for John Thomas Morris, with 
whom she would be reunited in the afterlife. Her children with her 
second husband would be the first husband's posterity in the afterlife. 
It was necessary for this levirate relationship to be a plural marriage 
so that the second husband would have his own posterity in the here- 
after. 22 While a few nineteenth-century Mormons, such as Brigham 

20. Orson Pratt wrote in the September 1853 edition of The Seer that if a woman's first 
husband dies and was a good man, it is the duty of the wife's second husband to deliver 
the wife "up with all her children to her deceased husband in the morning of the 
first resurrection." Pratt received a call in 1852 to publish a periodical "explaining the 
principles of the gospel, but especially the doctrine of celestial marriage." The first 
issue of The Seer appeared in January 1853, about two years before the death of John 
Thomas Morris. The paper was printed in Washington, D.C., until June 1854, when 
Liverpool, England, became the place of publication. Publisher's note in "The Seer"; 
Orson Pratt, "Celestial Marriage," 142; Andrew Jenson, Encyclopedic History of the Church 
offesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 783-84. 

21. Deuteronomy 25:5-10; Genesis 38:6-11; Ruth 1-4. 

22. According to Josephus, the "purpose of levirate marriage was threefold — to preserve 
the family name and the family estate and to provide for the welfare of the widow." 
The Bible seems to emphasize the importance of the first reason — carrying on the 
name of the dead husband in Israel. For nineteenth-century Mormons, according to 
historian Kathryn Daynes, levirate marriages "had a slightly different purpose" than in 
biblical times. Members of the LDS church occasionally took part in "proxy" marriages, 
in which "a spiritual brother married a deceased man's wife; he then fathered children 
who would increase the family belonging to the deceased in the eternities and assisted 
financially in caring for the family during their mortal lives." Nineteenth-century 
Mormons also used the biblical precedent of levirate marriage in arguments defending 
polygamy. For instance, Orson Pratt argued in a sermon in 1859 that levirate marriage 
showed the necessity of polygamy. He said that if a young unmarried man wanted to 
marry a widow who was married to her first husband for eternity, he would not have a 

Introduction 1 1 

Young, practiced this form of polygamous marriage, it has been little 
documented. 23 

Although she believed the principle, Mary Lois remembered think- 
ing with dread of the coming years: "So was I, while yet in my teens, bereft 
in the short period of twenty days, of my husband and my only child, in 
a strange land, hundreds of miles from my blood kin and with a moun- 
tain of difficulty before me." One evening as she was walking near a spot 
she had often gone with John, she "was reminded of his absence and my 
intense lonliness and as I wept bitterly I could see, as it were in mental 
vision, the steep hill of life I should have to climb and felt the reality of it 
with great force." At this point, she recalled, "I considered the covenant I 
had made with my husband on his death bed. . . . Was I willing to endure 
whatever might befall me in this straight and narrow path I had chosen? 
Yes, I had already counted the cost, had already tasted the bitter cup 
which I had agreed to drink to the dregs." 24 Although she wrote this late 
in her life, her fears still seem fresh, as does her faith and determination 
to go ahead with the marriage. 

Shortly thereafter, Elias Morris met with Brigham Young, who 
approved the arrangement and set the date for the marriage in a year's 
time. As the date grew closer, Mary Lois felt more and more apprehen- 
sion, although there was no question in her mind of what her course 
would be. In May 1856, a litde over a year after John Morris's death, she 
and Elias, together with his first wife and two children, made the two- 
week wagon journey to be married in Salt Lake City. On the wedding 
day, May 21, 1856, Mary Lois went to the Salt Lake Endowment House, 
where LDS president Brigham Young performed the ceremonies to 
marry her "for time" to Elias and "for eternity" to John. On the same 
day, Elias and his first wife, Mary Parry, whom he had married four years 
earlier in 1852, were sealed "for eternity." 25 According to LDS belief, 
such a ceremony allowed the couple's marriage to continue after death. 
Mary Lois later recalled, "I kneeled on the altar in God's Holy House 

wife for eternity unless he also married another wife. "Levirate Marriage," Interpreter's 
Dictionary of the Bible, 3:282-83; Kathryn M. Daynes, More Wives Than One: Transformation 
of the Mormon Marriage System, 1840-1910, 79-80; Brigham Young et al., Journal of 
Discourses, 6:358 (July 24, 1859); B. Carmon Hardy, Solemn Covenant: The Mormon 
Polygamous Passage, 214. 

23. B. Carmon Hardy uses Mary Lois's experience as an example of levirate marriage in his 
study of Mormon polygamy (Hardy, Solemn Covenant, 236 n. 48). For examples of other 
Mormon levirate marriages and discussion of the practice, see Richard S. Van Wagoner, 
Mormon Polygamy: A History, 170; Hardy, Solemn Covenant, 213-14; Leonard Arrington, 
Brigham Young: American Moses, 120—21. 

24. Memoir 100-104; pp. 116-21. 

25. Elias also stood proxy for his brother John Morris's ceremony of sealing to Mary Lois 
Walker Morris. "Endowment House Sealings for the Dead by Proxy, 1855-1856." 


Before the Manifesto 

Ellas Morris, Mary 

Lois Morris 's second 

husband, photographed 

by C.R. Savage. 

Courtesy oj jack and Mary Lois Wfwalloy 

with the deepest dread in my heart that I had ever known. No physical 
strength could have drawn me there, had I consulted my own feelings. 
But God required it. I sensed keenly that it was no my happiness alone 
that was sacrificed, but it was marring the happiness of others, which 
rendered the cup doubly bitter." 26 

Kathryn Daynes concluded from her study of polygamy in Manti, 
Utah, that religious motivations were the main reason for Mormons' 
support of polygamy. In addition to their faith that Joseph Smith and 
other leaders received revelation from God, individual Mormons 
reported receiving personal revelation on the subject. 27 Thus, Mary Lois 
wrote in her memoir that she believed Apostie Orson Pratt's writings 
about polygamy and noted that Brigham Young approved and set a date 
for her plural marriage, and she also recounted personal affirmations 
of the principle. After recalling her husband's funeral and her agree- 
ment to marry his brother, she wrote, "I felt that I had served God to 
the utmost of my ability, that I had His approval, and that He would 
stand by me." In her writings, she continually noted that plural marriage 
was a trial ordained by God to make her a better person, expressing 

26. Memoir 107-8; p. 124. 

27. Daynes, More Wives Than One, 27-29. 



Original map courtesy oj IDS Church Archives, additions by editor. 

Map of locations in Salt Lake City frequented 
by Mary Lois Morris. 

sentiments such as "For how can gold be cleansed from dross except it 
be placed in the crucible?" 28 

There was also an element of the miraculous in her belief. She 
recalled that in the morning after John died, Elias returned home to 
find that his first wife "knew as much as he did" about his agreement 
to marry Mary Lois. According to Mary Lois, Mary Parry "testified that 
John had been to see her during the night, while we were still watching 
him, and had told her that Elias was going to take me and had asked her 
to be kind to me." 29 

Second Husband 

It seems from Mary Lois's comments that Elias Morris may have been 
as unhappy about entering into a plural marriage as she was. Three 
years older than his brother John and ten years older than Mary Lois, 
Elias was born in 1825 in Llanfair, Denbighshire, Wales. His father was 
a stonemason; and when Elias was young, the Morris family moved to 
the town of Abergele, where his father worked for many years building 

28. Memoir 97-98; pp. 122-23. 

29. Memoir 106; p. 116. 

1 4 Before the Manifesto 

a bridge and side walls for a nearby castle. At the age of eleven, Elias 
began working under his father as a mason's helper and bookkeeper, 
later advancing to the position of stonemason. At age nineteen, he 
went to England to gain more experience in bricklaying and furnace 
building. Upon his return to Wales, he was visited by two LDS mission- 
aries, and on March 17, 1849, he became the first in his family to join 
the LDS church. He then taught his parents, sister, and four brothers 
about his new religion and they all joined the church and emigrated to 
Utah. 30 

Before leaving Wales, Elias Morris became engaged to Mary E. 
Parry of Newmarket, Wales, who was born in 1834, six months before 
Mary Lois Walker. Mary Parry sailed for America in February 1852, a 
month before Morris, and upon reuniting, they were married by Orson 
Hyde on May 23, 1852, in Kanesville, Iowa. 31 They reached the Salt Lake 
Valley in November 1852, one year ahead of Mary Lois and John Morris, 
and first settled in Provo, Utah. In 1853, after the sugar company they 
had been involved with dissolved, they moved to Cedar City, where Elias 
Morris superintended the construction of stone furnaces for iron manu- 
facture. Cedar City was the center of the "Iron Mission," an early LDS 
venture in which church members were asked to work at iron mining and 
manufacturing. 32 

In his memoir, Elias Morris recalled that in January 1855, "My 
brother John Morris (who was born Feby 14th 1828) Wife Mary L. Walker 
and one little baby came to Cedar City from Salt Lake City. On account 
of ill health his voice had failfed] him for many month, so that he could 
only wisper. While at my father house my Bro's baby died on . . ." 33 
Unfortunately his memoir breaks off in the middle of this sentence and 
does not begin again until five years later, obscuring from us his feelings 

30. For more information on Elias Morris, see Elias Morris, "Biographical Sketch of Elias 
Morris: Son of John and Barbara Morris"; Lowell Young Morris, "Biographical Sketch 
of Elias Morris"; Virginia Goff Howe, "Elias Morris: Pioneer of 1852"; Thomas Cottam 
Romney, "Elias Morris," in The Gospel in Action, 119-20; Edward W. Tullidge, History 
of Salt Lake City and Its Founders, 152-54; "Integrity, Craftsmanship, Quality: The Story 
of Elias Morris and Sons Company," Marriott Special Collections, University of Utah 
(hereinafter cited as Morris and Sons). 

31. Elias Morris, "Biographical Sketch of Elias Morris," 3. 

32. Leonard Arrington explains that after the Cedar City iron works' first furnace failed, 
a second furnace was "built under the direction of Elias Morris, foremost Mormon 
carpenter and builder." The red sandstone furnace Morris constructed "was twenty-one 
feet square and thirty feet high, and required 650 tons of rock. Estimated to cost $4,000 
in labor and materials, the new furnace had a capacity of ten tons per day." Arrington, 
Great Basin Kingdom, 1 22-28; Janet Burton Seegmiller, A History of Iron County: Community 
above Self, 62-69. 

33. Elias Morris, "Biographical Sketch of Elias Morris," 5. 

Introduction 15 

and leaving Mary Lois's writings as the only point of view of their first 
years of marriage. 34 

She explains that after their May 1856 marriage, she felt like an 
unwanted part of the household. She lived with Morris for only a year 
before going back to Salt Lake City to stay with her sister, Ann Agatha 
Pratt. Her visit to Salt Lake coincided with the 1857 entrance of federal 
troops into the Utah Territory as part of the Utah War. 35 Mary Lois spent 
the next year in Salt Lake City with her sister, leaving in the summer of 
1858 when "the soldiers entered the city and the people moved south." 
Mary Lois also went south, returning to her husband in Cedar City with 
her heart "full of sadness and dread for the future." Upon being reunited 
with Morris, she later recalled, "I met all that I had anticipated, and asked 
my Heavenly Father that I might die." 36 

The church-sponsored iron works that Elias worked for in Cedar 
City failed at the end of 1858 due to the limited and inferior quality of 
the coal supply in the area and the voluntary nature of the operation. 
According to historian Leonard Arrington, the "[s]mall, volunteer, coop- 
erative industry was simply unable to cope with the problems associated 
with developing a major resource." 37 Mary Lois's situation, however, 
improved in January 1859 when she gave birth to a daughter, whom she 
named Effie Walker Morris. 

After the Iron Mission's failure, Elias Morris, on the advice of Brigham 
Young, moved his two families to Salt Lake City, in May 1860. There he paid 
two mules, a harness, and a riding horse, all worth about four hundred 
dollars, for an adobe house his families would share. It had "two rooms 
and two half stories in bad repairs" and stood on a five-eighths acre lot in 
what is now downtown Salt Lake City. 38 There, in February 1861, Mary Lois 
gave birth to another daughter, Marian Adelaide, whom she called Addie. 
Her daughters were followed by John Conway (b. 1863), who died from 
an accident with fire at age four, Nephi Lowell (b. 1870), Ray Godwin (b. 
1872), George Quayle (b. 1874), Katherine (Kate) Vaughan (b. 1876), and 
Richard Vaughan (b. 1882) . Both Ray and Richard died as infants. 

Mary Lois recalled that, in 1863, Morris added two small rooms 
for her and her children "west of the house proper, and we were more 

34. The original handwritten Elias Morris memoir in the possession of Briant Badger, 
contains this omission as does the copy of the diary held hy the University of Utah 
Special Collections, which was photocopied from Badger's original. 

35. The Utah War is described in Donald R. Moorman, Camp Floyd and the Mormons: The 
Utah War, and in Norman F. Furniss, The Mormon Conflict, 1850—1859. 

36. Memoir 109; pp. 124-25. 

37. Arrington explains that the ten-year Iron Mission cost approximately $150,000 but 
resulted in little actual iron production. Great Basin Kingdom, 127. 

38. Memoir 113; p. 128; Elias Morris, "Biographical Sketch of Elias Morris," 6. 

1 6 Before the Manifesto 

comfortable." Then about 1871, he constructed "a little new two roomed 
house ... in the lucern patch" for Mary Lois and her children. A year 
later, in 1872, he added three more rooms onto Mary Lois's house, two 
of which she rented out. In 1872, he also built a larger, updated house 
for his first wife Mary Parry, at 230 South Third West. 39 Mary Lois's home 
at 236 South Third West was separated from Mary Parry Morris's house 
by only a narrow alleyway. While not as costly as the other house, Mary 
Lois's two-story home had a porch, kitchen, dining room, parlor, cellar, 
"buttery," and a few bedrooms. The parlor included a carpet of "brown 
and orange with a white thread for relief and contained a "large round 
table and cane seated chairs and a rocker." Mary Lois recalled that the 
fireplace under the parlor mantelpiece "gave the room a cheery appear- 
ance." 40 She also owned a piano, around which visitors and family enjoyed 
gathering to sing. Outside she kept a cow and had several fruit trees and 
a vegetable garden. 

After the failure of the LDS-sponsored iron mining venture for which 
he had labored for seven years, Elias Morris crossed Utah's cultural divide 
by using his construction skills in both Mormon and non-Mormon ven- 
tures. Trained as a mason, in 1862 Morris took a leadership role in redo- 
ing the stone foundation of the Salt Lake Temple because Brigham Young 
was not satisfied with the coarse masonry of the original. To supplement 
his work on the temple, Morris began a contracting business in Salt Lake 
and helped construct the Salt Lake Theatre and several large stores in Salt 
Lake, including the Eagle Emporium and William S. Godbe's Exchange 
Building. In 1862 and 1863, he constructed a bake oven and other build- 
ings at Camp Douglas, the federal army camp that had been established 
overlooking Salt Lake in 1862, ostensibly to protect the overland trail from 
Native American raids but also to keep an eye on the Mormons. 41 

In 1865, Morris left both of his wives to serve a four-year mission 
for the LDS church in his native Wales, and during his last year there, he 
served as the president of the Wales Mission. 42 After his return, in 1870, 
he formed a contracting and building company with Samuel L. Evans 
called the Morris & Evans Marble, Cemetery Memorial, and Contracting 
Business. While Morris & Evans dealt regularly with non-Mormon 

39. Memoir 122-23, 160-62; pp. 134, 159-60. 

40. Memoir 170; p. 165. 

41. Elias Morris, "Biographical Sketch of Elias Morris," 6; Contributor, 14:263-65; Kate 
Carter, Heart Throbs of the West, 6:351 (hereinafter cited as HTW); Morris and Sons, 6-7; 
Orson F. Whitney, History of Utah, 4:488; Arrington, Great Basin Kingdom, 201-4. 

42. Tullidge, History of Salt Lake City, 152-53; Romney, The Gospel in Action, 122. Elias Morris's 
diary from his mission to Wales is at the end of his memoir, "Biographical Sketch of 
Elias Morris." In addition, a 1868 letter he wrote about the progress of his mission was 
printed in The Latter-Day Saints' Millennial Star, 30 (February 22, 1868):125-27. 

Introduction 1 7 

customers, the company also worked on the Salt Lake Temple, and in 
1873 they oversaw the rock laying for the temple walls. The company 
operated "much after the pattern of the United Order," the economic 
system advocated by the LDS church in the 1870s. Thus, the families of 
Elias Morris and Samuel Evans each drew from the company's earnings 
"just sufficient" for their needs, and the balance was "absorbed by the 
company to build up the business." Throughout the 1870s, Evans served 
as the bookkeeper and cashier of the firm, while Morris oversaw the prac- 
tical work and the employees. 43 

During that decade, Elias became involved in the growing regional 
mining business in the region and in subsequent years, he built many 
mills, smelters, furnaces, and pumps for mines throughout the area. After 
the completion of the transcontinental railroad in 1869, mining in Utah 
became more profitable because the ore could now be transported at 
lower cost by railroad. LDS church leaders had previously discouraged 
mining for precious metals, although there had been limited church-spon- 
sored attempts to mine other ores, such as the Cedar City Iron Mission. 
After 1869, though, LDS authorities accepted that some Mormons would 
work in the mines but encouraged them to get permission from their 
local church leaders before doing so. 44 Yet mining remained generally 
a non-Mormon venture, which contrasted with the Mormon-dominated 
agricultural economy. As Mary Lois records, Elias Morris bridged this eco- 
nomic and cultural divide. A prominent member of Mormon society, he 
traveled to mines throughout the region, building smelters and mills in 
Park City, Sandy, Stockton, American Fork, Bingham, Litde Cottonwood, 
Flagstaff, and East Canyon and constructing furnaces for the Marsac and 
the Bullionville Smelting Company, as well as in Butte, Montana. With 
infrastructure his company constructed, miners could extract minerals 
from ore near the mine site rather than transporting it over long dis- 
tances in unrefined form, which made mining prohibitively expensive. 
Morris's company also bought a fireclay mine in Bingham and pioneered 

43. Kate B. Carter, Our Pioneer Heritage, 17:20-21 (hereinafter cited as OPH); Andrew 
Jenson, Latter-day Saint Biographical Encyclopedia, 1:638 (hereinafter cited as AJ); Morris 
and Sons, 8-9; Romney, The Gospel in Action, 122. The "United Order of Enoch," a 
movement to remake the Utah economy into a new economic system, was advocated by 
the LDS church from 1873 to 1877. In its purest form, the United Order entailed the 
pooling of community resources and seeking to end "individualistic profit-seeking and 
trade and achieve the blessed state of opulent self-sufficiency and equality." In actual 
practice, few Mormon communities achieved this, although cooperative enterprises 
and a push for self-sufficiency were widespread. Arrington, Great Basin Kingdom, 323- 

44. Arrington, "Abundance from the Earth: The Beginnings of Commercial Mining in 
Utah," 205-17; Sadler, "The Impact of Mining on Salt Lake City," 249-53; Arrington, 
Great Basin Kingdom, 240-44. 

Courtesy of the Special Collet lions Department, /. Wit/circl Marriott Library, University of Utah 

The Ontario Mine in Park City, where Elias Morris worked on 
numerous construction projects during the 1 880s. 

Courtesy of the Utah Stale Historical Society, all rights reserved 

The Morris & Sons marble yard located at 21 W. 

South Temple, directly across from the Tabernacle, 

whose domed roof appears in the background. 



Courtesy of L. Tom Perry Speeia! Collections, Harold 

Library, Brightun Young University, Provo, Utah 

The inside of Mary Lois 's church, 
Lake Fifteenth Ward chapel. 

the manufacture of firebrick in the West, supplying firebrick in Utah, 
Wyoming, Montana, Idaho, and Nevada. 45 

After Samuel Evans's death in 1881, Elias Morris bought his part- 
ner's share and renamed the company Morris & Sons. Despite a series 
of financial losses in the 1880s that included fires that burned down his 
businesses and the failure of the Mammoth mine in Tintic to pay approxi- 
mately twenty-two thousand dollars that he claimed it owed his company, 
Morris persevered. His company continued to build mining infrastruc- 
ture, and Mary Lois often noted in her diary that he was away from home 
working on different construction projects. During the 1880s, he worked 
especially frequendy at the Ontario Mine in Park City, where in addition 
to a smelter and furnaces, his company erected the Ontario mill. 46 

One of Utah's first great entrepreneurs and capitalists, Elias Morris 
also developed and had interests in a tannery, the Salt Lake Foundry, a 



AJ, 1:638; Tullidge, History of Salt Lake City, 153; Lowell Young Morris, "Biographical 
Sketch of Elias Morris," 21-22; Whitney, History of Utah, 4:488. 

Tullidge, History of Salt Lake City, 153; Morris and Sons, 9; Deseret Evening News, June 21, 
1883; July 19, 1883. For more about mining in Park City, see George A. Thompson and 
Fraser Buck, Treasure Mountain Home: A Centennial History of Park City, Utah, 33—44; Raye 
Carleson Ringholz, Diggings and Doings in Park City, 4—10; Carl L. Ege, Selected Mining 
Districts of Utah, 26-27. 

Introduction 21 

soap factory, the Utah Cement Factory, a slate quarry, the Utah Sugar 
Factory, and the Pioneer Patent Flour Mills. His company, Morris & Sons, 
operated the first marble monument store in Salt Lake City, where they 
sold cement, marble memorials, fireplaces, and marble tiles. In the next 
decades, Morris & Sons played a significant role in the construction of a 
number of buildings in Salt Lake and the surrounding region, including 
the Deseret National Bank, the City and County Building, and one of the 
University of Utah's early buildings. 47 

The profits from Elias's mining and other building projects caused 
his assets to grow significandy throughout the 1870s and 1880s. Between 
1865 and 1870, tax assessors valued his wealth at around $700. By 1873, 
he had acquired $3,000 in property; and throughout the 1870s, he was 
valued at between $3,200 and $4,800. After purchasing his partner's 
share in Morris & Evans in 1881 for $10,000 "in money and property," 
Elias's worth climbed, reaching $14,450 in 1885 and about $19,000 in 
1888 and appearing on the tax assessor's rolls primarily in the form of 
property, machinery, and stock in mining or manufacturing companies. 48 
On August 1, 1893, his firm incorporated as the Elias Morris & Sons 
Company, "with a capital stock of $60,000 at $10 a share." 49 

Elias also held leadership positions in the LDS church, serving as 
second counselor in the bishopric of his local congregation, the Salt Lake 
Fifteenth Ward, from 1867 to 1877, as a high councillor in the Salt Lake 
Stake from 1878 to 1898, and as president of the high priests quorum in 
his ward for ten years. In 1890, he became the bishop of the Salt Lake 
Fifteenth Ward, a position he held until his death in 1898. 50 

Involvement in Community 

Religion defined Mary Lois's life, as it did her husband's. To her, God 
was not a far-off, distant deity. Rather, he was a constant part of her life, a 
partner with her in raising her children. She described God as the reason 

47. AJ, 1:638; Morris and Sons, 8-13; Whitney, History of Utah, 4:488; OPH, 14:448. Elias 
Morris was also involved in local politics, serving as a member of the Salt Lake City 
council for four years and as a member of the Utah Constitutional Convention of 1895 
that drafted the laws of the state. 

48. Deed between Elias Morris and the heirs of Samuel Evans, August 19, 1882; Tullidge, 
History of Salt Lake City, 153; tax records for Elias Morris, Salt Lake County Assessor Tax 
Assessment Rolls, 1865-1890. 

49. Morris and Sons, 14. 

50. AJ, 1:638. According to historian Kathryn Daynes, a leadership position in the LDS 
church was a better predictor of a man having plural wives than any other factor. Men 
with a "higher church rank were considered more likely to attain exaltation in the 
next life and thus provide women with the eternal spouses they needed for their own 
exaltation." Daynes, More Wives Than One, 128-29. 

22 Before the Manifesto 

for her every action, indeed for her very marriage. In recalling her moral 
struggle about whether to enter into polygamy, she wrote a comment that 
encapsulates much of her attitude toward life: "it was me and my God and 
Stirling principle for the battle." 51 Her use of the intimate phrase "me and 
my God" shows her familiarity with diety. Yet her warlike metaphor also 
shows her decision to enter polygamy as the result of an internal battle 
between what she saw as a God-given principle and her resistance to the 
marriage. This struggle to do what she felt was right in spite of internal 
and external opposition carried over to the remainder of her life. To her, 
in many ways, all life was a "battle," in which duty and obedience to God 
played a larger role than personal satisfaction or pleasure. Thus, when 
polygamy was challenged in the 1880s, she again battled to do what she 
saw as right, driven by religious principle. 

Unlike her husband's life, the majority of Mary Lois's interactions 
were with other Mormons. While she interacted with Mormons from 
throughout Utah, the core of her community was her church congrega- 
tion, the Salt Lake Fifteenth Ward, which encompassed an area three 
blocks wide and nine blocks long, bounded by South Temple Street 
on the north, Third South Street on the south, Second West Street on 
the east, and the Jordan River on the west. In 1880, the Fifteenth Ward 
boundaries included about 1,253 people, of which approximately three- 
fourths were LDS. 52 Mary Lois's diary carefully records her own and her 
children's meeting attendance. At this time, the Salt Lake wards generally 
held a morning Sunday school, which increasingly instructed adults as 
well as children, and an evening preaching session. A Sunday afternoon 
meeting open to all church members, regardless of ward, took place in 
the Tabernacle at Temple Square. 53 While Mary Lois rarely attended the 
morning Sunday school, she went to either the afternoon Tabernacle 
meeting or evening ward meeting almost every week, sometimes to both. 
She appears to have attended weekday Relief Society meetings for the 
women of her congregation, Thursday fast meetings, and the monthly 
Fourteenth Ward retrenchment leadership meetings less consistently. 
When she did go to the retrenchment leadership meeting, held to guide 
a movement for LDS women to become self-sufficient, modest, and less 

51. Memoir 105; p. 122. Mary Lois later wrote a similar phrase about raising her children: "It 
was My Heavenly Father and me in the rearing of those children." Memoir 227-28; p. 193. 

52. The Salt Lake Fifteenth Ward was organized February 22, 1849. When first organized, 
it extended from South Temple to Third South streets and from Second to Fifth West 
streets. Jenson, Encyclopedic History, 750; Map of Salt Lake City, Prepared Expressly for 
Crofutt's Salt Lake, City Directory (1885), LDS Archives. 

53. For an explanation of LDS church meetings during this time, see Ronald W. Walker, 
"'Going to Meeting' in Salt Lake City's Thirteenth Ward, 1849-1881: A Microanalysis," 



Courtesy of thr Asliion 1'amily Organization 

A Salt Lake Fifteenth Ward group outing, 

similar to those Mary Lois describes in her 

diaries. John Jeremy is driving. 

materially minded, she recorded witnessing on at least four occasions 
"the spirit of God . . . poured out upon the Sisters" and several women 
speaking in tongues. 34 

Religious belief seems to have prompted her extensive, daily 
involvement in service to her community. She participated in the Relief 
Society's drive for home industry and mentions its projects of produc- 
ing silk, operating the Deseret Hospital, and storing wheat. 55 As a mem- 
ber of the visiting committee of the Salt Lake Fifteenth Ward Relief 
Society from 1879 to 1884, Mary Lois visited the sick, took "comforts" 
to the poor, gave aid to the elderly, and visited the people on her city 
block regularly. Her acts varied from visiting "a number of German 
people, new comers," to going to "see Mother William about her have- 
ing some shoes." 56 




May 24, 1879; September 11, 1880; April 9, 1881; June 14, 1884. According to LDS 

doctrine, speaking in tongues was a spiritual gift. For a discussion of LDS women 

speaking in tongues, see Linda King Newell, "Gifts of the Spirit: Women's Share," 111- 


For more about the Relief Society's activities during this period, see Leonard J. 

Arrington, "The Economic Role of Pioneer Mormon Women," 145-64; Jill Mulvay 

Derr,Janeth Russell Cannon, and Maureen Ursenbach Beecher, Women of Covenant, Jill 

Mulvay Derr, "Brigham Young and the Awakening of Mormon Women in the 1870s," 


November 4, 1886; December 27, 1879. 

24 Before the Manifesto 

Funerals and the dead and dying were a constant presence in her 
life. As part of her church duties as a member of the visiting commit- 
tee, she helped lay out the dead and stayed overnight with the dying to 
ease their suffering. She recorded many funerals that she attended. In 
describing those of nonrelatives, she often noted the corpse's pleasant 
appearance and commented on the remarks at the funeral service, find- 
ing them "interesting" or "beautiful." After the funerals of her relatives, 
she recorded none of these details, focusing instead on her and other 
family members' grief. 57 When her infant son died in 1882 on the day 
of his birth, she deeply mourned the loss of "the litde treasure." For the 
next few weeks, she recorded her sorrow, writing a week and a half later, 
"wept most of the day, felt most acutely that my baby was gone ." 58 

Mary Lois also oversaw the growth of her ward primary, part of an 
association for the children of the LDS church that was founded only three 
months before she began her diary. 59 At the evening ward meeting on 
October 12, 1884, Mary Lois's bishop rose and announced a new assign- 
ment for her — president of the Fifteenth Ward Primary Association. 60 She 
would hold this position for the next twelve years. She found it daunting 
at first but seems to have enjoyed the assignment. The first activity she 
held was a party with dancing by the children. Later activities included a 
children's concert, a visit to the Deseret Museum, games on the "green," 
public speaking by the children, and a primary fair where the children 
showed off items they had made. During the 1880s, Mary Lois created 
much of the primary curriculum she used herself as the churchwide lead- 
ership was largely immobilized by the conflict over polygamy.'' 1 

57. According to Lester E. Bush, LDS church leaders sought to emphasize, particularly 
in regard to deaths among the elderly, "the perceived positive side of death, which 
they characterized as both a rebirth and a victory." Yet in the nineteenth century, the 
frequent deaths among infants and children often elicited a very different response. 
Despite their religious belief that young children would be granted exaltation, "early 
Mormon diarists show these losses, especially when unexpected, to have been a source 
of immense grief." Lester E. Bush Jr., Health and Medicine among the Latter-day Saints: 
Science, Sense, and Scripture, 25—26. 

58. February 2, 1879; January 10, 1881; January 27, 1881; October 6, 1881; January 28, 
1879; July 20-29, 1882. 

59. The Primary Association was the children's organization of the Church of Jesus Christ 
of Latter-day Saints. In August 1878, the first Primary Association was organized, and 
during the succeeding years, Primary Associations were started in wards throughout 
the LDS church. Mary Barraclough, ed., 15th Ward Memories, Riverside Stake: 1849—1960, 
180-82; Carol Cornwall Madsen and Susan Staker Oman, Sisters and Little Saints: One 
Hundred Years of Primary, 1-13; Jill Mulvay Derr, "Sisters and Little Saints: One Hundred 
Years of Mormon Primaries," 75-101. 

60. Memoir 197; p.191. 

61. Mary Lois mentioned giving lectures to the children on the history of Utah, the Book 
of Mormon, "gospel principles," LDS church history, not working on the Sabbath, the 

Introduction 25 

Courtesy of Ike Special Collections Dep 

nt, /. Willard Marriott Library, University of Utah 

The Salt Lake Theatre, where Mary Lois frequently saw plays. Her 
husband Elias Morris worked on the construction of the theater. 

Mary Lois participated in community discourse through her reading 
of histories of the LDS church, magazines such as the Juvenile Instructor 
and Woman's Exponent, and the Deseret Evening News paper. Throughout 
her diary, she recorded excerpts from early church history that she had 
read and noted the anniversary of significant LDS historical events. Like 
her brother, Charles Lowell Walker, who was nicknamed "Dixie's poet" for 
his poems of life in St. George, Utah, Mary Lois wrote poetry throughout 
her life. Several of her poems appear in the diary. They are more private 
in nature and more sentimental than those of her brother and most often 
express religious themes or commemorate the death or birth of a relative 
or friend. 62 Two Utah magazines, the Woman's Exponent and the Juvenile 
Instructor, published her poetry and essays. 63 



"power of healing," and natural history. November 20, 1884; May 29, 1885; July 16, 

1886; October 20, 1886; December 1, 1886; May 6, 1887; July 22, 1887. For more on 

the Primary Association in this period, see Madsen and Oman, Sisters and Little Saints, 


In 1918, one year before Mary Lois Morris's death, her compiled poems were published 

for private circulation in Mary Lois Walker Morris, A Few Thoughts of Mary L. Morris: 

Dedicated to Her Children. 

On December 1, 1897, the Woman s Exponent published a poem by Mary Lois Morris 

titled "The Weed and Her Friends," which uses the metaphor of weeds to show the 

importance of rooting out sin early before it is able to spread. The same issue contained 

a letter from Mary Lois to Emmeline B. Wells, the editor of the Exponent, entitled "A 

26 Before the Manifesto 

As a professional milliner, Mary Lois interacted with many members 
of her community through her trade. In nineteenth-century Utah, the 
absence of men because of polygamy or missions led some women to pur- 
sue paid employment to bring additional money to their households. 64 
When Elias Morris left for his mission, Mary Lois was thirty years old and 
had three young children. Lacking money, she began to work as a mil- 
liner, using skills she had learned from her mother and from the coach- 
ing of her older sister, Ann Agatha, who already had a millinery business 
in Salt Lake City. She later described a variety of the hats that she made. 
They included, for her husband, a hat "of fine rice straw, which he wore 
for best"; one for her six-month-old son in the form of "a turban with a 
round brim, of fine white rice straw trimmed with blue plush with rosettes 
to match"; and "a white straw bonnet with straw trimmings" for herself. 6 "' 
She was so successful at making and selling hats that when her husband 
returned and saw her thriving business, he suggested that she open a mil- 
linery store. She declined, noting later that operating a store would not 
have allowed her to be a good mother to her children, but continued to 
make hats at home and actively sought customers, as evidenced by mul- 
tiple advertisements in the Woman's Exponent in 1878. One declared "Mrs. 
M. L. Morris Wishes to announce to her former patrons and others that 


made a specialty. Ladies' own material made up. Residence — One block 
west and half a block south of Court House." 66 

She also manifested her sense of community in the political sphere. 
In 1870, women in the Utah Territory were given the right to vote, 
thereby becoming the second group of women in the United States, after 
those in the Wyoming Territory, to gain suffrage. 67 Mary Lois voted on 

Word to the Primaries," which recounted the efforts of the Salt Lake Stake Primary 
Association presidency (of which Mary Lois was a member) to visit all the surrounding 
primaries and separate the children into classes by age so that they could learn at 
their appropriate levels. Woman's Exponent, December 1, 1897, 217, 219. Mary Lois also 
wrote an essay that was published in the Juvenile Instructor on August 1, 1904, titled "We 
Trusted in the Lord," about an incident when a child was sick and Mary Lois persuaded 
the parents to discharge the doctor and trust in the administration of the elders. The 
child was healed and, despite a relapse a week later, survived. Mary Lois Morris, "We 
Trusted in the Lord," fuvenile Instructor, August 1, 1904, 465-67. 

64. Jessie L. Embry, Mormon Polygamous Families: Life in the Principle, 101-3; Michael Bargo, 
"Women's Occupations in the West in 1870," 30-45; Maureen Ursenbach Beecher, 
"Women's Work on the Mormon Frontier," 276-90. 

65. Memoir 152-55; pp. 153-58. 

66. These advertisements were printed at least two times in the Woman 's Exponent, appearing 
in the May 1, 1878, and May 15, 1878, editions. 

67. A number of different perspectives about women's suffrage in Utah are presented 
in Carol Cornwall Madsen, ed., Battle for the Ballot: Essays on Woman Suffrage in Utah, 
1870-1896. For the political experience of women in the United States as a whole, see 

Introduction 27 

at least two occasions, both times for the Mormon-dominated People's 
Party. After the federal government revoked woman suffrage in Utah, 
she exhibited interest in the national suffrage movement, attending 
meetings advocating the vote for women in February 1889 and August 
1893. 68 

A private web of friendship held together Mary Lois's community. 
A core element of urban middle and upper-class women's lives in late 
nineteenth-century America was the ritual of house-to-house visiting. 69 
Few days went by without Mary Lois or her children calling on someone 
or receiving a visitor. Often neighbors or relatives, her visitors also came 
from other areas of the city and territory and were male as well as female. 
The greatest constant among callers was her family, which expanded to 
include the families her older daughters married into, the Ashtons and 
the Cannons. Callers were such an integral part of Mary Lois's life that 
she noted their absence with surprise, writing at the end of one day that 
"for a wonder," they did not have any visitors. 70 Since virtually all her visi- 
tors were Mormons, this constant flow of callers seems to have further 
connected her with the community of Mormons and separated her from 
those outside it. These associations increased her sense of being under 
siege when federal marshals began to arrest Mormon men on charges of 
polygamy and unlawful cohabitation. 

As closely connected as Mary Lois records Mormon society to have 
been, there were still divisions based on class and other factors. While she 
spent time with people from many different walks of life, Elias Morris's 
prominent financial and social position situated her family in the elite 
circles of Mormon Salt Lake City. Yet even though she associated with 
prominent families such as the Cannons during the 1880s, she had 
worked as a domestic servant for several years before her marriages and 
had experienced poverty — as a child when her father left his family to go 
on a six-year mission and in the 1860s when she struggled to provide food 
and clothing for her children while her husband was on a four-year mis- 
sion in Wales. 

As one of the wealthier members of the community, Mary Lois 
took part in many of the cultural activities available in an increasingly 

Paula Baker, "The Domestication of Politics: Women and American Political Society, 
1780-1920," 72-82. 

68. February 9, 1880; February 13, 1882. Mary Lois wrote of attending suffrage meetings in 
her February 9, 1889 and August 14, 1893 diary entries. 

69. Calling was a ritualized procedure "by which people identified their social intentions 
and maintained or sought to overcome class distinctions." Harvey Green, The Light of 
the. Home: An Intimate View of the Lives of Women in Victorian America, 144—46; Thomas 
Schlereth, Victorian America: Transformations in Everyday Life, 1876—1915, 117-18. 

70. May 30, 1884. 

Effie Walker Morris Ashton 

(1859-1929) was the 

oldest daughter of Mary Lois 

Walker and Elias Morris. She 

married Edward Treharne 

Ashton on April 4, 1878, at the 

age of nineteen. 

Courtesy 0) ! jack and Alary Lois Whi'alli'y 

Marian Adelaide 
Morris (1861-1933), 
about twenty years old. 

Katherine Vaughan 

Morris (1876-1930), 

Mary Lois 's youngest 

surviving child. 


George Quayle Morris (1874- 

1 962), Mary Lois 's youngest 

surviving son, as a young 

man. He went on to become an 

apostle of the IDS church from 

1954 to 1962. 

Courtesy of Linda Kidd 

Nephi Lowell Morris (1870- 
1 943), Mary Lois 's oldest surviv- 
ing son, in September 1899. He 
went on to become stake president 
of the Salt Lake Stake and ran for 
governor of Utah two times. 
Photograph by C. R. Savage 

Couiirsy a j Linda Kidd 

30 Before the Manifesto 

sophisticated Salt Lake City. 71 In contrast to the many other women in 
the West who at this time lived in rough frontier conditions, Mary Lois 
regularly attended balls, parties, plays, concerts, and lectures. She wrote, 
for instance, on February 15, 1884, "This eve with my husband and his 
other Wife, attended a grand civic Ball in the Theatre given to the Salt 
Lake and Wyoming Legislator in honor of the latters visit, it was a dazziling 
affir." 72 She viewed many of the popular plays sweeping the nation, includ- 
ing "Uncle Tom's Cabin" and Gilbert and Sullivan's "H.M.S. Pinafore." She 
also saw performances by renowned actors and singers, such as Adelina 
Patti, who some regarded as "the greatest singer in the world." 73 

Mary Lois also made an effort to bring culture into her home. She 
particularly appreciated fine singing and noted on several occasions that 
she and her daughters or guests spent the evening in song. She had her 
children take voice lessons, and her daughter Addie played the guitar. In 
addition to music, Mary Lois emphasized reading and elocution to both 
her own children and the children she taught in primary. 

While Mary Lois rarely remarked upon it, race was a significant issue 
in the nineteenth-century United States, and though her encounters with 
them were few, people not of European descent occasionally penetrated 
her awareness. Upon arriving in America, she had a naive view of slavery. 
She recalled that on a steamboat from New Orleans to St. Louis in 1850, 
"[s]ome fine looking colored girls were also on board, slaves no doubt, 
going to be sold or bought by some one." She further recorded, "Father 
gave them money, as was the custom for white people to do, and asked 
them if white men ever married them. They told him that they did. How 
litde did we know of the customs of white slave owners." In 1853 while 
crossing the plains, she wrote of an encounter with Indians in the Platte 
River Valley, describing these Pawnees as "a very savage tribe" and not- 
ing that they were "dressed in their trappings and war paint." To her, the 
Pawnee chief was a type of noble savage, who patrolled the pioneer com- 
pany's camp "to protect us from his own band," and she believed "that a 
superior power inspired him to do as he did." 74 

The one African American acquaintance in Salt Lake City that 
Mary Lois mentioned, her neighbor Susan Blanchard, was a member 
of the Baptist church who came from Kentucky in 1883 to "preside 
over" the kitchen of Utah governor Eli Houston Murray. 75 In 1887, Mary 

71. See Thomas G. Alexander and James B. Allen, Mormons and Gentiles: A History of Salt 
Lake City, 87-123. 

72. February 15, 1884. 

73. In 1884, Adelina Patti sang in the Salt Lake Tabernacle to a crowd reputed to number 
seven thousand. Michael Hicks, Mormonism and Music: A History, 100-101. 

74. Memoir 51, 79; pp. 10.3-4. 

75. Susan Blanchard was a pioneering member of the Calvary Missionary Baptist Church 

Introduction 31 

Lois described meeting two African American visitors to Salt Lake City 
who were staying with Susan Blanchard: Elizabeth Flake Rowan, who 
had lived in Nauvoo, Illinois, and Utah as a slave to the LDS family of 
James and Agnes Flake, and her daughter Alice Ann Rowan. 76 After 
Mary Lois met the Rowans along the "wayside," Alice Rowan called on 
her four times, accompanied on at least one visit by her mother. Mary 
Lois described Alice in her diary as "very Lady-like and refined" and 
a "very Clever performer upon the Piano" and noted that they sang 
several songs together. During one visit, Mary Lois had a "long talk" 
with Alice about Mormonism and accompanied her to a meeting in the 

Life in Polygamy 

Mary Lois's life writings are an important resource for understanding 
family life in polygamy. Her husband Elias Morris only appeared sporadi- 
cally in her diary, often in the context of his business or church work. 
Mary Lois mentioned her children in both her diary and her memoir 
far more often than her husband. According to scholar Jill Mulvay Derr, 
it was common for plural wives to "reveal in their personal writings a pri- 
mary emotional involvement with their children rather than with their 

in Salt Lake City, which she had joined by 1902. Although Mary Lois mentions Susan 
only once in her memoir (Memoir 243) and twice in her diaries (July 22 and July 23, 
1887) and adds the description of "colored" to her name, Mary Lois describes her 
neighbor as "a very plasing person." According to the census records, there were 232 
blacks in Utah in 1880 (0.2 percent of the total Utah population) and 588 blacks in 
Utah in 1890 (0.3 percent of the total Utah population). 1900 U.S. Federal Census; 
France A. Davis, Light in the Midst ofZion: A History of Black Baptists in Utah, 1892—1996, 
9-19; Newell G. Bringhurst, Saints, Slaves, and Blacks: The Changing Place of Black People 
within Mormonism, 218—19, 228. 

76. Elizabeth (Liz) Flake Rowan was born and raised on the North Carolina plantation of 
William Love. When William Love's daughter, Agnes Love, married James Flake, her 
father gave five-year-old Elizabeth to her "as her personal maid." In 1844, Agnes and 
James Flake joined the LDS church and with Elizabeth, moved to Nauvoo, Illinois. 
Elizabeth then traveled with them to Utah, arriving in the Salt Lake Valley in October 
1848. After James Flake's death in 1850, Elizabeth went with the remaining family to 
a Mormon colony in San Bernardino, California. Agnes Flake died soon after; and in 
1855, Elizabeth went with Agnes's children to live with the Amasa Lyman family. When 
Agnes's son William left to return to Utah, he gave Elizabeth her freedom. She married 
a free African American man named Charles H. Rowan, who owned and operated a 
barber shop in the Grand Southern Hotel in San Bernardino. Elizabeth and Charles 
had two sons and a daughter, Alice Ann Rowan. Alice, a schoolteacher, "taught the 
white children at Riverside for three years," quitting teaching when she married. OPH, 
8:514-16; Bringhurst, Saints, Slaves, and Blacks, 218-27. 

77. July 22, 1887; July 28, 1887; August 3, 1887; August 7, 1887; August 8, 1887. 

32 Before the Manifesto 

Ks| ^A 

o * 


I f lt\ 

\ \ ' 


r - — a 


■ * 

Courtesy of Eriant G. Badgi 

Elias Morris, his first wife Mary Parry, and their children. Left to 

right, back row: Nellie Morris, Elias Morris Jr., Winifred M. Tibbs, 

John Morris, Tansie M. Brown. Front row: Albert G. Morris, Elias 

Morris, Sr., Barbara M. Jones, Mary Parry Morris, Josephine M. 

Goffi Ernest Morris. 

husbands." 78 When Mary Lois's daughter Addie left to start a new home, 
for instance, Mary Lois wrote that it seemed "as if the light of our house 
had gone out." 79 

In 1879, as Mary Lois's diary began, her nineteen-year-old daugh- 
ter, Effie, was a young wife, having married Edward Treharne Ashton, an 
employee of Elias Morris, one year earlier. Effie and Edward lived within 
walking distance of Mary Lois, and they visited each other often. Mary 
Lois's second daughter, Addie, was seventeen. As the oldest child living 
at home, Addie had an intimate relationship with her mother, and Mary 
Lois recorded many of her social and church activities. Because of Elias 
Morris's long absence during his mission to Wales and the death of her 
son John Conway, Mary Lois's two surviving sons were much younger than 
her older daughters. Nephi was eight years old when the diary began; 
George, four. While Nephi went on to be president of the Salt Lake Stake, 
in his youth Mary Lois struggled at times to get him to go to church. She 

78. Jill Mulvay Derr, "'Strength in Our Union': The Making of Mormon Sisterhood," 167. 

79. December 26, 1884. 

Introduction 33 

depicted George, who later became one of the LDS church's twelve apos- 
des, as a "good and steady child." 80 Mary Lois's youngest child in 1879 was 
two-year-old Kate. Kate loved to tag along when her sister Addie's suitor, 
George M. Cannon, came to call, setting a precedent for Kate's later plu- 
ral marriage to Cannon, by then Addie's husband. 81 

Mary Lois was the primary caregiver to her children. She explained 
in her memoir, "It was my Heavenly Father and me in the rearing of 
those children." 82 Therefore, like other nineteenth-century Mormon 
women, when her children became ill, Mary Lois laid her hands upon 
them and gave them a healing blessing. 83 A typical example took place 
in November 1885, when she recorded being "wakened by little Kate 
complaining of her throat and high fever, put her through a througher 
course of steaming; but before that adminstered holy oil to her in the 
name of the Lord Juses, also anointed her in His Holy Name praying 
humbly for God to acknowledge the same. In ten minutes she was in 
a copious sweat, and relived from her pain, and able to sit up . . . let 
God be praised for his goodness." The next day she wrote, "little Kate 
is almost well the white and red spots are almost gone from her throat 
we trusted in God who is the best Phssican." 84 Thus, in a pattern seen 
throughout her diary, before using medical remedies, Mary Lois gave 
her daughter a healing blessing. Then she attributed it to God rather 
than to medical treatment when Kate recovered. While Mary Lois gen- 
erally gave blessings to her children herself, at times she asked elders 

80. January 10, 1886. 

81. George Mousley Cannon (1861-1937), the son of Salt Lake Stake president Angus 
Munn Cannon and Sarah Maria Mousley, studied in the scientific department of Deseret 
University, completing his education at age 19. For the next two years, Cannon taught 
at the school George Q. Cannon had founded for his children. Then in 1882, Cannon 
gave up teaching and worked for two years as a deputy in the office of the county 
recorder. In 1884, he was elected county recorder, in which position he remained for 
six years. In 1892, he became the cashier of Zion's Saving Bank and Trust company, and 
in 1895, he served as a member of the Utah Constitutional Convention. He also served 
as the first president of the State Senate of Utah. He married Marian Adelaide (Addie) 
Morris in 1884 and Katherine (Kate) Vaughn Morris and Ellen Christina Steffensen 
in 1901, well after the Wilford Woodruff Manifesto that in 1890 announced an end 
to polygamy. AJ, 1:566, 4:206; Biographical Record of Salt Lake, City and Vicinity, 330—32 
(hereinafter cited as BRSL). 

82. Memoir 227. 

83. In nineteenth-century Utah, washing and anointing by women took place within sacred 
spaces such as the temple, as well as within private homes. According to Linda King 
Newell, "The wording took different forms as the occasion demanded. One of the most 
common uses of the washing and anointing blessing came as women administered to 
each other prior to childbirth." Newell, "Gifts of the Spirit: Women's Share," 111-50, 
quotation, 123; Derr, Cannon, and Beecher, Women of Covenant, 220-21. 

84. November 14, 1885; November 15, 1885. 

34 Before the Manifesto 

holding the priesthood to do the administration in addition to or 
instead of doing it herself. 85 

In 1879, Elias Morris spent every other week — when he was not away 
on his frequent business trips — with her family. Mary Lois recalled in her 
memoir that he was still staying with her family every other week as late 
as October 1884; and it seems from her diary that he did not stop living 
with her until April 14, 1885. 8< ' By the time the diaries commence, Mary 
Lois and Elias appear to have settled into a quiet friendship. They seemed 
to enjoy each other's company and to respect each other. Evidence sug- 
gests, however, that their relationship was not romantic but a practical 
and companionable association that they made the best of by liking each 
other as fellow human beings. 

Despite Mary Lois's good feelings toward her husband, her rela- 
tionship with her husband's other wife, Mary Parry Morris, was evidendy 
distant. She rarely mentioned Mary Parry, and when she did, it was only 
in connection to their husband. Although the two women lived in the 
same home for at least a decade and Mary Lois recorded mutual visiting 
with hundreds of her neighbors, they do not seem to have been friends 
or even to have visited each other as neighbors. On rare occasions, the 
women both attended an event with Elias Morris, such as a play or a pic- 
nic, and Mary Lois usually noted that she enjoyed these events. Yet she 
also recorded several occasions when her husband, his first wife, and their 
family did something without including Mary Lois, as when Mary Parry 
and her children accompanied Morris to Park City, where he was work- 
ing. On another occasion, Mary Lois wrote in her diary, "My Husband's 
seccond daughter Winnie, was Married this day to Peter Tibbs. . . . They 
hahave not so much as said wedding to me or Addie. These things cut and 
wound; but they cannot dim our crown if we are faithfull enough to gain 
one." 87 She also noticed differences in their economic treatment, writ- 
ing that "beholding so many things" in Mary Parry's elegant new home, 
including wallpaper said to be the "most costly in the city . . . would have 
wounded a nature even less sensitive than my own." 88 Mary Lois and Mary 
Parry's young children did have some interaction, which is not surprising 
considering the proximity of their houses. 

85. February 13, 1880. See also the entry of July 29, 1879, for an example of Mary Lois 
summoning the Elders to administer "the ordainance of the House of God" to her sick 
daughter instead of administering it herself. Although most of the healing blessings 
that Mary Lois gave were to her children, she also recorded washing and anointing at 
least two other people, a woman she called Sister Morgan and someone identified only 
as a "sick person." November 11, 1879; July 28, 1880. 

86. Memoir 197; pp. 190-91. April 14, 1885. 

87. April 3, 1879. 

88. Memoir 161-62; p. 160. 

Introduction 35 

The Raids 

To many U.S. citizens, the LDS practice of polygamy was barbaric. 89 As 
a result, Congress passed law after law during the second half of the 
nineteenth century, tightening the vise on Utah in an effort to strangle 
polygamy before it spread its moral corruption to the rest of the nation. 90 
Nineteenth-century Mormons generally saw the situation in a different 
light. While a minority of members actually practiced polygamy, most 
Mormons regarded it as divinely ordained. 91 The doctrine of polygamy 
was preached across Mormon pulpits as the highest form of marriage, 
and men in leadership positions in the church usually had more than one 
wife. As a result, when the federal government tried to end polygamy in 
Utah, Mormons peacefully resisted, fiercely protecting what they saw as 
their right. 92 

In the early 1880s, the federal government strengthened legisla- 
tion against polygamy and began to enforce these laws more forcefully 
in Utah. Until this time, the antipolygamy laws of the U.S. were difficult 
to enforce because no Utah jury, which would naturally be composed 
primarily of members of the territory's majority religion, would convict 
a fellow Mormon for polygamy. 93 The 1882 Edmunds Act bolstered the 

89. Sarah Barringer Gordon, The Mormon Question: Polygamy and Constitutional Conflict in 
Nineteenth-Century America, 29—52. 

90. See Gordon, The Mormon Question; Edwin Brown Firmage and Richard Collin Mangrum, 
Zion in the Courts: A Legal History of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 1 830—1 900, 
129-260; Richard Douglas Poll, "The Legislative Antipolygamy Campaign," 107-21; 
Gustive O. Larson, "Government, Politics, and Conflict," 243-56. 

91. Scholars disagree about the exact percentage of Mormons who practiced polygamy. 
The number of practicing polygamists also changed over time. One of the most 
accurate studies is historian Kathryn Daynes's in-depth examination of polygamy in 
Manti, Utah. Daynes found that in 1860, 44 percent of women in Manti were in a 
polygamous relationship; in 1870, 35 percent of women were in such a relationship; 
in 1880, 25 percent were living in polygamy; and by 1900, only 7 percent remained in 
polygamy. After 1860 the number of plural marriages steadily decreased as a result of 
both internal and external factors. Daynes, More Wives Than One, 108. 

92. Mormons often resisted federal efforts to end polygamy by going into hiding to 
avoid arrest or to avoid testifying in court. See Gustive O. Larson, "The Crusade 
and the Manifesto"; Kimberly Jensen James, "'Between Two Fires': Women on the 
'Underground' of Mormon Polygamy." Women as well as men also resisted federal 
intervention by defending the practice of polygamy in magazines, such as the Woman 's 
Exponent, and in public and church meetings. See Claudia L. Bushman, "Reports from 
the Field: The World of the Woman 's Exponent"; Davis Bitton, "Polygamy Defended: One 
Side of a Nineteenth-Century Polemic." 

93. In 1862, just over a decade after the Mormons arrived in Utah, Congress passed the 
Morrill Anti-Bigamy Act, which penalized those practicing bigamy and made it unlawful 
for U.S. religious organizations to hold property over fifty thousand dollars. As the law 


iefore the Manifesto 

Jfo,. $l-f 

Im'itorg of Wuh, 



B M(, itipviuiu* 

Deputy Cterk. 
Courtesy oj the National Archives 

Warrant far the arrest 

ofElias Morris on the 

charge of unlawful 

cohabitation, filed on 

April 22, 1886. 

existing legislation by declaring unlawful cohabitation a misdemeanor, 
disfranchising polygamists, barring polygamists from political office 
and jury duty, and putting a commission hostile to Mormon interests in 
charge of territorial elections. The offense of unlawful cohabitation was 
much easier to prove than polygamy, for which a conviction required 
proof of marriage. A conviction for cohabitation required proof only that 
a man lived with more than one woman. In 1887, the Edmunds-Tucker 
Act imposed even harsher penalties on the LDS church and its polyga- 
mist members by dissolving the corporation of the LDS church, seizing 
church property, and revoking woman suffrage in the territory. 94 

Beginning in 1884 with the appointment of Judge Charles Zane, fed- 
eral authorities in Utah strictly enforced laws against plural marriage and 
illegal cohabitation. 95 In the ensuing years, many of the territory's most 
prominent men were prosecuted and jailed on charges of polygamy or 



was difficult to enforce, the LDS church remained relatively unaffected hy its penalties. 

In 1879, the Supreme Court issued a decision on the case in Reynolds v. United States, 

which alleged that polygamy was "antirepuhlican." Three years later, the Edmunds Act 

allowed jurors to be challenged if they believed in polygamy, thus invalidating Mormon 

jurors. Daynes, More Wives Than One, 47-48. 

Gordon, The Mormon Question, 147-61; Firmage and Mangrum, Zion in the Courts, 197- 


Thomas G. Alexander, "Charles S. Zane: Apostle of the New Era," 291-93, 306-9. 

Introduction 37 

unlawful cohabitation. The lives of ordinary citizens also changed. Mary 
Lois, for instance, found that the new antipolygamy laws left her marriage 
in an ambiguous state. Until 1884, she appeared with Elias Morris in pub- 
lic on a fairly regular basis. Then, on April 14, 1885, she recorded in her 
diary, "My Husband has thought it wisdom to absent himself from this 
part of the family, on account of the acts of the wicked." 96 Elias Morris's 
decision to severely limit his time with his second wife and her family was 
no doubt due to the increasing number of prosecutions of polygamists by 
Judge Zane. 97 While Elias still saw Mary Lois occasionally in 1885, by 1886 
more than half their recorded interactions were by letter. In 1887, the 
year of the passage of the Edmunds-Tucker Act, Mary Lois had almost no 
interaction with her husband. 

As a result of the increased enforcement of federal law, in 1885 
Mary Lois began to hide to avoid authorities anxious to prosecute her 
husband. At this time women had two options for "'getting out of the 
way.' One was to remain at home, going into hiding periodically when the 
need arose; the other, to relocate on a more permanent basis." 98 Initially, 
Mary Lois chose the first option, going to the homes of her daughters for 
an afternoon or several days when it was necessary to avoid federal depu- 
ties. On March 25, 1885, for instance, she wrote that she did housework 
in the morning but spent the evening "in a closet," finally coming home 
about 11 p.m. and entering the house through the buttery window. At the 
end of 1885, she noted in her diary, "[W]ent to Addie's accompanied by 
little George whoes hand is hurt. We had to carry a heavy bundle, fell into 
a deep ditch and brused my limbs thought it a rather hard experience 
after day's hard work; still it was not as bad as the Saints had in their drive- 
ings in early day." 

Then, on December 2, 1885, her husband advised her to relocate 
more permanentiy to Provo, Utah, under an assumed identity. That night, 
Mary Lois recorded, "Awoak about 2. oclock spent the rest of the night 
in thinking and contemplating my Journey. Strange times these when a 
person is not safe night or day from burglers Deptuies." 99 Her departure 
from Salt Lake City a few days later seems to have been to avoid both tes- 
tifying in court and the continued appearance of living in polygamy. She 
stayed in Provo off and on for the next six months, spending several weeks 

96. April 14, 1885. 

97. The more than fourteen hundred prosecutions for polygamy and illegal cohabitation 
between 1882 and 1896 were "heavily concentrated in the years 1886 to 1889 — only 
one indictment each was handed down in 1882, 1883, and 1884" (Gordon, The Mormon 
Question, 157). See also Alexander, "Charles S. Zane," 296-301. 

98. James, "'Between Two Fires': Women on the 'Underground' of Mormon Polygamy," 

99. March 25, 1885; December 26, 1885; February 13, 1886. 

38 Before the Manifesto 

there in December 1885 before returning to Salt Lake and then relocat- 
ing again to Provo in mid-February 1886, where she remained until May 
1886. While in hiding, she wore veils and did not acknowledge friends or 
even her own children when she saw them on the street. 

Toward the end of this time, on April 12, 1886, a grand jury con- 
vened in the Third District Court to hear her husband's case, United States 
of America v. Elias Morris. The grand jury issued an indictment on April 19 
accusing Elias Morris of unlawful cohabitation between the dates of May 
1, 1883, and December 31, 1885, and authorizing awarrantfor his arrest. 
On April 22, Elias was apprehended by U.S. Marshal E. A. Ireland and 
placed under a $15,000 bond, which was cosigned by prominent business- 
men William S. Godbe and John C. Cutier. 100 

In the next two weeks, Mary Lois moved from home to home in 
Provo, fearful that she would be subpoenaed to testify in her husband's 
case. She was not discovered, and only Elias and his first wife testified 
before the grand jury. For unknown reasons, her husband's trial was then 
delayed for over a year. As a result, on May 1, 1886, Mary Lois was able to 
emerge from hiding, writing in her diary that she had been introduced at 
a wedding that night by her true name, "haveing got through with under- 
ground business for the pesant, and it seems ever so good." 101 

Mary Lois felt besieged not just for herself but for her community 
as a whole. While she had noted the imprisonment of a few prominent 
Mormon men and a woman in earlier years, in 1885 she began to record 
frequentiy the arrests and imprisonment of men in the territory who 
practiced plural marriage. 102 She did not know how to spell "subpoe- 
naed" the first time she used the word in her diary, but by April 1886 she 
could spell it correctiy, having written it a number of times. She depicted 
imprisonment for plural marriage as a black and white issue: the Mormon 
men were arrested for "truth's sake," and those arresting them were "vil- 
lains." Her entries mentioned arrests in terms such as "two more of our 

100. United States District, District of Utah, Papers and Files in Case No. 84, United States 
of America v. Elias Morris, case 1499, RG 21, National Archives. The warrant, which is 
signed hy Judge Zane, empowered the U.S. Marshal to arrest Elias Morris, "in the night- 
time if necessary." 

101. May 1, 1886. 

102. Mary Lois began to note such trials in the mid-1880s and wrote about them especially 
frequently in 1886 and 1887. Her record corresponded with the sharply increased 
number of prosecutions between 1886 and 1889. While she mentioned the arrests of 
church leaders, many of the men whose arrests she noted were relatively unknown 
members of the LDS church. According to legal historian Sarah Barringer Gordon, 
"[m]ost prosecutions were of less notorious polygamists. That population was both 
more vulnerable, because it was less able to call upon the machinery of the church and 
the Underground and more likely to be distressed by serving time in prison and fees." 
Gordon, The Mormon Question, 157—60. 

Introduction 39 

brerthren were sent to prison for Keeping the commandments of God" or 
the "following brethren were taken to the Penitentary to day for prefering 
to serve God rather than man." 103 As her diary entries were often short, 
her frequent mention of the trials and sentences of these men indicates 
how much their imprisonment affected her. 104 

Mary Lois questioned what the world was coming to when upstand- 
ing men were sent to jail. No doubt her interest in the matter was per- 
sonal to some degree, and her frequent ventures into hiding seem to 
demonstrate her fear of prosecution of her own family. Her comment, "It 
is hard to tell what Will happen to us as a people, or a family," indicates 
that she viewed what happened to the Mormon "people" and to her own 
family as integrally related. In spite of any fear she may have felt, she reaf- 
firmed her belief that the crusade against polygamy would end well: "Felt 
that the ruselt of the present Crusade would be so good that the faithful 
would wish there had would be been more of it." 105 

The Trial 

In the first decades of polygamy, the outside world largely portrayed 
Mormon women such as Mary Lois as innocent victims. But when these 
women continued to support the Mormon patriarchy after receiving the 
right to vote, antipolygamists began to view women as part of the prob- 
lem. Indeed, Mormon wives were often complicit in helping their hus- 
bands resist arrest. Many women went into hiding, as Mary Lois had, to 
avoid testifying against their husbands. When forced to testify, they some- 
times committed perjury, stating that they could not remember if their 
husbands had multiple wives or the last times they had seen their hus- 
bands. Such extralegal tactics often succeeded in undermining the gov- 
ernment's cases against suspected polygamists. 106 

103. November 28, 1885; March 1, 1886. 

104. Mary Lois mentioned, for instance, when Rudger Clawson's wife went to visit her 
husband at the penitentiary. Mary Lois was also particularly interested in the trials and 
imprisonment of the prominent Cannon brothers, as her daughter Addie had married 
a son of Angus M. Cannon. See Rudger Clawson, Prisoner for Polygamy: The Memoirs 
and Letters of Rudger Clawson at the Utah Territorial Penitentiary, 1884—1887; W. C. Seifrit, 
"The Prison Experience of Abraham H. Cannon"; Davis Bitton, George Q. Cannon: A 

105. April 1, 1886; October 31, 1885. 

106. In a few cases, Mormon women were prosecuted for perjury. In 1887, for example, 
Marintha Loveridge was charged with perjury after testifying "at her father's trial for 
unlawful cohabitation that she could not remember ever meeting his other wife and 
had never heard it reported in the family that he had another wife." Sarah Barringer 
Gordon explains, "Several cases involved attempts by wives to exonerate their husbands 
by claiming that the illegal act at issue (either a marriage ceremony or unlawful 

40 Before the Manifesto 

Mary Lois and Mary Parry Morris both followed this pattern of deceit 
when they testified on September 26, 1887, in their husband's case, United 
States of America v. Elias Morris. Over a year before, the court had put Morris 
under bonds to appear in the case, which charged him with illegal cohab- 
itation between May 1, 1883, and December 31, 1885. 107 Mary Lois was 
one of the first witnesses, according to accounts in the Deseret Evening News 
and the Salt Lake Daily Tribune. She recalled, "After swearing to what I had 
been instructed, I stuck to my text. One thing to which I had to testify was, 
that defendent and I had not lived together for such a number of years." 
According to the newspaper accounts of the case, the "text" to which Mary 
Lois testified before the court was that she was "not now married" and had 
ceased living with Morris "as his wife about the last of December, 1882, or 
the first of January, 1883." At this time, she claimed to have "proposed to 
him that he live separate to save him from any trouble; he had been very 
kind to me, as I was his brother's wife." 108 As the charge was that they were 
living together from May 1883 to December 1885, she provided a margin 
of four months against his liability for cohabitation with her. 

Mary Lois then responded to questions from the prosecution, 
explaining, "the proposition was that he should not live with me at all, as I 
did not want him to suffer on my account; he made no answer; the conver- 
sation was in my own house; he may have been in my house since, perhaps 
once or twice. . . . [H]e did not recognize me as his wife during 1883 and 
1884; it is a very painful position to me. . . . [H]e used to live about half 
the time with me." 109 As she answered this question, it reportedly "grieved 
her much to talk about the separation," and she shed "a few tears." 110 

The next witness, Mary Parry Morris, testified to this agreement 
as well and stated that her husband "has not been to her [Mary Lois's] 
house since then. ... I do not remember the last time he took her out." 
When further questioned, she said that she did not know why she had 
not mentioned this agreement when brought before a grand jury a year 
and a half earlier in April 1886; she said that she must not have thought 
of it. Several of Mary Parry's children and a servant testified as well. They 
seem to have all stuck to the same story except John Morris, one of Mary 
Parry's children, who first testified that it was about a year since Mary 

cohabitation) had occurred more than three years before the initiation of prosecution, 
and thus was barred by the statute of limitations." The Mormon Question, 162-64. For 
more about Mormons' use of "nontruths" during the campaign against Mormon 
polygamy, see Hardy, appendix I, "Lying for the Lord: An Essay," 368-75. 

107. United States ofAnmiea v. Elias Morris. 

108. Memoir 239-40; pp. 200-201. Deseret Evening News, September 26, 1887; Salt Lake Daily 
Tribune, September 27, 1887. 

109. Deseret Evening News, September 26, 1887. 

110. Salt Lake Daily Tribune, September 27, 1887. 

Introduction 41 

Lois and Elias Morris separated, but, when crossexamined, he changed 
his story and said that it was more than a year ago. 

When the court reassembled at two o'clock, the jury retired to 
discuss the case; and after forty-five minutes they returned to the court 
and announced that they had found Elias Morris "not guilty" of the 
charge of unlawful cohabitation. 111 Mary Lois recalled, "One of the 
first to offer congratulations was Governor Murray, himself. I received 
my witness fee, and went on my way rejoicing. Not, however, without 
some unpleasant feelings. The thought of being dishonored as a wife, 
after a marriage of thirty years or more, was neither comforting or 
flattering. ... I was free, at the expense of being separated from my 
husband!" 112 

As Mary Lois makes clear in her diary, it was on April 14, 1885, that 
Elias Morris stopped living with her, not the beginning of 1883 as she tes- 
tified in court. And it was he, not she, who proposed to "absent" himself 
from her and her family. She testified as she did to prevent her husband 
from going to jail, just as many other LDS women did at the time, and 
her and Mary Parry's testimonies may have helped acquit him. However, 
Elias Morris's prominent position in the community and his involvement 
in the mining industry with influential non-Mormons most likely worked 
in his favor as well. The congratulations of non-Mormon governor Eli H. 
Murray after the trial seems to bear evidence of this. 

During the three months after the trial, Mary Lois did not record 
seeing her husband in her diary. Yet she continued to write positively of 
him in her diary and to unabashedly support the institution of polygamy. 
On the last day of December 1887, when called upon to speak in ward 
meeting, she praised her husband for his kindness in beginning a tradi- 
tion in which provisions were given to the poor each Christmas and then 
"spoke in favour of plural Marraige." 113 

Death of Husband 

Although publicly separated from Elias Morris after the 1887 court trial, 
Mary Lois still saw him on infrequent occasions. She evidently felt some 
awkwardness on the rare instances after their separation when she went 
to the home he shared with Mary Parry. She had not planned to attend 
his sixtieth birthday party on June 30, 1888 until her husband's daughter 
invited her: "Barabara Swan came over to intreat me to come over and 
Join the party, as her Father could not enjoy himself unless we were 

111. Deseret Evening News, September 26, 1887; Salt Lake Daily Tribune, September 27, 1887. 

112. Memoir 240; p. 201. 

113. December 31, 1887. 

42 Before the Manifesto 

there." Mary Lois then noted, "I humbled myself to go over," indicating 
her discomfort. 114 

On March 14, 1898, at the age of seventy-two, Elias accidentally fell 
down the open entrance of an elevator shaft. After his fall, a carriage con- 
veyed him to his home, where for the next few days he hovered between 
life and death. Mary Lois wrote that she visited him "occasionally" during 
this time but was "careful not to obtrude, or be in the way of anyone who 
wished to be near him." 11 " 

On March 17, she went over early to see how he was faring and 
found him in "his last death struggle." About ten o'clock, Elias Morris 
died; and Mary Lois returned to her own home, mourning "the good 
man, my benefactor, with whom I had passed the greater part of my life." 
Shordy after Elias's death, Mary Lois wrote a poem in tribute to her part- 
ner of so many years. In the poem she does not mention his role as a hus- 
band, instead writing, "How can I paint the picture, or the merits speak 
/ Of this good man? The father, brother, friend." She then wrote, after 
not having lived with him for over ten years: "Most faithfully he trod / In 
duty's path, though steep, / Holding the Iron Rod / Till life's sands were 
complete." As her marriage had been founded in duty and obedience so 
were these the qualities that she stressed when she chose to honor her 
husband at the end of his life. Finally, she expressed what she saw as the 
reward for this faithfulness: "There comes an end to toil / Where waits a 
brilliant crown." 11 '' Although Mary Lois desperately did not want to marry 
Elias and viewed him as only a temporary replacement for her first hus- 
band, she mourned his death. 

Later Life 

Mary Lois continued to keep a diary until six months before her death 
in 1919. After 1887, when the entries included here end, she continued 
her church work, serving as Fifteenth Ward primary president from 1884 
until 1896 and as a counselor in the Salt Lake Stake primary presidency 
from 1896 to 1901. 117 

As the nineteenth century ended and the twentieth century 
began, Mary Lois continued to document changes both in her life and 
in Utah. A major shift occurred in 1890 when LDS president Wilford 
Woodruff issued the Manifesto, which officially ended the church's 

114. June 30, 1888. 

115. Memoir 265-67. 

116. Memoir 271-73. 

117. Mary Lois's release from the Stake Primary Presidency was recorded in the Woman's 
Exponent^ (May 25, 1901), 104. 

Courtesy of the Athlon iamii\ Organization 

Mary Lois and her five children. Back row, left to right: Marian 

Adelaide Morris Cannon, Effie Morris Ashton, Katherine 

Vaughan Morris Cannon. Front row, left to right: George Q. 

Morris, Mary Lois Walker Morris, Nephi Lowell Morris. 

44 Before the Manifesto 

practice of polygamy. 118 While Mary Lois made no comment in her 
diary on the announcement of the Manifesto, her observations about 
her children's marriages provide a microcosmic view of the experiences 
of LDS church members as a whole at this time. Edward T. Ashton, hus- 
band of her oldest daughter, Effie, had a second wife whom he had 
married in 1883, five years after his first marriage to Effie. 119 In con- 
trast, Mary Lois's sons were much younger than her older daughters 
and were still unmarried at the time of the Manifesto. When they did 
marry, in 1905 and 1907, respectively, George and Nephi contracted 
monogamous marriages. 120 

The ending of polygamy by the LDS church was not simple for many 
Mormons. The Morris family's experience demonstrates this. Mary Lois's 
daughter Addie was in a monogamous marriage to George M. Cannon 
in 1890. Her youngest daughter, Kate, had not yet married and lived at 
home. Because some Mormons remained unconvinced that polygamy 
had truly ended, the Manifesto did not eliminate the possibility of plu- 
ral marriage for Mary Lois's daughters. Despite the LDS church's offi- 
cial announcement ending polygamy in 1890, Addie's husband, George 
M. Cannon, married two plural wives in 1901, one of whom was Kate. 121 
According to family lore, Addie did not learn about her husband's plural 
marriages until after the weddings and was so upset "when she found out 
that he had married her sister she tore her hair out by the roots. She was 
just horrified." 122 

Though she came of age after the Manifesto, Kate chose a plural 
rather than a monogamous marriage. When she made this decision, she 

118. President Wilford Woodruff issued the Manifesto on September 25, 1890, announcing 
that the LDS church would submit to the laws of the land and no longer practice plural 
marriage. After 1890, fewer families were openly polygamous, and those that were 
found themselves eventually pushed to the margins of Utah society. For the impact 
of the Manifesto on the practice of polygamy in Utah, see Daynes, More Wives Than 
One, 173-87. For more background into the issuing of the Manifesto, see Thomas G. 
Alexander, Things in Heaven and Earth: The Life and Times of Wilford Woodruff a Mormon 
Prophet, 261-87. Alexander examines the changes in the LDS church after the Manifesto 
in Mormonism in Transition: A History of the Latter-Day Saints, 1890-1930. 

1 19. After being counseled by LDS church leaders to enter into polygamy, Edward Treharne 
Ashton married Cora May Lindsay as his second wife. He had married Effie Walker 
Morris in 1878. The Edward Ashton and Jane Treharne Ashton Legacy of Faith, 30—32 
(hereinafter cited as EALF). 

120. George Quayle Morris married Emily Marion Ramsey. Nephi Lowell Morris married 
Harriet Young. 

121. As previously noted, George Mousley Cannon married Marian Adelaide (Addie) Morris 
in 1884. Seventeen years later, he married Addie's younger sister, Katherine Vaughan 
Morris, and Ellen Christina Steffensen. 

122. Gabrielle Woods, interview by author, February 15, 2003. Gabrielle Woods is the 
daughter of Mary Lois's youngest son, George Q. Morris. 

Courtesy of Ashton family Organization 

Mary Lois and descendants at a family reunion, about 1916. 

Back row, left to right: Lois Cannon, an unidentified woman, 

Marvin O. Ashton, Afton Grace Ashton ?, Edward M. Ashton, 

Joe Kjar, Raymond Ashton, unidentified baby, Winnie Richards 

Ashton, Effie Ashton Kjar. Third row, left to right: Morris Badger 

Ashton, two unidentified children, Nephi L. Morris, Marian 

Adelaide Morris Cannon, Effie Walker Morris Ashton, 

George Q. Morris, (the rest of the row is unidentified). 

Second row: Mary Lois Walker Morris is fourth from 

the left, Katherine Vaughn Morris Cannon is fifth from 

the left, Emma Ramsey Morris is on the far right 

with Helen Ramsey Morris is her lap. Front row: 

Marion Ramsey Morris Wood is second from the right, and 

Margery Ramsey Morris Woods (also known as Gabrielle 

Woods) is on the far right. 

46 Before the Manifesto 

had completed the teaching program at the University of Utah and was 
working as a kindergarten teacher in the Salt Lake area. Although Mary 
Lois does not mention Kate's marriage in her diary at the time of its occur- 
rence, she seems to have encouraged Kate's post-Manifesto polygamous 
marriage. According to an oral interview with Kate's daughter, Katherine 
Morris Cannon Thomas, Mary Lois "persuaded her [Kate] to go into 
polygamy." Thomas also recalled that when Nephi and George found out 
that Kate "had gone into polygamy or was going into it[,] [t]hey were very 
much upset because they knew what lay ahead in the way of criticism. The 
Manifesto had been issued and here eleven years later she was going into 
it." 123 Kate's choice to become a polygamist wife and the opposition of her 
brothers Nephi and George seem to show that differences in attitudes 
toward polygamy were not always along generational lines. 

Mary Lois's daughter Kate was not alone in entering into a polyga- 
mous marriage after the Manifesto. During the 1890s and early 1900s, 
certain members of the LDS church disregarded the church's procla- 
mation, often because they viewed Wilford Woodruff's Manifesto as a 
political necessity rather than a doctrinal shift. For this reason, the LDS 
church issued a Second Manifesto in 1904, which led to stricter enforce- 
ment of the church's new policy. 124 Meanwhile, Mormons congregated 
in colonies in Mexico, where they were free to continue to practice plu- 
ral marriage. In 1902, Mary Lois accompanied Kate and her two-month- 
old granddaughter, Katherine Morris Cannon, into exile in the Colonia 
Juarez, Mexico, colony. Mary Lois wrote of her decision to go with her 
daughter: "About this time I was advised, if able, to go into exile with 
my daughter. This I was willing to do and would have gone to prison 
also, rather than betray my brethren or bear witness against them. ... I 
did not know whether I should ever see my home or my children again. 
Anything rather than betray my brethren." 12 " Mary Lois and Kate would 
remain in Mexico for two and a half years, from December 1902 to May 

During her time in Mexico, Mary Lois learned Spanish and took 
a class on the Doctrine and Covenants, an LDS book of scripture, at the 
local LDS school. Her poetry flourished in the dry Mexican desert as she 
described her surroundings in a number of poems. While in Colonia 
Juarez, she also wrote part of her memoir which she had begun in 1901 
and would continue to work on for the next fourteen years of her life. 126 

123. Katherine Cannon Thomas, interview hy Leonard Grover, March 25, 1980, transcript, 
pp. 12-13, LDS Polygamy Oral History Project, Charles Redd Center for Western 
Studies, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah. 

124. Alexander, Mormonism in Transition, 64—65, 72—73. 

125. Memoir 342; p. 534. 

126. Memoir 46.3. 



// 1835 — 1919 

Mary Lois Morris 's gravestone 

in the City Cemetery in 

Salt Lake City. 

Photo by author 

Mary Lois's time in Mexico was not all happy, however. She and her 
daughter Kate struggled at times to keep their spirits up. This was espe- 
cially difficult when, a year after their arrival in Mexico, Kate gave birth to 
twin daughters, who both died within three days of their birth. Mary Lois 
and Kate both also suffered from illness. As a result of Mary Lois's failing 
health, they both returned to Utah in May 1905. 

During the next years, Mary Lois's life remained intimately tied to 
her children and grandchildren. She watched and aided them in their 
successes and failures, taking on the position of the "grand dame" of 
the family in her signature black dress with a touch of white lace at her 
throat. 127 Her oldest son, Nephi, who took over his father's company after 
Elias Morris's death, had become president of the Salt Lake Stake during 
her absence in Mexico. In this position, which he held from 1904 to 1929, 
he oversaw many of the LDS congregations in the Salt Lake Valley. He 
also served on the State Industrial Commission and was president of the 
Salt Lake Board of Education. 128 A member of the state legislature, he ran 
for governor of Utah twice — on the Progressive ticket in 1912 and on the 

127. Woods, interview. 

128. Lynn M. Hilton, ed., The Story of Salt Lake, Stake of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day 
Saints, 179-83. 

48 Before the Manifesto 

Republican ticket in 1916 — but lost both elections. 129 George Q. Morris, 
his younger brother, also worked at Morris & Sons, becoming president 
and general manager. He served as general superintendent of the LDS 
church's Young Men's Mutual Improvement Association from 1937 to 
1948 and as president of the Eastern States Mission from 1948 to 1952. 
He became an assistant to the Quorum of the Twelve Aposdes in October 
1951 and one of the twelve apostles of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter- 
day Saints on April 8, 1954, a position he held until his death in 1962. 13<) 

Mary Lois's daughter Effie served as Relief Society president of the 
Salt Lake Fifteenth Ward from March 1908 to December 1916 and was 
the grandmother of LDS apostle Marvin J. Ashton. Her daughter Addie 
lived in a spacious home in Forest Dale, a suburban Salt Lake City ref- 
uge for plural families, where she was the Relief Society president of the 
Forest Dale Ward for seventeen years. 131 Kate, however, had to remain in 
hiding, living on a farm in Ogden and taking the name of "Mrs. Jenson." 
Her husband George M. Cannon took the train from Salt Lake City to 
visit her every Thursday evening, leaving again early Friday morning. 
According to family tradition, George M. Cannon's political career in the 
Utah Senate came to an abrupt halt as a result of his plural marriages, 
although he continued to serve as county recorder. 132 

Mary Lois's attitude toward Kate's marriage seems to be an accurate 
measure of how she herself felt about polygamy after the issuance of the 
Manifesto. Around 1911, she explained her feelings about Kate's mar- 
riage in her memoir: 

Some time previous to this, your sister Kate had decided to 
keep one of the laws of God which the world, with the enemy 
of souls at the bottom of it, has been fighting for the last 
Seventy years. And I willhere bear this testimony, if I never 
bear it again, that God has sent to earth through this principle 
some of the noblest spirits that ever left their Father's courts 
above. And so much faith have I in this Celestial order of mar- 
riage that I would go to the ends of the earth to sustain it, 
although I am verging onto my Seventy-seventh year. The way 
is thorny and the path is steep. I have trodden it before them, 

129. AJ, 1:639-40; Noble Warrum, ed, Utah Since Statehood: Historical and Biographical, 1:163- 
64, 177-78. 

130. Lawrence R. Flake, Prophets and Apostles of the Last Dispensation, 501-3; "George Q. Morris 
of the Council of the Twelve," Improvement Era, May 1954, 294, 364; T. Earl Pardoe, The 
Sons ofBrigham, 152—55. 

131. EALF, 35; "Obituary of Marian A. Morris Cannon," Daughters of Utah Pioneers 
Obituary Scrapbook. 

132. Thomas, interview, 3-4; Woods, interview. 

Introduction 49 

and I hope that my children will have the courage and integ- 
rity to walk therein. 133 

As a young child, Mary Lois's granddaughter Gabrielle Woods 
received a similar impression of Mary Lois's attitude toward polygamy, 
recalling, "I don't think Mary Lois liked polygamy, but she felt it was God's 
will. She didn't want to marry Elias, but she felt she had to." 134 After a life 
of sacrifice and civil disobedience for polygamy, it would have no doubt 
been difficult for Mary Lois to renounce the principle. In a way, to do so 
would have been to denounce the worth of the decisions of her life. 

During her last years, Mary Lois continued to write her memoir and 
faithfully wrote in her journal. Her children collected the poetry she had 
written over the years and published it in a book in 1918. 135 In the last 
month she wrote in her diaries, April 1919, Mary Lois twice recorded knit- 
ting for the Red Cross to aid the Allied soldiers in World War I. Her sec- 
ond-to-last entry showed her continued interest in learning, as she wrote, 
"I have been reading for a week perhaps an account of the Ex Kaiser 
where he declars that he would rather kill himsel rather than be tried 
for misconduct." The next day, April 17, 1919, she penned her last entry, 
writing of a funeral she had attended that day and ending it with "have 
been working in my room." 136 Six months later, she died of heart trouble 
shordy before midnight on November 29, 1919, at the age of 84. 137 She 
was buried on the opposite side of the Salt Lake City Cemetery from Elias 
Morris and Mary Parry Morris. 

Mary Lois left behind an extraordinary wealth of writing about her 
life. In her memoir, she seemed to sense that she had lived through times 
of great change, and with the flare of a natural storyteller, she recounted 
moments of great drama, sadness, and joy. While more mundane, the 
activities she recorded in her diaries clearly provided her with a sense of 
accompishment and of completion as she set their details to paper. Her 
faithful journal writing and the massive fifteen-year task of writing her 
memoir bear witness that she felt her life in some small way had been sig- 
nificant and was worth recording for future generations. 138 

133. Memoir 338-39. 

1.34. Woods, interview. 

1.35. Morris, A Few Thoughts of Mary L. Morris: Dedicated to Her Children. 

1.36. April 16, 1919; April 17, 1919. 

1.37. Kate B. Carter, comp., "Mary Lois Walker Morris," in Treasures of Pioneer History, 3:42. See 
also "Pioneer Woman Closes Career: Mrs. Morris' Funeral Tuesday," Deseret Evening News, 
December 1, 1919; Death Certificate for Mary Lois Morris. 

1.38. Memoir 1; p. 5.3. 


Mary Lois Morris 

s « 

a -g 

- r 

i-3 ^ 


Sketch Of The Life Of Mary L. Morris 


My dear Children and Grandchildren: — 

In presenting these few collected thoughts, in the form of a sketch 
of my humble life as I have tried to live it, I do not claim for them any 
literary merit, or poetic fire: — but I do claim for them the dignity of truth 
and correct principles. 

After having tried to mould my life according to the principles of 
the Gospel and the commandments of God, I can assure you, my precious 
children, in all soberness, that if you will seek to serve your God in all 
things He will surely bring you off conquerors. 

Mary L. Morris. 

Salt Lake City, Utah. 

October 27, 1901. 

A Sketch of My Life 

Agreeable to the request of my children, I have endeavored to write this 
simple sketch of my life, and present the same, hoping it will prove accept- 
able, and of some profit to them in climbing the rugged path of life. 

My Father's Family 

Grandfather Walker 
My paternal grandfather, James Walker, was born May 22, 1774, and I 
suppose, in the town of Leek, Staffordshire, England. I saw him for the 
first time when I was fourteen years old, in which year my mother and 
I returned to my native town of Leek to reside. He was small of stature 
and although quite aged, and unable to perform any manual labor and 
walked with a cane, he was still quite erect. He had keen dark eyes, refined 


54 Before the Manifesto 

features and white hair. I remember mother having said that he fought in 
the batde of Waterloo. He was a cabinet maker by trade. 

Grandmother Walker 
I cannot say that I ever saw my Grandmother [Elizabeth Gibson] Walker 
but I am under the impression that she was a large woman. My father, 
who was not a man given to boasting, told my sister, Ann Agatha, that 
his mother was the finest looking woman in Leek. Her maiden name was 
Gibson; I think Elizabeth. 

Uncle Charles Walker 
My Uncle Charles Walker was born May 4th, 1797. He was advanced in 
years when I saw him, but I very well remember his appearance. He, like 
my Grandfather, was small of stature, had large, expressive, dark eyes, 
pleasant deportment, and I think was of a kind and affectionate nature, 
and very devout. His first marriage was childless. Our Aunt Maria died 
when she and Uncle Charles were quite in years. In due time he married 
again and sent us a photograph of our new Aunt, who was neady and 
handsomely dressed and appeared to be a very nice person. He made 
this remark in writing to my sister of his second marriage, "I trust it is of 
the Lord". He presented each of us with a New Testament just before we 
embarked for America. I know my mother said he was employed as book- 
keeper or manager, in a certain silk warehouse for 30 years. I remember 
his calling upon us while we lived in Manchester and how embarrassed my 
sister Agatha was when he took her upon his lap; she being quite a large 
girl at the time; — almost a young woman, in fact. Peace to his ashes! 

Uncle Peter Walker and Family 
My father's other brother, Uncle Peter Walker, was born May 24, 1813 and 
died July 10, 1861. I remember seeing him but once, the year we stayed 
in Leek, immediately before our departure for America. He seemed to 
be a larger man than my Uncle Charles. He invited mother and me over 
to tea one Sunday afternoon. I do not remember much about his wife as 
she only came into the room once during the afternoon. I suppose she 
was engaged about the tea, but my cousin James I remember very well, as 
he and I sat upon the sofa while our parents talked. I think he must have 
been about my own age, — in his early teens. He afterwards emigrated 
to America and settled in Ohio. He sent his photograph to my brother 
Charles and for some years carried on a correspondence with him, but 
saw nothing in the Gospel. He was a fine looking man in appearance. 

Aunt Eliza 
Aunt Eliza Harley, or Arley, the oldest of Father's sisters was small of 

Sketch of the Life of Mary L. Morris 55 

stature and had large dark eyes. She was a very good housekeeper. Her 
husband, Uncle Edward, was a very quiet, unassuming man. He was a 
good mechanic. They were in comfortable circumstances but had no chil- 
dren, at least, when I knew them. 

Aunt Kate 
Aunt Kate Hazelwood [Gate Walker Heywood] , father's youngest sister, 
was a woman of good height and gende in her manners. Her husband, 
Joseph Hazelwood was a religious zealot. 

Aunt Lucy 
Aunt Lucy, another of father's three sisters, was a cripple and died in 

My Mother's Family 

My mother's grandparents, Josiah and Hannah Booth, reared my mother. 
They, having buried a child about the same age as she, asked her par- 
ents to let her stay with them. I remember mother saying her grandfather 
Booth was the Town Cryer. This city office was more common during the 
early part of the last century than it is now, but I remember as late as the 
'60s hearing the Town Cryer in Salt Lake City going along the streets at 
night ringing a large bell as he shouted the heart-rending words "Lost 
Child, Lost Child." When my great grandfather would go along the streets 
ringing his huge bell and delivering his important message, the children 
in the street would say ; — "Here comes "Sia Booth with his ding dong." 

A Mr. Wombwell, who was the greatest show-man in England at the 
time, set up his tents in my great grandfather's grounds. Mr. Wombwell 
was in England what Mr. Barnum was in America and it was humorously 
said of him that he had the largest family in England, — meaning his ani- 
mals. In speaking of her grandfather, mother said that when his children 
did not walk erect, he would remark "What ar't looking for? Pins? I look 
for swallows." 

I remember hearing mother repeat a few words of a letter written by 
her grandfather to his son, they were: — "My lad I should be glad if thou 
couldst come over and bring those steps with thee that thou brought from 
Dover." Steps were something used in the manufacture of silk. Mother 
said that he used often say, "I wouldn't give a fig for a man that couldn't 
find some fault where there is none." 

My great-grandmother, Hannah Booth, was a Welsh woman. In that 
day they used the "thee" and "thou" as the Quakers do. 

.56 Before the Manifesto 

Grandfather and Grandmother Godwin 
My Grandfather [William] Godwin was born in Warwickshire, England. 
He married Hannah Booth [Godwin], daughter of Josiah and Hannah 
Booth. To them were born a daughter, Mary [Godwin], and two sons, 
Samuel [Godwin] and Joseph [Godwin]. 

My Grandfather and Grandmother Godwin were highly moral and 
very devotional and desired to bring up their children in the nurture and 
admonition of the Lord. 

I remember mother saying she had seen her father coaxing her 
youngest brother to walk across the floor by offering him some cakes. 

When my grandfather Godwin was upon his death bed and too weak 
to speak he clasped my grandmothers hand and pressed the finger bear- 
ing her wedding ring. By this she understood that he wished her never 
to marry again. She kept her marriage vow sacred in her widowhood as 
she had done in her married life and so reared her three children in the 
purity of devotional widowhood. 


My father, William Gibson Walker, was the eldest child of James Walker 
and Elizabeth Walker. I remember hearing little or nothing of his early 
life, except that, being the eldest of the children, he was quite useful in 
helping his mother about the house. 

When he was about 27 years old he married my mother, Mary 
Godwin, and to them were born four children, as follows; — Ann Agatha 
[Walker] , Dorcas [Walker] , Charles Lowell [Walker] , and Mary Lois. 

My father was about medium height and constitutionally healthy. 
He had black hair, dark eyes, large high forehead, well marked arched 
eyebrows, a somewhat nondescript nose, rather thick lips, white regular, 
sound teeth and very shapely hands and feet. His chin was as nearly like 
that of Henry Ward Beecher as one can be like another. 

Father was naturally religious and intellectual and was fond of 
books. These he took great care of and often repaired them very neatiy 
himself. I remember when only six years old hearing him repeat passages 
from works of elocution. He was quite original and had a strong vein of 
wit and humor in his character. He had a very effective way of humiliating 
the proud and ostentatious but loved to help those in distress. 

Father was a natural teacher and earned a living in this way and also 
by book-keeping, altho he had learned the ribbon weaving trade when a 
young man. While working at this trade, in lifting something he sustained 
an internal injury which necessitated his following such occupations as 
would not tax his physical strength so much. He was also quite handy with 

Sketch of the Life of Mary L. Morris 57 

carpenters tools. 

He was a local preacher when a young man, and a member of the 
Wesleyan Methodist Church. I am told by my friend, Mrs. John Druce of 
Salt Lake City, that father afterwards joined the Congregational Church 
and that it was at the Sunday School of this Church that they met and 
father asked her if she had heard of the "Golden Bible", for such was the 
Book of Mormon called out in the world in the early forties. She also told 
me that he remained and helped them in the Sunday School after he had 
joined the Mormon Church. 

Perhaps I may be pardoned for saying that those who had father's 
help in the Sunday School were fortunate, for he was a natural teacher, a 
good theologian, and had some knowledge of Latin and Greek. 

He was engaged to teach an Infant School for a religious sect called 
the "Independents". 

The following incidents will serve to show my father's method of 
correcting and teaching his children. These lessons I think I shall never 
forget: — 

A Lesson 
When I was about six years old I had told a falsehood, altho I have no 
idea now what it was about. Father took me upstairs to mother's bed- 
room and there, in a very serious and impressive way, he simply asked 
me this question; "Is it right or wrong to tell a lie?" Being alone with my 
father, face to face with him, and I in error, I was very much abashed, 
and it seemed a long time before I could gain sufficient courage to 
answer him. He asked me the question repeatedly arid at length I told 
him"it was wrong". That was all there was about it, there was no scolding 
or whipping. I had answered his question, had decided myself what was 
right, and was at liberty to go down stairs, taking with me my life long 

Another Lesson in Later Life 
Upon one occasion, during the summer of 1851, while conversing with 
my father upon a very important subject, he made this remark; — "The 
Lord has said, 'Those who honor Me I will honor". This I have proven 
to be verily true in my life's experience, and will add, that, when God 
honors us we need fear no man or set of men. 

Father wrote very rapidly, and perhaps, somewhat illegibly, for 
mother has told me that his father once said when father was leaving 
Leek: — "If our Will writes to us, he must come and read it himself !" He 
made his own pens from quills. More will be found of my father's life at 
the end of this sketch. 

58 Before the Manifesto 

My Mother Mary Godwin 

As before stated, my mother was reared by her grandparents, Josiah and 
Hannah Booth. 

She read the newspaper for her grandparents when only five years 
old. She used to tell us that she was allowed to wash the coffee pot when she 
was a very litde child, because her hand was small and was taught to sweep 
the stairs too when she was quite young in order to learn how to sweep. 

During the time that my mother stayed with her grandparents, there 
were two French noblemen lodging with them. These gentlemen were 
prisoners of war, and. from them she learned to speak, read and write the 
French language while yet in her childhood. So correctiy did she speak 
this language, that two Frenchmen with whom she once had a conversa- 
tion, could hardly be convinced that she was not a French woman. 

One of these noblemen, whose name was "de Villiers" had his own 
fun teasing the family about their religion, saying, — "You pray God to 
bless you, and then you throw stones at the others." 

At a proper age mother learned the Milliner's business and in this, 
as in everything else that she did, it was her pride or ambition not to 
be excelled by anyone. By working at her trade she was enabled to assist 
her widowed mother in giving her two brothers their education and 
trade, Samuel becoming a book-keeper and Joseph being apprenticed to 
a butcher. It was customary then, as now, for everybody to learn some 
trade, generally serving an apprentice-ship of seven years. When our 
mother, Miss Mary Godwin was about twenty-seven years old she married 
our father, William Gibson Walker. 

She was rather below medium height, and although inclined to be 
corpulent was very shapely, had a full chest, drooping shoulders, small 
hands and feet, arms white and dimpled like a baby's. Her complexion 
was fair and ruddy, hair brown, always parted in the center and combed 
smoothly down to the ears; high broad forehead; pensive grey eyes that 
seemed to look far into the future. Her nose was rather large and digni- 
fied her mouth small with rather thin lips. 

Her manner was quiet, modest and unassuming, grave but affa- 
ble and generous. She was highly intellectual, very devotional, with 
unbounded trust in her Maker and of unswerving integrity. Father said 
of her "If she had been a man she would have been a master mechanic." 
She had a constant thirst for knowledge, and while many people would 
have been engaged in gossip and light talk she was delving into some 
philosophical subject or valuable historical work. She could converse on 
almost any topic and had the happy faculty of adapting herself to the 
most humble and unlearned. She always sympathized deeply with the 
poor and afflicted. Nothing could exceed her patience fortitude and 

Sketch of the Life of Mary L. Morris 59 

indomitable perseverance. I have thought sometimes, in looking over 
mother's life, that she was patient to a fault, and then, I have concluded 
that she needed all of that great quality which Heaven had endowed her 

The relation of a little incident on landing in America will serve 
to show what a fund of information she possessed. It was a warm day in 
May and we had just landed at the St. Louis Levee, on the Missouri river, 
dressed suitably for the more temperate climate of England, but rather 
too warmly clad for a May day in St. Louis. The heat seemed almost 
oppressive to us as we walked up from the Levee. A glib-tongued Irish 
drayman saw us approaching and as we drew near he accosted mother 
and said "Sure, Mum, and you'r not long from the Auld Counthry!" She, 
with injured dignity at the man's audacity, turned and remarked to me, a 
girl at her side, as we passed along, "If they (meaning the Americans) are 
not English, they may take their father's blanket." meaning, that if they 
were not of European descent they must be Indians. I have thought many 
times, during the fifty-two years that have passed since that, how much 
ground those few words covered. 

A few days later an intelligent Irishman, with whom she had been 
conversing in a neighbors house, made this remark of her after she had 
left; — "If most people knew what that lady has forgotten they would be 

The following July, as we heard the constant booming of cannon in 
celebration of the national holiday she said that all that firing was against 
the English. 

Some of Mother's Familiar Quotations and Sayings 
Here are some of mother's familiar quotations and sayings as she would 
repeat them to us in her daily walk and conversation. When passing 
through severe trial she would say, and we knew the words came from the 
bottom of her big heart: — "And though He should slay me, yet will I trust 
in Him."— Job 13-15. 

"Let thy neighbour live quietiy by thee." 

"Suffer wrong rather then do wrong". 

"Do not lie by your actions." 

"Let your conversation be such as becometh angels." 

"Thou shalt not kill." 

"Thou shalt not steal." 

"Thou shalt not commit adultery." 

"Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbour." 

"Thou shalt not covet." 

"Whatever thy hand findeth to do, do it with all thy might." 

"Blessed is he, who, when his Lord cometh, is found watching." 

60 Before the Manifesto 

She taught us, when working for others, not to do so with eye- 
service, as men pleasers, but as unto God. 

In regard to intoxicants she would say; — "Touch not, taste not, han- 
dle not, the unclean thing." 

In reference to our attire she would quote from St. Paul, "Not 
adorned with gold nor pearls, nor costly apparel, but with shame-faced- 
ness". Beauty unadorned, is adorned the most." 

Another of her favorite sayings was, "Whatever you do, do it so that 
no one can mend it or better it." and "As you would that men should do 
unto you, do ye even so unto them in like circumstances." 

We were taught to name the name of Diety with care and solemnity, 
to hold our persons as sacred as the Bible and our virtue dearer than life. 

She taught us never to murmur and cited us the experience of the 
Children of Israel in their travels through the wilderness to show the 
result of murmuring, saying that when they murmured the Lord was dis- 
pleased with them and they did not prosper. 

She would say, and it was a safe guide; — "Whatever you hear me say, 
you may say with safety." 

When we went to bed at night we were taught to repeat this little 

"In the dark where children sleep 

In the room to hear their prayer, 
God will all good children keep, 

God is here and everywhere." 

I never remember hearing mother laugh aloud, but she would 
laugh till she shook, then removing her glasses from her eyes she would 
wipe away the tears. 

Mother wrote an English running hand, and often wrote letters for 
those who were unable to do so for themselves, for in those days many 
people had not enjoyed the educational advantages that she had. A gen- 
tleman once remarked as he saw her write, that hers was the pen of a 
ready writer. Following is a specimen of her handwriting; 

Here is the Phrenological chart of my mother, taken March 30, 
1841, by William Bally. 1 She was then 43 years of age. 

Phrenology, the study of the skull's structure to determine a person's character and 
mental capacity, is based upon the false assumption that mental faculties are located on 
the surface of the brain and can be detected by visible inspection of the skull. 

Sketch of the Life of Mary L. Morris 

Phrenological Chart of Mary Godwin Walker 


Method of Marking: 

Small. Moderate. Full. 

Rather Large. Large. Very 


1 2 3 

4 5 6 

The Cerebral Development of Mary Godwin Walker 

The Animal Feelings 

19 Hope 


1 Amativeness Size 


20 Marvelousness size 


2 Philoprogenitiveness 


21 Ideality 


3 Inhabitiveness 


22 Wit or Mirthfulness 


5 Adhesiveness 


23 Imitation 


5 Combativeness 


6 Destructiveness 


The Intellectual Powers 

7 Secretiveness 


24 Individuality 


8 Acquisitiveness 


25 Configuration or Form 


9 Constructiveness 


26 Size 


10 Alimentiveness 


27 Weight and resistance 


11 Love of Life 


28 Coloring 


12 Self Esteem 


29 Locality 


13 Love of Approbation 


30 Calculation 


14 Catiousness 


31 Order 


32 Eventuality 


The Moral Sentiments 

33 Time 


15 Benevolence 


34 Tune or Melody 


16 Veneration 


35 Language 


17 Firmness 


36 Comparison 


18 Conscientiousness 


37 Casuality 


General Size of the Head — Anterior lobe, — large. Coronal region above 
Cautiousness, — rather large. Ditto, above Causality, — very large. Region 
of Animan Propensities, — rather large in the middle lobe, very large, pos- 
terior lobe. Subject has more moral courage than animal courage. 

(Phrenological Chart, — continued) 

Of the Temperment. The individual possesses; 
1 part of the Lymphatic. 

1 " " " Sanguine. 
" " " Billious. 

2 " " " Nervous. 


Before the Manifesto 

Mary Lois 's older brother 

Charles Lowell Walker 

(1832-1904), a poet who 

resided for much of his life 

in St. George, Utah. 

My parents had four children, of whom I was the youngest. My old- 
est sister, Ann Agatha, was born July 11, 1829. She emigrated to America 
about 1846 and later became the wife of Aposde Parley P. [Parker] Pratt. 
She died in Ogden June 25, 1908. 

My sister Dorcas was born in 1831 and died when about twelve years 
of age in Pendelton, Lancashire, England. 

My brother, Charles Lowell Walker was born in 1832. He emigrated 
to St. Louis about 1848, meeting the rest of the family when we arrived in 
May, 1950. As he had been apprenticed to the Black-smith's trade he did 
not proceed to Utah till a year or two later. About 1861 he married Miss 
Abigale Middlemast [Abigail Middlemass Walker] and they resided in the 
Sixth Ward, Salt Lake City. He died in January 1904. 

My Own Life 

My Own Life 
I was born on the 14th of May, 1835, in the town of Leek, Staffordshire, 
England. The house was situated on Derby Street which seemed to be the 
main street of the town. The house was two or three stories high, I rather 
think three. My mother's bed room where I was born, was directly over 
her millinery shop. It was well furnished in solid mahogany, the chairs 
upholstered in black horse-hair. An old fashioned four-post bedstead, 

Sketch of the Life of Mary L. Morris 63 

with hangings above and below of white dimity, edged with a two inch 
wide pale blue worsted braid. I remember these hangings quite distincdy 
and how soft and pretty I used to think the cords of cloth were. 

On my 70th birthday, my sister Agatha wrote me a very pretty 
account of my birth and described the surroundings at that time, how 
my mother was dressed, how the room was furnished and her feelings as 
a child of six years, etc. etc. Altho so young she had made a little soft cap 
for me all by hand. It was the custom in those days in England for young 
babies to wear these tiny caps. 

NOTE: (In the confusion of the birthday party, this letter was mislaid. — 
should it be found it should be inserted here.) 

(Space left for insertion of Mrs. Agatha Pratt's letter, if found.) 

Birth and Childhood 
My Mother at the time of my birth, was doing a large millinery business, 
keeping apprentices and journey-women, as those who had learned their 
trade were called. This necessitated keeping help in the house as well as a 
nurse for the children. 

The first thing I remember, (I think I was not quite two years old) 
was seeing my Grandmother Godwin as she lay dead. Her head was to my 
right hand as I stood by the bed looking at her. 

We Move to Manchester 
After Grandmother Godwin's death we moved from our native town of 
Leek, to the city of Manchester, a large cotton manufacturing center. It was 
while here that the second event that I distinctly remember occurred: — 
the wearing of a little "Coronation pinafore" or apron made of a calico 
printed in honor of the coronation of Queen Victoria, which occurred a 
month after my second birthday, — -June 1837. 2 This calico was white with 
small sprays of tiny pink flowers and small black leaves, edged with red. 
This pattern is as distinct in my mind as if I had worn it but yesterday. 

(I find that the date, as I remember it, corresponds exactly with the 
date, fifty years later, when the Kings and Queens of the world met to cel- 
ebrate the Jubilee of Her Majesty, Queen Victoria. The year 1837 was also 
the year that the Gospel was taken to England.) 

Another incident about this time made a lasting impression on 

Queen Victoria (1819-1901) became Queen of Britain on June 20, 1837, when her 
uncle Edward IV died. While Mary Lois remembered Victoria's coronation taking place 
in June 1837, it was actually not held until June 28, 1838. Victoria reigned for almost 
sixty-three years, until her death in January 1901. Ronald Allison and Sarah Riddell, 
eds., The Royal Encyclopedia, 553-58. 

64 Before the Manifesto 

my mind. A young woman, named Amelia Babbington, had been left in 
charge of us children while father and mother went out for the evening, 
but unfaithful to the trust reposed in her, went out with a soldier who had 
called to see her, leaving us four litde children alone, the eldest, Agatha, 
being only eight years old and I but two years. 

During the evening I needed to go out, so my sister, Agatha, good 
little girl as she was, went with me, carrying a candle in her hand to light 
us, which she set down so near to me that as I stooped over, the oil silk 
cap which I wore on my head caught fire. Noticing the flame above me 
I exclaimed "Eh, what a nice blaze!" My sister, young as she was took in 
the situation at a glance, and had the presence of mind to clap her hand 
over the 'nice blaze' and so saved my life. I carry the scar on my forehead 
to this day, but it is covered by my hair, combing it as I do. This same 
girl proved afterwards to be dishonest, but mother on finding it out, con- 
cluded to simply dismiss her, rather than prosecute her. 

Associated with this period is a pleasant picture of our home on a 
Sunday afternoon. In the cozy kitchen, with white stone floor, mother sat 
in a chair in the corner, with her little ones gathered around her while 
she lovingly told them Bible stories. I can, in my mind, see her as she told 
of Joseph, who was sold into Egypt; of David and Jonathan; and I remem- 
ber now the impression that the passage in Samuel with reference to Saul 
the disobedient king, made upon my mind, — "Obedience is better than 
sacrifice, and to harken than the fat of rams." 

As I recall these precious truths, taught me in my infancy and even 
on to mature years, I bless my God that I was sent to parents who taught 
me in His ways and I feel thankful that their parents, in turn and their 
parents' parents taught them as they taught me. 

When I contemplate the state of the world today and read accounts 
of crimes committed by mere infants as well as by persons from youth to 
old age, more and more precious grow these truths taught me by precept 
and example, which if I continue to follow willlead me to life eternal. I 
esteem them above all learning and wealth of the world. 

When I was four years old I attended the Jackson Lane Infant School, 
taught by my father. I remember going one morning with my sister Dorcas 
who was a cripple, (rendered so as a result of an attack of measles) and 
some one asked me as we were walking along 'what was the matter with 
my sister?' Altho I was but four years old at the time I was well aware 
that better English was spoken in our home than in the homes of most 
working people, so fearing that the person asking the question might not 
know what "spinal" meant, I added "in her back" for her instruction. 

Another morning I well remember, when someone asked me how 
old I was, answering "I am four years old". 

How well I remember the little soft blue pilot cloth cloak which I 

Sketch of the Life of Mary L. Morris 65 

wore at this school. It was trimmed with black silk velvet of excellent qual- 
ity, and fastened at the neck with a clasp made to represent a butterfly or 
insect, the two parts connected by a chain which regulated the size of the 

This Jackson Lane school room was long and lofty, with a gallery at 
one end where the seats were arranged one tier above another from the 
floor to the ceiling. It was arranged in this way so that every child could 
see and hear the teacher as he gave them their lessons. 

The opening exercises consisted of singing and prayer, then singing 
again. Then followed motion songs, until we would be all of a glow with 
the healthful exertion. We would march to the following song: — 

We will march round the room 

Forming square and pretty lines 

And nicely keeping time with our feet 

And our teacher, if we're good, will say 

March away, march away, march away 

We'll march to our places 

And make no wry faces 

And make allour motions so quiet and slow 

For if we don't do it, our teacher willknow it. 

And into the corner we surely shall go. 

Then when the large audience of children were seated in the gallery 
before the master, he would give us lessons from the Bible, Natural 
History and simple Arithmetic, using for the latter study an abacus, a 
small wooden frame with balls of white wood threaded on wire from one 
side of the frame to the other. Then we learned the names of geometri- 
cal lines, Geography, simple lessons in Mineralogy and Chemistry. These 
were presented as object lessons. Father would present the object before 
the class and supposing it to be wood, cotton, a feather, coal hay iron, 
silk or any other object, we were expected to tell him to which kingdom 
(Mineral, Animal or Vegetable) it belonged. I can see him now, as he 
stood before his pupils, very much interested in his work, the children lis- 
tening attentively, for he expected them to be so still that he could hear a 
pin drop while he talked. He gave us plenty of chance for exercise so that 
we could sit still at our lessons 

I think our first home in Manchester was in Rusham Street. I fancy 
it was while here that a woman used to pass along the Street with a basket 
on her head crying "Pale Mushrooms, pale mushrooms". She had a very 
sweet voice and if I knew something of writing music I could give the tune 
exactly as she did. My sister has told me that I used to imitate her in my 

66 Before the Manifesto 

baby way and cry " Pale mush-a-moons, pale mush-a-moons", she contin- 
ued "and your voice was so sweet that it made mother weep." 

When I was about six years old we were living at No. 17 Stanly Street, 
Manchester. This was a very respectable street. The houses were of brick 
with brown stone steps leading to the front doors, smooth stone sidewalks 
and well paved street. Here I really enjoyed my play very much. It would 
Hop-scotch on the smooth pavement or Bobber and Kibbs on the stone 
steps. The Bobber was a marble about the size of a walnut, gaily colored 
when new, but the paint soon wore off. This marble would readily bounce 
on the hard stone steps. The kibbs were small smooth white bones, about 
an inch long, five in number, taken from the foot of a pig. The game con- 
sisted in bouncing the marble on the steps, then quickly picking up one of 
the litde bones and be ready to catch the marble as it came down again. 

We could play out of doors until nine or ten o'clock in the evening 
during the summer as the twilight was so long. I remember having seen 
the sun set and hearing the town clock strike nine. Then we would have 
daylight again at three in the morning. It was while we lived in this house 
that the following incident occurred. 

I was washing some doll's clothes one day in a large earthen-ware 
bowl, called a "jowl" which the English people used as we use wash tubs. It 
was about the size of a large milk pan at the bottom and of a tub at the top. 
It was made of smooth red earthen-ware ribbed like a wash board inside, 
and glazed like a plate tile the outside was smooth but not glazed. I was so 
small that I could hardly reach the bowl as it stood on a chair or bench, 
so in my effort to do so I tipped it over on the stone floor and broke it. I 
fully expected to be punished for this accident as it was quite a loss to my 
mother, but to my great surprise and relief, not a word was said. 

I think this treatment has caused me to be lenient to others in case 
of accident, always discriminating between accident and carelessness. 

I remember one bright Sabbath morning going to Sunday School 
through the snow. I had on a new red dress, a white wool or sheep's skin muff 
and a tiny neck piece tied under the chin with a ribbon bow, a white straw or 
tuscan bonnet trimmed with red ribbon, the same shade as the dress. This 
ribbon was put on in two twisted bands around the crown of the bonnet 
finished with a rosette about three inches across. Mother had trimmed it for 
me and I remember how I enjoyed the contrast of the snow and my white 
muff with the red dress. There is a great fascination for children in colors. 

Next door to us lived a Mrs. Hollies, a very refined Irish lady who 
taught a private school in her own home which I attended. In the morn- 
ing we had lessons but in the afternoon, after a short reading exercise, we 
had sewing. The litde reader we used was a sort of pamphlet of twenty-five 
or thirty pages. I think one of the first lessons was taken from the first 
chapter of John: — "In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was 

Sketch of the Life of Mary L. Morris 67 

with God, and the Word was God, etc.," One afternoon I received a tin 
ticket for hemming a sheet across in one afternoon. A certain number 
of these tickets would win a prize. I also made a common shirt for my 
brother while attending this school. It was made of unbleached cloth with 
cuffs and collar of coarse butcher's linen. These cuffs and collar were 
trimmed with hand stitching. A thread of the cloth was drawn out, the 
needle inserted and two threads taken up. The needle was then inserted 
back of the two threads and brought out again two threads further on. 
When finished it looked very like the machine stitching of today. 

I remember, very distinctly, attending meetings in the chapel of the 
Primitive, or Wesleyan, Methodists, to which church my parents belonged. 
We were taught to be very quiet and to look at the preacher. One Sunday 
morning, I know, I fell asleep and had a cozy little nap. I remember being 
seated in the gallery, to the right of the preacher, whose name was Mr. 
Gwither, a nice looking gentleman with dark hair, high forehead, fair skin, 
rosy cheeks and pleasant manners. On the wall, immediately behind the 
preacher, was a round light space, about three feet in diameter, forming a 
sort of light background for the head and shoulders of the preacher, and 
suggestive to me of a halo. I rather liked this, he being a holy man. 

I remember, when attending church one Sunday evening with father, 
a gentleman at the door asking me if I would not like to come and live 
with him, promising me all sorts of nice things as inducements, and trying 
to make a bargain with father for me, but I could not just see the point. 

I attended a sectarian Sunday School; not the bright cheerful place 
that we enjoy meeting in today, and there receiving a small card with a 
passage of scripture upon it, and how ashamed I felt because I could not 
read, although I was but an infant. 

When I was about seven years old mother took me with her to our 
native town of Leek, to visit our relatives. This is the only time that I 
remember mother leaving home, so it was a great event, and a very happy 
one to me as I was to accompany her. The dress I wore was a fawn colored 
cashmere. It seemed so soft and smooth, just as material feels when it has 
been beautifully washed and pressed and had that peculiar odor or freshly 
washed wool. I know mother fitted me out quite nicely as she made, or 
made over, clothes very neady. Several incidents of this visit are stilldis- 
tincdy remembered by me. One was, spending the evening with my cousin 
Robert Godwin and his sister Eliza. On the evening referred to, Uncle 
Joseph,Aunt Eliza and mother must have been out visiting, or spending 
the evening with relatives, for she had not seen them for many years. Any 
way, we three cousins, who were delighted with the novelty of each other's 
acquaintance, sat by the fire telling stories. I think cousin Robert, as he 
was the eldest, told the stories, and one, I remember was "Blue-beard". 

There was occasion for an errand out of doors, and my cousin 

68 Before the Manifesto 

Eliza wanted me to go with her, but Robert, with affectionate gallantry, 
suggested that the night air might not be good for me. 

While upon this visit we called to see Doctor and Mrs Cooper and 
spent the afternoon and dined with them. Mrs. Cooper was a very amiable 
and intelligent lady and a dear friend of my mother's. I remember play- 
ing in the lovely dining room with their beautiful little boys and jumping 
off the sofa a time or two. Mrs Cooper was such a quiet refined, generous 
lady! I remember seeing a little work bag hanging near the window. It was 
made of white cloth and had a landscape design upon it, drawn by Mrs. 
Cooper, which was proof that she was an educated person as in those days 
drawing was not taught, except in the higher class schools or by private 
teachers. Dr. Richard Cooper, her husband, was our family physician, and 
he, thinking I might be my mother's last child, would accept no fee, but 
presented me to her. 

While accompanying mother, one Sunday afternoon to visit some 
friends, we met my nurse, Grace Lummus. It seemed to me quite an event 
to meet the person who had attended me when I was a baby. 

Receiving the Gospel. Aunt Agatha 's Recital 
My sister, your Aunt Agatha, furnished me with the following facts with 
reference to our receiving the Gospel. She said. — "Mother was away for 
a short time and Aunt Kate who was a devout Methodist, was staying with 
us. At that time I could not have been more than eleven or twelve years 
old. Aunt Kate asked me if I had been converted or had experienced reli- 
gion. I told her I had not. She asked me if I did not know that if I did not 
become converted and tell the Lord that I was the chief of sinners and 
ask him to take away my heart of stone and give me a heart of flesh, that 
I should go to the lake of fire and brimstone and be condemned forever. 
Now this was an awful thing to tell a child and my own common sense 
revolted from such an idea. 

I replied "Aunt Kate, I could not tell the Lord such a thing, for I am 
not the chief of sinners, I do not tell falsehoods or say wicked words and I 
have not a heart of stone because I love my parents and fear and love the 
Lord". "Well", she said, "you will have to tell the Lord so or your fate will 
be as I have said". 

"Now", aunt Agatha continued, "this set me thinking very seriously 
and troubled me a good deal, so when mother came home I told her what 
Aunt Kate had said. Mother replied, "Be a good child, and when you are 
older you will know what to do." But this did not satisfy me. Shordy after we 
moved to Pendleton. 3 Father, as you know was a local preacher and took 

3. Pendleton, England, was located two and a half miles northwest of Manchester and had 
about 11,032 inhabitants in 1845. Its major industries were cotton and flax mills and 

Sketch of the Life of Mary L. Morris 69 

me with him one Sunday when he went to preach in a little church near by. 
A young man, named William Hardman walked home with us, and when 
we were about to separate, he asked father if he had heard of these people 
called Mormons who have a golden Bible and preach the same doctrines 
that our Savior taught. "They speak with new tongues", he said, "and do as 
Christ charged His aposdes to do before He ascended to Heaven." Father 
said he had not heard of them but would like to meet some of them. 

The Latter Day Saints were holding their meetings at this time in 
a cellar or basement of a building in Oldham Road. Father went to hear 
them and attended several meetings before he took me. He used to go 
early and sit upon the stairs, where he would not be seen on account of 
his being an officer in the church to which he belonged. 

I do not know how many times he heard them before he became 
convinced of the truth, but this I know, the very first time that he took 
me (they were holding meetings in Poland Street by this time) I drank in 
every word; — it was like pure water to the thirsty, food to the famished; it 
satisfied my whole being. I thought, "This is reasonable, tangible, it tells 
me what to do and how to do it. I knew the first principles they taught 
were true, and I have known it ever since. 

I said to father, — 'Why do you not join the Mormons, you know that 
what they teach is true?' His only reply was, "Humph, what does a child 
like you know about it?" I said, "Well, I know it is true." 

At another time, when we were going home from meeting, father 
said, — "If I were to join them I should lose my position". He was then 
teaching school in Jackson Lane, in a room adjoining an Independent 
chapel owned by the church that kept the school. He received a small sal- 
ary from the church funds and the children each paid a little every week, 
and besides this he taught a Sunday School, for which he was paid. Some 
time after this the church made some improvements in their chapel, built 
a new organ, etc., which caused them some financial embarrassment and 
they were therefore obliged to close the school, thus depriving father of 
this employment. 

When he came home and told us, my first words were, — "Now you 
can join the Mormons". All he said was, — "Humph." But he did join them 
and was ordained to the office of an elder at the water's edge (if I remem- 
ber right) and was sent to labor in Hull, Yorkshire." 4 

I must say, injustice to father, that he was a faithful laborer in the 
ministry and enjoyed the gifts of the Gospel to a great degree, especially 
the gift of healing. 

the manufacture of silk. It had churches of the Independent, Wesleyan, and Methodist 
persuasions. Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England, 3:526. 

Hull, Yorkshire (also known as Kingston-Upon-Hull) , was a seaport and borough located 
170 miles north of London. Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England, 2:673-78. 

70 Before the Manifesto 

My Sister Dorcas 
Some time after we joined the Church, two elders, one named Sands, 
were brought to our home. They came for the purpose of administering 
to my sister Dorcas, who had been a cripple for about eleven years, as the 
result of an attack of measles. She walked with her hand on her knee. 
After the administration of the elders she began to improve, and would 
straighten herself against the door every day, until before her death she 
could stand almost erect. Her death, which occurred about 1842,was a 
result of typhoid fever, which was a great trial to my dear mother. 

Although I did not know it at the time, , being only about seven 
years old, my sister has told me since that father had very grave fears for 
mother after Dorcas' death, though we never remember to have heard a 
murmur pass her lips. Agatha says that father was always anxious to have 
me accompany mother everywhere she went in order to divert her mind a 
litde from her great bereavement. 

Dorcas, being a delicate, nervous child, extremely sensitive and a 
cripple, had would herself around the tenderest cords of my mother's 
heart. She was of fair complexion, rather dark red hair and blue eues. 
She had very quick perceptive powers and nimble fingers. She would 
make very pretty doll's bonnets of straw (hats were not worn in those 
days, except with riding habits or as sunshades, wide brimmed.) 

When I was a child, there was a saying that to dream of a wedding 
was a sure sign of a death in the family. I dreamed of a wedding and 
thought that I must be in attendance but I had to borrow a dress to wear. 
My sister died soon after, and strange as it may seem, I had to wear a bor- 
rowed dress at the funeral, my own not being finished. I remember also 
that it was a blue black instead of a jet black, as is usually the custom for 
mourning. Our bonnets were what was called "draw bonnets" made of a 
sort of corded lawn, shirred. I remember them distincdy, although it is 
more than sixty years ago. In spite of the fact that we were only litde chil- 
dren and the day warm, for it was in June, we were dressed all in black, as 
was the custom then. 

People used also to believe that to see a "winding sheet" in the can- 
dle was another sign of death. This winding sheet was caused by the wax 
or tallow of the candle melting, and running down the side of the candle 
in fine flutings or crinkled sort of ribbon. We noticed a winding sheet in 
the candle one night, shortly before our sister's death, and it seemed to 
point in the direction in which she was sitting. 

In those days, they did not dress people for burial as we do now, 
but instead, a finely pleated shroud, or winding sheet was placed over 
the body. It was made of soft white woolen goods, called Domet, and was 
laid in pleats an inch wide from the neck to the waist and finished at 
the neck with a white ribbon. Mother's own nimble fingers arranged the 

Sketch of the Life of Mary L. Morris 71 

soft regular pleats of the shroud of her treasured one. The remains were 
tenderly laid to rest in the Brunswick Chapel Cemetery in the village of 
Pendleton, near the city of Manchester, England. Sweet rest to her dear 

When upon her deathbed, Dorcas asked my sister Agatha to be bap- 
tized for her. All matters of this nature have been attended to. 5 

Altho her death was a sore trial we have lived to acknowledge the 
hand of the Lord in it. With her frail constitution, she could have never 
endured the trials and privations that we afterwards passed through in 
crossing the plains and in our pioneer life for many years after we reached 
the valley. 

Results of Obeying the Gospel 
Shortly after my father joined the Church, a gendeman by the name of 
John Banks, residing in London and a prominent elder in the branch 
there, wrote to my father as follows: — "Elder Walker, why teach children 
the alphabet, why not teach men and women the words of Eternal Life?" 
This remark led to my father being called on a mission a few months later. 

When my mother was consulted, she said; — "If the Lord wants him, 
I will not with-hold him". 

As I recall these words of my mother my heart is touched, as I am a 
witness of what ie meant. This simple reply showed the guiding principle 
of my dear mother's life, — self sacrifice, and unswerving devotion to God 
and to those around her. 

Father's Mission 
I was almost nine years old at this time and father continued in the minis- 
try until I was between fourteen and fifteen years old. During this period 
of about six years we passed through much privation and all struggled for 
the necessaries of life. 

When I was nine years old my father took me with him to visit some 
of the Saints in Cheshire, the Conference in which he was laboring as a 
traveling elder. 6 It was very pleasant for me to meet with these humble 
people, who loved and revered my father so much. 

One day I went to a farm house to buy some buttermilk for the lady 

The baptism for the dead for Dorcas Walker was completed on June 23, 1869, in the Salt 
Lake Endowment House. Dorcas's endowments were completed on June 13, 1877, in 
the St. George Temple; and she was sealed to her parents on August 23, 1894, in the Salt 
Lake Temple. International Genealogical Index, Family History Library (hereinafter 
cited as IGI). 

Cheshire, England, a county in northwest England bordering the Irish Sea, included 
about 1,052 square miles and approximately 334,391 inhabitants in 1840. Lewis, A 
Topographical Dictionary of England, 1:512—16. 

72 Before the Manifesto 

with whom we were staying. The bucket was as large as an ordinary water 
bucket and far too heavy for a child to carry, and on my way back I upset 
the buttermilk. "Oh, what shall I do?" I thought. Remembering that I had 
a few coppers, I returned with the best grace I could and presented myself 
to Mrs. Bessie Williams, my kind hostess with the empty bucket and what 
money I had. She only smiled at my anxiety to make good my misfortune 
and refused to take my litde stock of half-pence. I think the buttermilk 
only cost two cents. 

While staying with this good family, we held Sacrament Meetings 
every Sunday afternoon. Sometimes there would be only six or seven per- 
sons present, — Bro. Geo. Williams and wife and their two children Tom 
and Emma, myself, and Bro. Thomas Naylor and his wife, Mary [Clayton 
Naylor] . This Bro. Naylor was a brother of William Naylor of the Old 
Folks Committee of Salt Lake City. 

The Spirit of God was with us and we had happy times in that 
humble cottage on a Sunday afternoon. 

Sometimes, after the meeting I had to confess that I had quenched 
the spirit of testimony that burned within my breast, and Sister Williams 
would say, — "The angels of the Lord will go up and say, 'There's no testi- 
mony from Polly today.'" Polly was their pet name for me. 

While still upon this visit to Cheshire my father took me to stay with 
a family named Wright, who lived in a little town called Crew. Mrs. [Ruth 
Nephewson] Wright had already embraced the Gospel some time pre- 
viously, but Mr. [Henry] Wright had only just been baptized by father. 
This new convert being a night watchman, father arranged one day for a 
meeting to be held at his home at 9 a.m. There were present at this meet- 
ing besides Bro. and Sister Wright and ourselves, their only daughter, 
Annie [Ann Neveson Wright Naylor] (now Mrs. William Naylor) a Sister 
Webster, who had recently been baptized and her young son. I was seated 
in an infant chair by the side of my father, and soon after our meeting was 
opened I felt impressed that Sister Webster had something to say. Being 
so young, I had not the courage to rise and express myself as moved upon. 
Then the spirit left me and rested upon my father, who arose and stated 
that he felt Sister Webster had a testimony to bear. She arose and bore 
a strong testimony, which confirmed our impressions. This incident has 
always been a pleasant recollection of my childhood and a satisfaction to 
me to have had this manifestation while still so young. I believe I was so 
prompted for her encouragement. 

I never met this sister again until I had reached middle age and was 
pleased to find upon that occasion, that she had a distinct recollection of 
this little incident. 

In after life Mrs. William Naylor, before mentioned, told me that 
I preached the Gospel to her when we were children together at her 

Sketch of the Life of Mary L. Morris 73 

father's house, although I was not aware at the time of the effect of my 

About three years after this I was again invited to visit at Bro. 
William's home and this time had the opportunity of attending school. 
The head girls of the school were Ester Bisbrown and Esther Cleghorn. 
I liked my teacher, who was a very quiet, unassuming gentleman, and 
adapted to his profession. At this time I had pleasure in the Gospel and 
enjoyed attending meetings. Elder Lyman, Omer Littlefield was laboring 
in this, the Overlane, Cheshire district. I well remember how powerfully 
he spoke and how joyfully my heart responded to his inspired words as I 
sat and listened to him in those humble cottage meetings. I remember 
very distinctly an expression Brother Litdefield made as he stood by the 
fireplace in that humble home of Bro. Williams in Overlane. He said; — "I 
have not come eight thousand miles on a foolish errand", having come 
from America. 

You will notice that the initial letters of this brother's name were 
L.O. and he once told us that the Prophet Joseph [Smith] would greet 
him with, "L.O. Litdefield!" thus making a pun of his initials. He was in 
the prime of life at this time, and when I heard of his laboring in the 
Logan Temple in his advanced years I should have liked to have met him 
and talked over this period in his life, while he was laboring in England. 
This Bro. Littlefield was the author of a book called "The Martyrs" which 
dealt with the martyrs of our own church. 7 

As I have said before, I loved to attend my meetings and would go 
alone and at night, perhaps six or seven blocks, but I was not afraid and 
enjoyed the good Spirit as much as I do now, altho only a child. 

We had the privilege of listening to such men as Elder Serine, Orson 
Spencer, and Apostles Parley P. Pratt, Orson Pratt, John Taylor, and Orson 
Hyde. I remember hearing Orson Pratt give an account of the Great Salt 
Lake Valley. 

In speaking of John Taylor, father once told us that he said, — "Always 
save a man if you can". This may have been uttered at some council meet- 
ing, or trial at which father was present. 

I remember hearing Parley P. Pratt speak one Sunday evening, and of 
loving the words he said so much that I felt as if I could lay down my life for 
him. I followed the people who crowded round to shake hands with him, 
but it seemed to me that I could not reach out my hand for the world. 8 

Lyman Omer Littlefield, The Martyrs; A Sketch of the Lives and a Full Account of the 
Martyrdom offoseph and Hyrum Smith, Together with a Concise Review of the Most Prominent 
Incidents Connected with the Persecutions of the Saints, from the Time the Church Was Organized 
up to the Year 1846 (Salt Lake City: Juvenile Instructor Office, 1982). 
Parley Parker Pratt (1807-1857) was an apostle in the LDS church from 1835 to 1857. 
Ann Agatha Walker, Mary Lois's sister, was his tenth wife. 

74 Before the Manifesto 

I remember, very distinctly, the 'Joint Stock Co.' trouble and Thomas 
Ward and Reuben Headlock [Hedlock], who were implicated in the 
affair. A few days ago I was told by a very old member of the Manchester 
Conference that the Apostles referred to as visiting our meetings were 
sent over from America to clear up this 'Joint Stock Co.' business. 9 

When these Aposdes returned my sister Agatha emigrated to America. 

Not long after this, in the early 'forties', my brother Charles also 
had an opportunity to emigrate, in company with our dear friends the 
Williams family. He had just begun to work at the blacksmith's trade, and 
Bro. Williams being a blacksmith we thought this a good opening for him. 
They, with many other Saints, settled in St. Louis, until by working they 
could earn means to purchase the necessary outfit to go on to the Valley. 
My brother was very happy with this family and went with Mr. Williams to 
Kentucky for a time, to work at blacksmi thing. 

Mother and I were alone now, as father was stillout preaching the Gospel. 
We suffered many privations. I think one of the most trying times of this 
period was once, when we were without food all day. What made the 
pangs of hunger more intense was the odor of freshly baked bread arising 
from the bakery in the basement of a house adjoining where we lived. 
I have often thought how intensely my dear mother must have suffered 
under these circumstances with her sensitive nature and undying mother 
love. But no murmur escaped her lips. 

In our family prayer she would ask our Heavenly Father to gently 
clear our way and would quote from Proverbs 39th Chapter, 8th verse, 
"Give me neither poverty nor riches, feed me with food," and therewith 
let me be contented, she would add. Father did not receive sufficient 
money to pay our rent and this was another great trial to my mother and 
deeply humiliated her because of her extreme conscienciousness and 
rigid sense of honor. 

In 1846, Reuben Hedlock, the president of the LDS church in the British Isles, and 
Thomas Ward, his counselor, founded a Joint Stock Company in Britain that was 
represented as an "adjunct" to the LDS church. Its purpose was said to be the gathering of 
LDS church members to America and the improvement of church members' economic 
welfare. Mormons were encouraged from the pulpit and in church periodicals to buy 
stock in the company, and a considerable amount of stock was purchased. When LDS 
apostles arrived from America, they demanded an accounting of the company and 
found that of the £1 ,644 of stocks that shareholders had bought, all but £226 had been 
used for traveling and business expenses, leaving no money to be invested. Hedlock 
was excommunicated, and Ward was disfellowshipped and between October 17 and 
19, 1846, the Joint Stock Company was dissolved. Brigham H. Roberts, A Comprehensive 
History of the Church offesus Christ of Latter-day Saints: Century 1, 3:124—28 (hereinafter 
cited as Comp. History) . 

Sketch of the Life of Mary L. Morris 75 

My mother added to our income by her millinery work and it always 
looked as if it had not been touched by human hands. I can see her seated 
with a tuscan bonnet on her lap and in her hands white satin of which she 
was making a dahlia. The flower, when finished, consisted of sixty three 
petals and was about the size of a sauce dish and looked so perfect that it 
did not seem to have been made by any human being. I sat and watched 
her make it and although a child and it is over sixty years ago, I can dis- 
tincdy remember how she did it. 

I used to tease her for something to do and she would give me 
needles to thread, but after these were threaded I would again tease for 
something more to do. Then mother would give me cloth and scissors 
and I would cut out and make doll's clothes. When I had made enouth 
of these I would make tiny bags. In her pleasantry she would call me her 
"Litde woman of forty bags". This tide was prophetic, as my children can 
all testily, for it always seemed to me to be a good way of keeping bedding 
and clothes neat and clean when not in use. 

Another School Attended in Childhood 
When about nine years old I attended a school taught by two Scotch 
ladies, Miss Law and her sister Miss Charlotte Law. The room where the 
classes were held was long, lofty and large, with a gallery at one end for 
the children to sit in while they were being instructed. Upon the walls 
were hung pictures of animals pasted upon smooth white boards. After 
marching around the room we would be seated in the gallery doing nee- 
dle-work or lessons, as the case might be. Here I learned something of 
knitting. We had work pockets about nine inches deep, with two com- 
partments to hold our work, thimble, thread, etc. My pocket was made 
of checked gingham, in red and green, with a tape sewed, to it so that it 
could be tied around the waist, like a little apron. 

I remember these ladies called upon mother and how lovely I thought 
they were and how they seemed to enjoy conversing with her. For a time I 
sat quiedy on a litde stool by the side of one of these ladies and with a pin, 
that I happened to have in my hand, traced the pretty floral pattern on her 
dress, and she, noticing what I was doing, stooped down and kissed me. 
They were very polite and had a way of acquiesing with what mother said 
by bowing their heads and saying "Quite so", and "Just so" in a very precise 
and courteous manner. After a while my brother Charles and I sat under 
the large round table, no doubt hidden from view by the ample corners 
of the table cover, and childlike, we sat and enjoyed silendy mincing their 
courteous "Quite so's" and "Just so's" accompanied with a nod of the head. 

I suppose I must have been very fond of children, judging from 
a remark of my father's. He said; — 'You would nurse children as old as 

76 Before the Manifesto 

The neighbors would often ask mother to let me come over to tend 
the baby. This I was very willing to do, as I had no companion at home of 
my own age to play with. A lady living next door got me to come and help 
her with the baby, but when she found that I was handy with housework 
she put me to that and tended the baby herself. One Sunday afternoon 
I was left alone with the baby and was also told to keep the dinner cook- 

I can see myself now in that basement kitchen (which is not as cheer- 
ful as an upper room) with baby in my arms and the puddings boiling 
dry. I knew that the water on the puddings must be kept boiling and knew 
that, left as they were, they would burn before Mrs. Davis would be home 
from church, so I ventured to add cold water to them (there being sev- 
eral in one pot) and was gready relieved to find they were all right when 
served at dinner. That same evening I had to tend baby again and it cried 
with the colic as a result of the mother eating fresh fruit, but it never 
entered my mind to get out of the difficulty by going home, next door. 

When about twelve years old, my father being still in the mission- 
ary field, I worked again for this same lady. I had all the housework to 
do, besides the washing for the family. On wash day I would have to work 
until bed time to get it all done as I had no washer or wringer, or even a 
washboard to work with, so had to rub and wring every piece by hand and 
at night my hands would smart so that I could not sleep. Being naturally 
diffident I did not always eat all I wanted, altho I needed it, being a grow- 
ing girl and working hard. 

About a year later I began helping mother at millinery work and 
found it very hard to sit all day. Mother was working for Messrs. John, 
James and George Cooper at a large warehouse. The firm traded under 
the tide of "I.J.&G. Cooper", (the Scotch form of John, Ian, being used 
probably to prevent confusion of initials, a custom in England.) We 
worked in a large well lighted, beautiful room filled with bright attractive 

I remember one of the salesmen passing through the room one 
day, and asking, rather scornfully; — "What do you girls call yourselves? 
"Ladies", they answered, to which he replied, — "Mrs. Walker is the only 
lady here". This remark caused the girls to look up the meaning of the 
word "Lady". 

They were good singers, too. These Messrs Cooper were brothers of 
Dr. Richard Cooper before mentioned, and we held them in high esteem, 
for their own worth as well as for their relationship to our dear friends. 

I remember dining at their home once when I was a litde child. Mrs. 
Cooper, their mother, sat me on a stool and put my plate on a higher 
stool in front of me and then cut my meat in small pieces for me, but 
noticing later that I ate my potatoes first, asked if I "did not like meat?" I 

Sketch of the Life of Mary L. Morris 77 

told her that I did and that is why I reserved it till the last." You, children, 
may judge whether or no, this was characteristic of your mother, although 
manifested in childhood. 

My mother told me that in that family, no matter what guests were 
dining with them, the sons, who served the dinner, always served their 
mother first. They had a beautiful home and servants. 

Mr. John Cooper married a very beautiful woman, but his brother, 
the doctor, remarked as he walked behind him and his bride, either going 
to or coming from the church, — "If that woman lives, our Jack's a dead 
man," He could tell that she had consumption and that her husband 
would take the disease if she lived, but she did not live. He married again, 
and his other wife, although not beautiful was a very excellent woman. 
She said once that a voice told her that her litde daughter Jane, would 
die, but she answered the voice "Rather let me beg than Jane die." 

At another time mother and I worked in a warehouse where three 
hundred men were employed and we were the only women. Our occupa- 
tion was to clean bonnets, which we did with stale bread. Some days I was 
there alone and one day one of the men put his hand on my waist. I told 
him to keep his hands to himself. He replied, "I know you don't mean 
what you say." Boiling over with indignation I answered, "When I speak 
once I mean what I say as much as if I had spoken a thousand times." 
He concluded he had better leave me alone after that. When I used to 
pass through these large rooms to the street these men would whisde or 
make remarks, but I passed on as if I had heard nothing and was never 

Methodical Habits 
When a child often, if allowed to stay home and do our work, (I generally 
had to go out to work to help mother while father was away preaching) I 
would arrange my household duties, something like this: — Monday, wash- 
ing; Tuesday, ironing; Wednesday, after my work was done I had a little 
leisure, or took a walk with my companion, a girl about my own age, or 
she would come to see me; Thursday, chamber work; Friday, cleaning par- 
lor and sitting room; and Saturday, kitchen work, which would be done 
about noon. Then I would go to my friend's perhaps, and help her, as she 
was the eldest of a large family. Sometimes I would help her bathe the 
children or do her pantry work for her. 

We Move Back to Our Native Town 
When father had been out preaching for about four years, my uncles, 
Joseph and Samuel thinking no doubt, that mother, their only sister, must 
be having a struggle to make a living, wanted her to come to Leek and 
live so that they might be able to render her some assistance from time to 

78 Before the Manifesto 

time. They had been left fatherless in their infancy and were reared by a 
tender, God fearing mother. They remembered the trials of their youth- 
ful days and very tender feelings existed between them and their sister. 
They were in comfortable circumstances and lived on their own property, 
which is not very common in England. I think they must have consulted 
together for mother's welfare. So Uncle Joseph brought his own team and 
wagon to Manchester, some thirty miles, and took mother and me and all 
our household effects to Leek, their native town. 

Our surroundings had greatly changed. Mother's large business 
connection was gone and we were in straightened circumstances. Having 
joined the Mormons we had few friends, for we did not associate with 
church or chapel folks. I doubt if there was another person in the town of 
Leek who belonged to the same church as ourselves. The Mormons were 
held in bad repute, so it was bad policy for us to let it be known that we 
belonged to them. Our relatives knew of our religious connections but 
treated us well, although they cared nothing for Mormonism. We lived 
part of the time with Uncle Joseph and part with Uncle Samuel. We also 
stayed with a first, or second, cousin, a Mrs. Ann Slack Beardmoor. Her 
husband was a very devout, nice man, a good husband and father and 
also a clever mechanic. 

Our stay at Uncle Samuel's was not the pleasantest, as I remember, 
although he was a kind gentle man, but his wife, who was step-mother 
to his children, had an irritable disposition, as a result of Dyspepsia. I 
know that the litde daughter, Lydia, hardly dared to call her soul her 
own. Neither of us could please her. If we tried to make the beds well, 
we were too long about it and if we tried to hurry we did not make them 
well enough to suit her. Finally I concluded that I could not please her 
however much I tried. She was a very neat, orderly person and no doubt 
a worthy woman. They had a bright rosy cheeked boy about sixteen years 
old who was learning the baker's trade. 

After a time we rented two rooms in a find old-fashioned house. A 
farmer rented the house and he re-rented the parlor and the room above 
it to us. The woodwork and floor were of English oak. 

I sometimes went to Class-meeting with my aunt (they were 
Methodists) and while they kneeled and prayed to Jesus, calling Him 
to come, and shouting "He is here", or "I have Him", "Glory to God", 
"Hallelujah", etc. I was asking Heavenly Father to protect me from their 
influence, and He did. 

John Darling Ross, a Scotchman, who belonged to the Mormon 
church, and who was spoken of as a "Walking Bible" because of his great 
knowledge of that book, came to Leek as an elder from the Manchester 
Conference, and held a litde meeting in an upper room, and I remember 
with what avidity I drank in every word he said. 

Sketch of the Life of Mary L. Morris 79 

While living in Leek, mother worked at her trade when she could 
obtain work, and one day a lady with two litde girls brought some hats 
for her to clean and trim. The agreement was that mother should also 
furnish the trimmings. The hats were done, according to promise, and 
called for but not paid for. A few days later I went to Condleton, about 
seven miles distant, to collect the money, but returned as I had gone, 
without it, and in addition was foot-sore and weary after my fourteen mile 
walk for nothing. 10 

We felt very much alone while living here. We were poor, and my 
mother was too proud and sensitive to go out much among our relations 
who were so differently situated. 

However, whatever privations I have been called upon to suffer for 
the Gospel's sake I consider it an honor, although at that time I thought 
it hard, especially to be parted from my dear mother to go out and work 
for my daily bread. 

We Emigrate 
But, at least a change in our fortunes was approaching, for when we 
had been in Leek about a year, mother received a notification from the 
Liverpool office that we were to sail for America. By this time I was four- 
teen years old and father was released from his missionary labors, to 
gather to Zion, and it did not seem long after he came home that we were 
ready to go to Liverpool. 11 

I had not seen father for nearly a year and I remember how inter- 
ested I was in the packing and in our decisions as to what should be taken 
and what should be left behind. I remember father looking at me one 
day and saying; — "You are very decisive." He hardly expected his thirteen 
year old daughter of a year before to be able to decide household affairs 
so readily. 

We Reach Liverpool 
When we arrived in Liverpool we stayed at a Mormon hotel, kept by a 
Mrs. Cooley. While waiting in Liverpool we had the privilege of attending 
meeting in the comfortable well lighted hall where the Saints assembled. 
Here they used often to sing that favorite hymn, "Oh Babylon, we bid you 

10. Mary Lois seems to be referring to Congleton, England, located approximately ten 
miles from the town of Leek. In 1840, it had about 9,352 inhabitants, and its major 
manufactures were silk throwing and cotton spinning. Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary 
of England, 1:610-11. 

11. Liverpool, England, a major seaport and market town in northwestern England, 
contained about 223,000 inhabitants in 1845. Many LDS English emigrants sailed from 
Liverpool to America in the nineteenth century. Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of 
England, 3:104-12. 

80 Before the Manifesto 

farewell", by Cyrus H. Wheelock, in which we joined with all our hearts 
for it thrilled the souls of the Saints. 12 1 remember hearing a very power- 
ful discourse delivered by Orson Pratt, calling the world to repentance. I 
have often marvelled at so powerful a voice from a man of small stature, 
but have found the answer to my query in Church History, for here we 
find, that when the Prophet Joseph sent Orson Pratt out in the world to 
preach the Gospel, he told him to "Speak to the people long and loud." 
The Prophet told George A. [Albert] Smith to make short speeches 
and short prayers and the people would listen to him. Apostle George 
A. Smith followed this commandment all his life and made this remark 
about himself, "When I get up the people know that George A. isn't going 
to speak long, so they listen to me." 

We Board the Ship 

On February 11th, 1850, my father, mother and I boarded the ship "Josiah 
Bradley" with Captain [Charles] Mansfield as master of the ship. 13 But we 
did not set sail until a week later, Feb. 1 8th. I find this date in From Kirtland 
to Salt Lake City by Fred Piercy, Artist. 14 This Mr. Piercy was an Englishman, 
from London who drew the different scenes along the plains. He once 
showed me a stick which could be used as a walking cane or converted 
into a seat. This he used while making his sketches along the route from 
Kirdand to Salt Lake City. 

When our ship was towed out and we had passed the Health 
Inspectors, said our last farewells and watched the waving handkerchiefs 

12. A song about gathering the righteous to Zion, entitled "Ye Elders of Israel" by Cyrus H. 
Wheelock (1813-1894). The chorus of the hymn is "O Babylon, O Babylon, we bid thee 
farewell. We're going to the mountains of Ephraim to dwell." Richard H. Cracroft and 
Neal E. Lambert, A Relieving People: Literature of the Latter-day Saints, 273. 

13. Conway B. Sonne describes the 1850 voyage of theJosiahBradlee: "Sailing from Liverpool 
on 18 February 1850, the Yankee square-rigger/osz'a/i Bradlee out of Boston carried 263 
Mormon passengers. Captain Charles Mansfield commanded the vessel. . . . After a 
passage of fifty-nine days, during which there were five deaths, one birth, and two 
marriages, the Josiah Bradlee arrived 18 April at New Orleans." The three-masted ship 
had two decks and was built in 1849 in Medford, Massachusetts. Conway B. Sonne, Ships, 
Saints, and Mariners: A Maritime Encyclopedia of Mormon Migration, 1830-1890, 123—24. 

14. Mary Lois seems to have interchanged the author and title of two different books. The 
title she refers to is by James A. Litde, From Kirtland to Salt Lake City (Salt Lake City: 
James A. Little, 1890). The author that she refers to is Frederick Hawkins Piercy, Route 
from Liverpool to Great Salt Lake Valley: Illustrated with Steel Engravings and Wood Cuts from 
Sketches Made by Frederick Piercy . . . : Together with a Geographical and Historical Description 
of Utah, and a Map of the Overland Routes to That Territmy from the Missouri River: Abo an 
Authentic History of the Latter-Day Saints' Emigration from Europe from the Commencement up 
to the Close of 1855, with Statistics (Liverpool: Franklin D. Richards; London: Latter-day 
Saints' Book Depot, 1855). 

Sketch of the Life of Mary L. Morris 81 

fade into the distance while we sang in chorus 'Yes, my native land, I love 
thee", we began to be concious of a queer sensation which all would like 
to have avoided, and were glad to descent to our berths below and lie 
down. 15 While lying there ill of sea-sickness, we could hear our boxes slid- 
ing about with tins ratding as an accompaniment, and as we felt the ship 
heave and groan, we felt what helpless specks we were on the bosom of 
the Mighty Deep. 

Our company was organized into three wards, English Welsh, and 
Scottish, with Thomas Day presiding. I think Abel Evans, a great eccle- 
siastical leader among the Welsh must have been in charge of the Welsh 
people on board this vessel, as he was with their company. He is the father 
of the Evans family of Lehi, Utah. 

With us also were Bro. James Needham, then but a stripling with 
his young bride [Alice Warburton Needham] , his venerable father [James 
Needham] and mother [Mary Armitage Needham], his brother Arthur 
[Armitage Needham] and wife, and his sisters Alice and Sophia. Also 
James [Munro Pyper] and Alex [Alexander Crookshank] Pyper, fathers 
of the Salt Lake family of that name. 

I associated a great deal with the Needhams, especially with Mrs. 
Arthur Needham, who was a very ladylike woman and made herself a 
pleasant companion for me. Her husband was a pianist and older than 
his brother James. They had no family. I used to associate too, with the 
Welsh people, especially with Miss Prothero, who was a gentle modest 
lady. She was fifteen years older than I. There was also a little girl on ship- 
board, who afterwards became the mother of Bishop Seddon, of the Fifth 
Ward, Salt Lake City. 

You will understand from what has been said of our circumstances, 
that we should not be able to travel as First Class passengers. This neces- 
sitated laying in a supply of provisions before we left the shore, such as 
bacon, herrings, potatoes, butter, sugar, rice, oat-meal, etc., not forgetting 
sea-biscuits, or "hard-tack" as it is sometimes called. The latter was rightly 
named, for I remember how it made the muscles of my face ache, even 
up to my temples to masticate it. This was our principle article of diet, 
and had to be used on account of the duration of the journey, nearly 
three months, and it kept perfectly. 

You will understand also that the supply of fresh water was necessar- 
ily limited, since enough had to be taken to last for so long a time, there- 
fore it was measured out, perhaps as little as a pint of drinking water per 
day for each person. This measured water had to be used for cooking, all 
of which we did for ourselves. Sometimes we had trouble, when cooking 

15. A song entitled, "The Missionary's Farewell." The first line is "Yes, my native land I love 
thee." Patricia Pate Havlice, Popular Song Index, 453. 

82 Before the Manifesto 

such things as rice or beans, which absorb so much water, and would not 
have been sufficient to finish cooking them properly. The cooking was 
done on a sheet iron stove, about the size of an ordinary kitchen table, in 
a small room about the size of an ordinary pantry. Many would be cook- 
ing at the same time, and people had to stand and watch their own things 
lest someone should come and put their things back to give their own the 
better place. 

The ship furnished a cook to attend to the fire and superintend 
things and assist the passengers. Father had learned to cook at home when 
a boy with his mother and considering the Galley, where the cooking was 
done, an unfit place for women, did our cooking himself. The only way of 
going to and from the galley was by means of a large ship ladder. You can 
imagine the difficulty of carrying the hot food from the galley, which was 
on deck down the ladder to our berths in the steerage. Fortunate indeed 
was the individual who possessed a good stock of patience, for you can see 
it would be needed under these trying circumstances. 

Mother was often solicited to prescribe and administer medicines 
to the sick on board. She was given free access to the Captain's medicine 
chest. He was pleased to consult with her with regard to the health of the 
passengers, to whom he was very kind. She even attended to one accouch- 
ment with great satisfaction to allparties concerned. This was the only 
maternity case during our passage, I think. 

Mother, and the Captain, who was a perfect gentleman, enjoyed 
conversing together upon many topics, but I think it afforded her the 
greatest pleasure to converse with the steward, who was a handsome 
young Portuguese and who spoke French fluendy. I have said before that 
mother used to speak that language in her childhood, hence the pleasure 
this would be to her. 

The steward is quite an important official on shipboard, superin- 
tending the household matters, so to speak, of the ship. I can see him how, 
as he looked then, dressed in black clothes, white linen shirt, and long 
white linen apron, walking steadily, however much the ship rocked, his 
hands filled with dainty or choice dishes for the Captain's table, for upon 
him also devolved the duty of waiting upon the Captain at his meals. 

I spent most of my time on deck when the weather would permit. 
Upon this deck was a long, low chicken coop, containing live fowls for 
use at the Captain's table. This coop was about as high as a bench and 
afforded us a good seat. I often sat here doing needlework, reading, or 
conversing with some one. I remember on day sitting here sewing and 
watching the chain lightning flashing across the sky, which would be the 
case for hours after a storm. As I sat working and humming a tune the 
Captain happened to notice me and remarked to mother "Mary is like 
Hope on the tomb". In the evening I so much enjoyed standing on the 

Sketch of the Life of Mary L. Morris 83 

deck looking at the stars and down into the deep blue waters which had 
the appearance of being full of stars, but which was really the phosporus 
in the water. Oh, how I wished that I might study astronomy and thirsted 
for knowledge of all kinds. 

I certainly enjoyed the voyage, and my health was very good after 
the first sea-sickness was over. I was fond of needlework and had also a 
nice book that my cousin, Joseph Godwin had given me before our depar- 
ture. I also learned to walk steadily on the ship when it was rocking. 

An expression of one of the passengers I shall always remember for 
I have proven it to be true. It was that "Industry brings contentment." 

We were becalmed for some days in the Gulf of Mexico. The climate 
was very warm and yellow sea weed floated upon the surface of the blue 
water. The sea was so still that we could see sharks beneath the water. 

We Reach Terra Firma 
We reached New Orleans the latter part of April, after having been at 
sea about eight weeks. 16 The Custom House officials came on board and 
looked through our trunks. While I was watching them one of the officers 
remarked to me; — "If you were in California you would be married in six 
months." 17 

The mosquitoes literally swarmed about us as we came near the 
mouth of the Mississippi. This same officer upon seeing this jokingly 
remarked, "Oh, they're cousiningyou." 

Father went on land for a few hours, but mother and I remained on 
the ship till he came for us. Then we all landed. Here I saw bananas for 
the first time, but when I tasted them, I did not care for them. 

It seemed strange to see most of the women wearing loose wrappers 
and long narrow sun bonnets called Virginia Wagon Covers. They were 
out doing their marketing in the morning before the heat of the day. In 

16. An 1855 guidebook for Mormons emigrating from England to the Salt Lake Valley 
included New Orleans as part of the route. It stated that the "immense steam-boat 
traffic upon the Mississippi river, affords every facility to emigrants to proceed to St. 
Louis, without detention in New Orleans more than twelve hours at the furthest, as 
steamers start daily for that city, and sometimes three or four times in the day. The fares 
are from two to three dollars on deck, and from twelve to fifteen in the cabin." James 
Linforth, ed., Route from Liverpool to Great Salt Lake Valley Illustrated with Steel Engravings 
and Wood Cuts from Sketches Made by Frederick Piercy, 35-37. 

17. Mary Lois arrived in New Orleans in April 1850. A year and a half earlier, in September 
1848, newspapers first began publishing news about the gold fields in California. By 
spring 1849, thousands of men had gone to California to seek their fortunes. With few 
exceptions, the men traveled without wives or families. The population of California 
rose from fourteen thousand non-Indians before the discovery of gold in January 1848 
to more than two hundred fifty thousand non-Indians by 1852. Eric Foner and John A. 
Garraty, eds., The Reader's Companion to American History, 454. 

84 Before the Manifesto 

the afternoon they remained indoors but in the evening they would dress 
up and go out. It seemed delightful to have plenty of fresh water, after 
having been scrimped for so long. 

We boarded the steamboad "St. Louis" to go up the river to the city 
of St. Louis. 18 This comparatively short journey, as it would seem now, took 
us three days longer than one can travel from Liverpool to New York to- 
day. The river was very muddy, but the water was soft and pleasant to use. 

Now we could have fresh bread and plenty of good eggs. These eggs 
we beat up and used in our coffee instead of cream. We appreciated these 
comforts after our long ocean voyage. 

The scenery along the river was delightful, changing every moment. 
There were trees in endless varieties and many negro huts, at the doors 
of which the families stood watching the steamboats pass. This was all 
very interesting and picturesque. The boad stopped frequendy to take 
on fresh fuel and to receive passengers and freight. Then the negro boat 
hands would haul on the great split oak logs about five feet long, singing 
as they worked. Their singing was a sort of low chant, keeping time with 
their movements and very different to the singing of the sailors on board 
the ship. 

It was the custom at that time for steamboats to run races up the river, 
and explosions were often the result. Our boat ran a race with another 
boat. The lady who nursed me when my son Nephi [Lowell Morris] was 
born related her experience upon such an occasion when coming up the 
Mississippi River on board the steamboat Saluda. The boat took fire and 
she had to cross a narrow plank to shore with two little children. In her 
fear and excitement she held her babe so tighdy to her breast that she 
found it was dead when she reached the river bank. 

While we were on the boat St. Louis, a Mr. Sylvester Kitteridge used 
to some to our quarters and talk with us. He was a tall, well built, hand- 
some man, dignified and intelligent, but unassuming withal. One day, 
during my absence, he told my mother that he loved her daughter. Of 
course I was very young and travelling, also was a Mormon, and the mat- 
ter was not to be considered. There was another pleasant looking young 
man who used to come and talk to us. He was a watchman on the boat 
and often brought us nice things from the Cabin. I have forgotten his 
name but there is a pleasing recollection of him in my mind. 

18. Mary Lois and her family came up the Mississippi from New Orleans on a steamboat, 
landing in St. Louis, Missouri, on May 2, 1850. Between 1840 and 1855, Mormons 
emigrating from Great Britain to America often landed in New Orleans. From there, 
steamboats "took the emigrants up the Mississippi River . . . landing them at points along 
the Missouri River to the localities designated as outfitting places for the saints crossing 
the plains to the Rocky Mountains. "Jenson, Encyclopedic History, 516-17; "Sailing Vessels 
and Steamboats," in OPH, 12:450. 

Sketch of the Life of Mary L. Morris 85 

Some fine looking colored girls were also on board, slaves no doubt, 
going to be sold or bought by some one. Father gave them money, as was 
the custom for white people to do, and asked them if white men ever 
married them. They told him that they did. How litde did we know of the 
customs of white slave owners. 

Altogether, we had quite an enjoyable trip up the river, and landed 
in St. Louis, Missouri, on the 2nd of May, 1850. 

We were entertained for a time by our friends, Bro. and Sister 
Williams, with whom I had visited in Cheshire, England, when a child. 
There was also a family named Dunn, who had been neighbors in 
Manchester. They were faithful Latter-Day Saints and are related to the 
Dunns and Stubbs of Provo, Utah. Soon, however, we rented a house on 
5th Street, between Car and Biddle Streets. The Sunday following our 
arrival in St. Louis we attended aLatter Day Saints meeting in Music Hall 
and there Nathaniel H. [Henry] Felt was preaching his farewell sermon, 
prior to his departure for Utah. This was about the 4th of May, 1850 

I suppose Henry Clay must have been running for President, for I 
remember seeing a conveyance going up the street, bearing his name in 
large letters. 19 

On the 4th of July following I was very ill and it seemed to me 
that every cannon that was fired went through my nervous system. I 
felt relieved at the thought of evening approaching. As I have said, 
mother remarked that every cannon that was fired was aimed at the 
English. But I had adopted America as my country and cared not for 
past grievances. 

St. Louis was a regular gathering place for the Saints who were 
intending to go to the "Valley". Here they would stay and work to get 
means to purchase an outfit for their long journey across the plains. 20 
Here we found many people who had been father's friends while he was 
traveling as an Elder in the different conferences in England. Among 
others was Sister Qane Pattenden] Tuckett and her family. She was the 

19. Henry Clay (1777-1852), a leader of the Whig party, ran for president unsuccessfully 
five times. While he was not a presidential candidate in 1850 as Mary Lois recalled, he 
was prominent at that time because of his part in brokering the Compromise of 1850, 
which dealt with the question of slavery in the territory gained in the Mexican War. 
Foner, The Reader's Companion to American History, 190-91, 209-10. 

20. An 1855 guidebook for Mormons emigrating from England to the Salt Lake Valley 
included St. Louis on the route, stating, "St. Louis has been for years the residence of 
numbers of L.D. Saints, some of them emigrants from different parts of the world, on 
their way to Nauvoo, Council Bluffs, or Utah, and many of them American converts. 
Owing to the rapid advancement of the city the unemployed have found labour, and 
many have thus completed their outfit for the remainder of their journey. At the 
present time there are between 1300 and 1400 in the city and vicinity." Linforth, Route 
from Liverpool to Great Salt Lake Valley, 57. 

86 Before the Manifesto 

mother of Bro. Henry Tuckett, Sen. and his brother Charles Tuckett, 
both of Salt Lake City. I think they were from the London conference. 

Everybody had to work, and those who could not obtain employment 
at their trade must turn to whatever presented itself. Father obtained the 
agency for a kind of photography which had recendy been invented and 
was quite successful in securing orders, for which he received a commis- 
sion. From Sister Tuckett's daughter Jane [Tuckett], an interesting litde 
girl in her teens, I heard of a vacancy in a most excellent family, where 
a girl was wanted to take care of the children and attend to the cham- 
ber work. I applied for and obtained the situation and went there on the 
11th of September, 1850. Before going father called mother and me, and 
together we bowed on our knees and he asked the Lord to give me favor 
in the sight of the family where I was about to enter as help. So under that 
influence I left the parental roof. 

Life in St. Louis 
I remember how beautiful that month of September was when I, a girl of 
fifteen, went out into the world to earn my living and help my father to 
secure our outfit to cross the great plains. I did not mind work and loved 
children, so there were pleasant times to follow, provided that I was with 
the right kind of people and received proper treatment at their hands. 

The lady for whom I had engaged to work was a Mrs. Horace Howard 
[Mary Grizwell Haven] Jenks, nee Mary Grizwell Haven. Her mother was 
an English lady, and her father one of the rich men of New York. She was 
a young widow of about thirty years of age, medium height, had rather 
light brown hair, blue eyes and a fair complexion. She was modest and 
unassuming in her mannerand a perfect lady. She lived upon her income 
and her household consisted, besides herself, of three small children, 
Ellen Agusta, Charles Haven, and Horace Howard, a babe in arms. Also 
Miss Mary [Orne] Jenks, sister of Mr. [Horace Howard] Jenks, deceased, 
a woman about sixty years of age. Then there was Caroline Peckham, the 
cook and myself. This Miss Peckham was a cousin of the Tuckett family 
and afterwards became Mrs. Tom Seddon, of the 6th Ward, Salt Lake City. 

Miss Mary Jenks was the real house-keeper, for although Mrs. Jenks 
stood at the head, she devoted her entire time to her children. I heard her say 
that she liked to have Mormons work for her, and also that she liked English 
people. Miss Jenks was rather cross and fidgety, but Mrs. Jenks I loved. Miss 
Peckham was a good girl and very kind and we got along well together. 

When I was sent upstairs to do the chamber work, I noticed small 
piles of silver change on the different mantels. This pleased me, and I 
understood by it that these ladies wanted to test the honesty of their new 
help. As I had been reared in the most rigid honor it was gratifying to me 
to have the opportunity to prove myself to them. 

Sketch of the Life of Mary L. Morris 87 

My first duty each morning was to kindle a fire in the nursery, pre- 
pare the morning bath for the children, help them to dress and take 
them to school. On my return I would put the nursery, bed-rooms and 
parlor in order, tend the lovely baby and then go and fetch the children 
home from school. There was another litde child that I used to take to 
school, beautiful little Molly Jenks, a cousin of the other children and 
daughter of Mr. George Washington Jenks, Miss Mary Jenks' brother. 
Molly's mother was a cute little dark eyed, rosy cheeked woman, as 
cheery as spring flowers. At Christmas time she made a little silk pin- 
cushion for me. When she gave it to me she said; — "Mary, I give this to 
you for being so kind to my little Molly when she goes to school, help- 
ing her over the ditches". Mrs. Jenks would often take me to market 
with her, and as I loved her I enjoyed it immensely. She cared so little 
for finery that she would go out in the morning as plainly dressed as 

Mrs. Jenks was as anxious to have persons of rigid honor to take care 
of her children as my parents had been to have their children associate 
with people of that kind, so we mutually appreciated each others qualities. 

Sometimes father came and spent the evening with us. That winter 
the weather was so severe that he said he had to saw our bread at home. 
The ground was covered with frost for several months. 

One evening as he was leaving the door he slipped and broke his 
leg. Fortunately he had brought a Bro. Rushton with him, so he helped 
father home. 

When Christmas time came I received presents from all the fam- 
ily. Mrs. Jenks gave me a dress pattern and Miss Jenks a grey silk scarf 
with blue silk velvet stripes across the ends. I received a pair of scissors 
from litde Master Charles, an egg of perfumed soap from Sissy, as the 
litde daughter was called, and a very good dressing comb from sweet baby 
Horace. The soap I kept and used for my first baby. 

After Christmas, Mrs. Jenks began to consider preparations for a 
contemplated visit to her relatives in the East. In this event they wanted 
someone who could do more work than I was able to do, in my place. 
I rather think they wanted someone who could assist with the sewing. 
When I first went there they gave me a dusting cloth to hem, I suppose in 
order to test my ability in that direction. I did it and was not ashamed to 
let anyone examine the stitches. 

When my parents learned that I should probably soon be leaving 
Mrs. Jenks my father wrote a letter to her and addressing her in a most 
respectful manner, he said, amongst other things; — "Thine is a house of 
prudence, thine is a house of virtue", and also, "How often we leave true 
happiness to seek for imaginary bliss", meaning that she was happy there, 
but might not be so, if she moved away. He continued, using the Quaker 

88 Before the Manifesto 

style, — "If it pleaseth thee that my child remaineth with thee, it is well, 
and if not, it is well." 

Then engaged another Mormon girl, about ten years older than I, 
to take my place. She came about a week before I left so that I could teach 
her the ways of the house. Miss Jenks very pleasantly remarked during this 
week while we were both there "Many hands make labor light", to which I 
meekly replied "Yes, ma'am". When the time was up I went home. 

One morning, about a week later, a rap came at the door and upon 
opening it we saw Mrs. Jenks, who had come to ask me if I would not go 
back, as the work of my successor had not been satisfactory. I was pleased 
to do so as I loved and highly esteemed them. She seemed pleased to 
notice when she called, that I was wearing at my side the pair of scissors 
she had given me, for I was busy at making the dress they had given me. 
Mrs. Jenks' husband had come from New England and they seemed 
proud of this fact. 

So I returned to my duties and as the spring approached Mrs. 
Mason, a seamstress, was engaged to come and assist with the sewing. Miss 
Peckham was to accompany Mrs. Jenks to take care of the baby and in 
a very kind manner I was asked if I should not like to remain with Miss 
Jenks and do the general housework, while Mrs. Jenks was away. I did not 
care to do so as I was not very fond of Miss Jenks, although I had never 
had any unpleasantness with her, but as I did not like to refuse Mrs. Jenks 
anything I consented to stay. 

The day of the departure, while Miss Jenks accompanied them to 
the station, I was requested to clean the dining room. Upon her return 
I had almost finished my task and had not wasted a moment, for mother 
had always taught me to work, not with eye service, as men pleasers, but 
as unto God. However, I suppose she thought I had been a long time over 
it, for she remarked rather impatiently," Is this all you have done?" I had 
made up my mind that if I did stay I would not take as much from her 
as I had in the past, so I answered firmly, "Yes, ma'am, but I have done it 
well." She took this gentie hint, and after that was very kind to me, help- 
ing me in many ways with my work. 

Soon we received word that Mrs. Jenks had decided to remain, and 
wished to know if I would not go East, to New York, and live with her. I 
loved her enough to go a long distance to oblige her, but my parents did 
not wish me to go, so I gave up the idea at once. 

When Miss Jenks and I parted, she dais, and I knew it came from 
her heart, "Good-bye, Mary, you have been a good girl, wouldn't you like 
to write to us?" I should like to have done so, but feared I could not write 
well enough. 

When Miss Peckham returned Mrs. Jenks sent me two beautiful 
presents. One was a daintily embroidered chimisette of fine white mate- 

Sketch of the Life of Mary L. Morris 89 

rial and a pink and white striped satin ribbon to go with it, and also a blue 
and white waist ribbon. 

When the furniture was auctioned off a lady expressed a wish that 
she might engage the girl who had done their housework. But I was not at 
every lady's service. 

In the summer of 1888 I did work in the Manti Temple for Miss 
Jenks and had that of her brother Horace Howard Jenks to attend to, 
but I could not do anything for my beloved Mrs. Jenks, as she was only 
fifteen years older than I, and the ruling is that if you are not positive of 
the death of a person for whom you wish to do a work, that at least one 
hundred years must be allowed for their age. At that time I was only fifty 
three so that she would have been about sixty eight years old and in all 
possibility still alive. I intend to have this matter hunted up and if she is 
dead, to do the work for her 

After leaving Mrs. Jenks I was recommended to a Mrs Bertis who 
lived in affluence in a beautiful home. When I called I found her sick of 
an intermittant fever. She was a very interesting lady but in speaking of 
the work that I should be required to do I found that I was expected to 
wait on table. This I could not brook. The idea of coming in contact with 
strangers was more than I could bear. She tried to make me see how easy 
it would be, but I did not accept the position. 

Mrs. Mason, the seamstress at Mrs. Jenks' told me of a place where 
help was wanted. I applied but engaged only on trial. When I was fairly 
established I found that I was not only expected to do all the house work 
but also to clean all the rooms after the workmen, for the house had been 
undergoing repairs. To do this I had to work night and day. I believe they 
were poor, for I heard the lady acknowledge to a friend that they had to 
take in work. The mother and a pretty young daughter, who had been 
very ill, worked all day in a dismal looking bed room, and I seldom saw 
them except when they ordered their meals. 

There were two sons, Warn, or Warren, and Bub. Odd names, they 
seemed to me. I remember hearing one of them remark that on a certain 
day he would have a sum of money, but just them he "Hadn't a red cent." 
They were boat hands, or to use their own expression, they "ran on the 
river". In my press of work I retired one night at three o'clock and rose at 
five. The nights were short and warm, and my bed a mattress laid on the 
floor, but I was glad to get a litde rest in my room anyhow. 

Besides all this work that was piled on my sixteen year old shoulders 
these boys allowed me the privilege of cutting the wood, which made me 
look upon them with feelings akin to contempt and I thought them fine 
specimens of American gallantry. Of course I did not stay there very long. 
I only received two dollars a week but managed to clothe myself quite 
neatly and save a little besides. I bought myself a white straw cottage bon- 

90 Before the Manifesto 

net, white gloves and a pale blue dress (the one I have my picture taken 
in) and a dark satin fringed parasol, changeable satin, green and purple. 

The young men wore fine white tucked shirts, trousers and belts, with 
straw hats. The weather being so warm they seldom wore vests or coats. As 
I passed along the street I would notice them turn and look at me but I 
had the satisfaction of holding my parasol so they could not see my face. 
Some of my friends suggested that I ought to have white slippers to wear 
with this dress but I thought that too foppish and would not do so. 

I think I went home with fourteen dollars, which I gave to father to 
help to get our outfit for crossing the plains. We always had this object in 
view and I remember, when we were tempted to make little expenditures, 
father would say; — "Remember the wagon wheels". 

Mother's Illness and Death 
That summer my dear mother was taken ill. I tended her with loving care 
but on Monday morning, August 11th, after I had made up the lounge 
and made her comfortable there and was making up the bed on the other 
side of the room, something told me that mother would die. I was not 
dismayed, for with this impression, came a spirit of sweet peace and I felt 
that it was best that she should go and be at rest from her troubles. 

Previous to this I had prayed with all the fervor of my eager young 
heart that the Lord would spare her life to reach the home of the Saints. 
Little did I know of the hardships, trials and privations of this long jour- 
ney and the repetition of want and scarcity of the necessaries of life which 
awaited our arrival here. But there was One who did know, and in His 
great mercy took her from that which she could not have endured. 

When I had completed the arrangement of the room I went over to 
our dear friend and neighbor, Sister Williams, and told her of the impres- 
sion I had received and returned immediately. Then I ventured to tell 
mother also. She made no reply but asked me for her writing desk. She 
looked for a paper upon which was some writing she wished me to see, 
but it was not there. 

I told no one else of my impression. I remember going to the office 
of Doctor Rutherford, and leaving word upon a slate upon the door for 
him to call. He was a Scotchman and belonged to our church. He came 
and pronounced her ailment Typhus Fever. 21 1 remained alone with her all 

21. Typhus fever refers to a group of infections caused by rickettsiae and characterized 
by severe headache, a widespread rash, prolonged high fever, and delirium. Epidemic 
typhus, transmitted by lice, was prevalent in overcrowded, unsanitary conditions such 
as were common in jails, hospitals, and ships and had a high mortality rate. In the 
nineteenth century, the treatments recommended for typhus were emetics and tonic 
medicines such as quinine. John Charles Gunn, Gunn's New Family Physician, Or Home 
Book of Health, 405-9. 

Sketch of the Life of Mary L. Morris 91 

day, but was not afraid, as the same spirit of peace remained with me. I had 
a litde money of my own and was able to buy any litde thing that I thought 
might add to her comfort. We had a litde nursery lamp that I used in pre- 
paring her food or for heating water. A candle was used inside it. 

I watched her by day and at night and took a pillow and rested on the 
floor near her couch, so that I might arise at any moment if she needed 
me. What would I give to know the feelings of my dear mother's heart, 
during the five days of her illness. I may know when we meet again. 

On Thursday night father drew a chair up to her couch and asked 
her if she would be his in Eternity, but death was too near, and she had 
not the power to answer. At that time evidently, father knew about the 
eternity of the marriage covenant and was anxious to have mother sealed 
to him when we should reach the Valley, for they had not had their endow- 
ments and had therefore been married for time only. 

That night mother became delirious. By morning there was a great 
change for the worse. Her face was flushed but her hands and feet cold 
and what few words she uttered were in a quick and unnatural manner 
but seemed to have reference to some pleasant recollections with regard 
to father. When the doctor came he said in a surprised manner "This is 
a bad case." I was prepared for it and it was no surprise to me, for when I 
felt her hands and feet cold, the sad truth came to me with new force and 
I felt that death was near. 

She continued about the same all day. Bless her! She said very little 
during her entire illness, and never a murmur or complaint of any kind 
escaped her lips. 

Just before five o'clock my brother Charles came over and said Sister 
Williams wished to see me as she was also sick in bed. I immediately went 
over and returned as quickly as possible but mother had passed away dur- 
ing my absence. If she was concious at the last it must have been a con- 
solation to her that her only son was near her for she loved him most 
tenderly. Father happened to be absent also just at the time, so Charles 
was the only one with her at the hour of her death, which occurred at five 
o'clock August 15th, 1851. 

Our friend, Sister Eli Harrison, came over and helped to prepare 
her for burial. After she was laid out her dear face bore no trace of the 
sorrow and trials she had passed through but wore a sweet and peaceful 

About dark Bro. Williams came over and stayed with father while 
my brother and I went to spend the night at his home. I remember, if we 
put out the light, my brother seemed to be troubled by some unpleasant 

Mother was buried the following afternoon. Bro. and Sister 
Harrison, and as many of the Williams family as could attend were with 

92 Before the Manifesto 

us. I think very likely the Naylor family was also present. In any case there 
were less than a dozen persons in attendance. The funeral was held at our 
home and her dear remains were laid to rest from life's care and woe in 
the cemetary in St.Louis, Mo. 

May her mortal remains there rest in peace until the Resurrection 
morning, when I hope to be prepared to meet her who loved us so fondly. 
After our return from the cemetary it seemed as if the fountains of my 
young heart would burst, for I realized that my dear mother was gone 
from me indeed. 

The remainder of the summer I stayed at home and worked at 
binding fine slippers. These were made of bronze leather, bound by hand 
with black silk ribbon and sewed with silk thread. It was quite a difficult 
task, as the weather was so warm that we had to use powder on our hands 
to keep them dry and to make it easier for the needle to go through the 

In the Fall, however, I went to do chamber work at a female semi- 
nary. This school was kept by a Rev. Dr. Crowell and his wife, assisted by 
several teachers. These were all ladies, except a Mr. Van Meter, teacher 
of Vocal Music. This Dr. Crowell was the gentleman who corresponded 
with Orson Spencer, which correspondence was subsequently published 
in book form under the title of Spencer's Letters. 22 

The doctor and his wife were very nice people, but my work was no 
child's play. 

The school was held in a fine large dwelling house which they 
rented for the purpose. A flight of broad stone steps led up to the front 
door which opened into two spacious parlors which were used as recita- 
tion rooms. They were carpeted in dark red, while the chairs, which filled 
the two rooms, were white and of elegant shape. 

Before the hour at which school started in the morning it was my 
duty to sweep and dust these rooms and also the hall, and clean the grates 
and build the fires. When school had commenced my work was in the bed 
rooms, which were very cold to work in, as houses were not heated then 
as they are now. 

A number of the students boarded there and among them I remem- 
ber a Miss Wilder and two other young ladies, who were teachers, and 
whom I liked very much. One day, this Miss Wilder, Mrs. Crowell and 
I happened to meet at the front door, and as I stepped inside to allow 
the ladies to pass, Mrs. Crowell asked me how old I was, and when I told 

22. Orson Spencer, Letters Exhibiting the Most Prominent Doctrines of the Church of fesus Christ 
of Latter-day Saints by Orson Spencer, A.B., in Reply to the Rev. William Crowel, A.M., Boston, 
Massachusetts, U.S.A. (6th ed., Salt Lake City: George Q. Cannon and Sons, 1891), later 
reprinted under the title Orson Spencer's Letters. 

Sketch of the Life of Mary L. Morris 93 

her sixteen years, she turned to Miss Wilder and said, "Isn't she a perfect 
specimen of physical symmetry?" Of course I liked that. 

One of the young ladies, whose name I cannot remember was a con- 
sumptive. I loved her and was willing to do anything I could for her. She 
was very nice to me. I think the Doctor and his wife were from Boston, 
and it was considered quite an advantage to St. Louis that people of so 
much culture should come out West and open such a nice school, so it is 
no wonder that they were well patronized. They reminded me of English 
people, and I shall never forget, in the midst of so many opportunities for 
education, how my heart yearned with a desire for learning and especially 
to study music. 

The Doctor used to call all the household into the parlor every 
morning for devotional exercises. 

From here I went to live with a family of the name of Hughes. The 
gendeman was Welsh but his wife was a rather comely American woman. 
They had two litde children, the oldest a boy, and a little girl named 
Pauline. I was surprised to hear her say one day that she did not like the 

children (using a very ugly word) but that Mr. Hughes liked them. 

She seemed to be a woman of some refinement, and always behaved as a 
perfect lady to me. She was a fine looking woman. 

I think it was a Sunday night when I went there and had not been 
in the house long when Mr. Hughes asked me to sing, remarking, "Most 
English ladies sing." I sang one of my favorite songs, — "She wore a wreath 
of roses." 23 He remarked during the evening to his wife that I had no 
brogue. I replied that we were not allowed to use any. 

Sometimes he would ask me what was preached in our meetings, 
and would try to tease me about gathering to Utah. 

Mrs. Hughes was very kind and allowed me to do the work as 
I pleased, and would often talk to me and try to entertain me while I 
ironed in the dining room. She could sing quite nicely and accompanied 
herself upon the accordion. If she did not like the children she was always 
good to them. 

One day a well dressed, intelligent Irishman came there to board. 
Soon after, one morning, at breakfast, he and Mrs. Hughes began prais- 
ing the biscuits we had for breakfast. 'Yes", said Mr. McClanahan, for that 
was his name, "and Mary is a very nice girl." And then in the presence 
of Mr. and Mrs. Hughes he asked me to marry him. I told him, "No." 
At another time he came into the kitchen and putting his arm over my 
shoulder asked me again if I would not marry him. I told him NO without 

23. "She Wore a Wreath of Roses" by Thomas Haynes Bayly (1795-1839) and Joseph Philip 
Knight (1812-1887). The first line is "She Wore a Wreath of Roses." Havlice, Popular 
Song Index, first supp. (1978), 251; Michael Kilgarriff, Sing Us One of the Old Songs: A 
Guide to Popular Song 1860-1920, 397, 466. 

94 Before the Manifesto 

even turning around. Another morning after breakfast and in the pres- 
ent of Mr. and Mrs. Hughes, he again asked me if I would not marry him 
in preference to going to Utah. I told him I preferred to go to Salt Lake 
to marrying any man. One Sunday, as I was returning from meeting I saw 
him on the street and was so afraid that he would come and walk with me 
that I prayed that he might not, and he did not. He afterwards told Mrs. 
Hughes that he saw me but was afraid that I should not be pleased, so did 
not come and walk with me. He left there soon after. I think the whole 
thing was planned by him and Mr. Hughes. In fact, Mr. Hughes admitted 
as much to me later, saying that Mr. McClanahan had come there for that 
purpose, although I could not sense it at the time. 

I used to sleep in the dining room while living here, and so anxious 
was I to get at my work in the morning that I used to say my prayers over- 
night for the next morning and rose about five o'clock, an hour or two 
before daylight. 

It was Sunday evening when I went to their home, and it was Sunday 
evening when I left, March 15th, 1852. 1 left with the intention of prepar- 
ing for our trip across the plains. 

That same evening I called with my father, after meeting, to see our 
friends Bro. Eli Harrison and his wife. They introduced us to a Bro. (John 
Thomas] Morris, from North Wales, who was visiting at their home. Taking 
his proffered hand I made this rather uncomplimentary remark; — "They 
say that the North Welsh people are very deceitful." "Perhaps they are", was 
his prompt response. To speak in this manner was litde less than an insult, 
and a strange way of receiving an introduction to a young gendeman. 

This was my reason: — Two years previous to this time I had crossed 
the sea in company with a party of Saints from North and South Wales 
and the people from South Wales used to make this assertion with regard 
to the North Welsh. The moment I met Mr. Morris, I had the impression 
that he would become my husband, and I spoke in this discourteous way 
to test his metal. On the other hand Mr. Morris, at the moment of our 
meeting, had the assurance that I should become his wife, so perhaps that 
is why he took my remark so lighdy. 

A few days later, while my father and I were on our way to spend the 
day with a Sister Hueish, we passed by a house where Bro. Harrison was 
working as a painter and decorator. Hearing someone call to us and turn- 
ing round we saw Bro. Harrison who invited us to come in and see the work, 
as the house was undergoing some repairs. Here too, we found Mr. Morris, 
who was assisting Bro. Harrison. We merely passed the time of day and 
departed. After spending a pleasant day with Sister Hueish, who was an old 
acquaintance of father's from his missionary days in England, we returned 
about nine o'clock, calling in at Bro. Harrison's as was our custom. 

Bro. Harrison then handed me a letter from Bro. Morris. The 

Sketch of the Life of Mary L. Morris 95 

moment I received it I knew its contents, although I did not open it until 
after our return home, about midnight. 

After reading it, I handed it to father, but said nothing. Father then 
read it and said; — "I will answer that note." 

It was written on rather stiff cream colored paper, about six inches 
square, with the corners cut off. Mr. Morris was an artist and in the center 
of the sheet he had painted a beautiful red apple, streaked with yellow. 
The note was begun in the usual way at the top of the paper and contin- 
ued around the apple, in a free, handsome handwriting as follows: — 

St. Louis, Mo. 
March 1850 [1852]. 

Dearly Beloved Mary Walker:- 

These are the feelings 

of my heart towards you. 

I wish us to be one 

in life and in 

Eternity. If this 

accords with your 

mind please write 

a note and send 

it with the bearer. 

Yours Thoroughly, 

John T Morris. 

I considered this note frank, sincere and laconic. My mother had 
always warned me against flattery from men. In this there was none. I 
considered it the expression of an honest man, but as father had said 
that he would answer it I took no action in the matter. Days, and perhaps 
more than a week passed, and still father had made no reply to the note. 
But I rather think that Mr. Morris was not as unconcerned as I was, for 
every day or two, I believe at his suggestion, Bro. Harrison would speak to 
me about it. Once, in a rather impatient manner he made this remark to 
me: — "He", meaning Mr. Morris, "does not want to marry thy father, he 
wants to marry thee." 

Finally, becoming weary of Bro. Harrison's constant reminding I 
said to father, rather impatiently, "Mr. Morris is a respectable person, 
and he deserves civil treatment". I suppose then father thought he had 
better do something, for he could see that I was in earnest for I had 
never before, to my recollection, spoken in an unbecoming way to my 


Before the Manifesto 

Mary Lois Walker, 
age seventeen, and her 
father, William Gibson 

Walker, in St. Louis, 
Missouri, about 1852. 

Courtesy of the. Ashlon l'Vimily Organization 

The next day, I think it was, he sat down and wrote to Mr. Morris, a 
very kind and respectful letter but telling him, among other things, that 
whoever had me for a wife must be in his (meaning father's) kingdom. 
This doctrine was very litde understood by many of the Saints but father 
had given the matter some thought and felt that he did not wish to part 
with his child either in this life or the life to come. 

Mr. Morris, however, being a man of good sense, did not bother 
about this particular part of father's letter. 

Weeks and months passed and we seldom saw each other. One eve- 
ning he called, bringing with him a Bro. Wilson, from Great Salt Lake. 
This gentleman was boarding at the same hotel as Mr. Morris, and proved 
to be a good and pleasant person, whose company father and I enjoyed 
very much. We were always pleased to meet Saints from the Valley. 

Mr. Wilson made this remark, one evening, when I killed a cock- 
roach that happened to be crawling across the floor: — "Do you know, that 
litde creature loves life as well as you do?" 

This remark made a deep impression upon me, and has had an 
influence upon my life ever since. Bro. Wilson and Bro. Morris continued 
to call at intervals for some time. Father and I would often walk part of 
the way back to the hotel where they boarded, with them. 

Sketch of the Life of Mary L. Morris 97 

On one of these evenings, father was walking with Bro. Wilson and 
I with Bro. Morris. Amongst other things our conversation turned on a 
young couple of our acquaintance. The young lady in question had been 
flirting with other young men while supposed to be engaged to the one 
under discussion. I made the remark in a very emphatic way: — "I do not 
believe in that". He replied, "I think you are pretty smart, but I wish you 
would answer that note I sent you." 

This request, made at a moment when I was not expecting anything 
of the kind, embarrassed me, for I was not at allprepared to answer it, so I 
made no reply, for I had not yet decided on the matter. 

During the next few days I thought a great deal and prayed con- 
stantly for Divine guidance in making my decision. On theSaturday fol- 
lowing I prayed at intervals all day. It was a time of very solemn thought 
for me, for I realized that my decision at this time would affect my whole 
life. I looked the matter over in all its bearings and finally, in the after- 
noon, I wrote the following note to him; — 

Mr. Morris. 

Dear Sir, — 

You have asked me if I am willing to become your wife. I am. The 
question was asked, it is now answered. I need say no more. 

Yours truly, 

Mary L. Walker 

That evening Mr. Morris came to see me and brought a bouquet of 
beautiful roses. I quietly handed him the note, but said nothing. He 
took the note and read it. During the evening we went up town for a 
walk and he bought me a beautiful little silver portemonnaie, or purse. 
On the sides was a raised design of a basket of flowers with a wreath of 
roses around the basket. The compartments inside were lined with red 
silk and edged with fine black kid. I had never seen anything so exqui- 
site before, and of course I appreciated it very much. After our return, 
we were standing at the door, I on the step above him. As he was about 
to depart he slipped up and stole his first kiss. I was quite shocked, but 
on consideration, concluded he had a right to do so, if men ever have a 
right to steal a kiss. 

Sometimes Mr. Morris would bring other young men with him to 
see if I preferred them to him. I did not understand why he did this at the 
time and often wondered at it, but when I found out I thought it pretty 
smart of him. 

My engagement ring was a heavy gold band called a "keeper" embossed 
with a sort of shield upon which were engraved my initials M.L.W. 

98 Before the Manifesto 

We then exchanged daguerreotype likenesses. Mine was the one 
that my enlarged picture was made from and his was the only one that I 
have in my possession. He was about twenty-five when his was taken and I 
about seventeen when mine was taken. 

All was not smooth sailing. Although father made no objection to 
our engagement he was not always agreeable when Mr. Morris called on 
me. I think that this was due to the fact that he could not bear to be 
parted from his child. He once told me that was his reason for deferring 
his answer to Mr. Morris's note for so long. 

On account of my father's attitude, to save unpleasantness, when we 
were going out together, we would sometimes arrange to meet in town, 
instead of Mr. Morris calling for me. This touched my dignity, but we had 
some pleasant times, in spite of this fact. 

I believe that my father's feelings had their influence upon me 
for sometimes I feared that I did not love my betrothed as I thought I 
should, and I felt that I would rather not marry at all than wrong the man 
I married by not giving him my whole heart. I wondered what I ought to 
do, and having no mother to confide in, I naturally turned to my father 
and asked his advice by writing to him, as I felt that I could not talk to him 
upon so delicate a subject. He answered my letter verbally and advised 
me by no means to break off my engagement. He told me that affection 
was sometimes stronger upon one side than the other, and made this 
remark; — which I did not enjoy hearing: — "In many cases wives love their 
husbands more than the husbands love their wives". At this time he made 
another remark which made a deep impression upon me and which I 
have referred to elsewhere in this sketch. It was this: — "Those who honor 
God, God will honor2. 

This was a test of my father's feelings also, for if he had wanted me 
not to marry Mr. Morris he had a good opportunity to use his influence 
in that direction, but no, he advised me otherwise, and with his sanction I 
felt like letting things take their course. 

I suppose many young people have doubts and fears and litde trials 
during their courtship. 

Father Returns to England 
We gave up the idea of going to the Valley that season as father went to 
England on business and expected to be gone all the winter. He gave me 
money to pay the rent and to buy coal, expecting that I should support 
myself, as I had done before, but to my surprise advised me not to marry. 
After he had gone I looked the situation squarely in the face. Here am I, 
I thought, living alone, engaged to be married, my betrothed coming to 
see me, as was his right, and willing to marry me at once except for my 
father's council to the contrary. My own common sense told me that if 

Sketch of the Life of Mary L. Morris 99 

only for my good name's sake, I should either marry soon or discontinue 
my association with him, whose wife I had promised to become. 

Oh, my mother! If thou couldst have known the shortsightedness of 
thy spouse in his advice to thy child, the grave could not have held thee! 

On the 15th of August, 1852 my mother had been dead one year. 
That evening we set the date of our marriage for September 5th. Mr. 
Morris being an artist, I submitted some samples of dress materials for my 
wedding dress to him for his approval. He made choice of a very pretty 
pattern, but one which I, with my Quaker training, considered rather gay. 
But concluding that my taste might be rather one-sided, I selected the 
one of his choice. The material was called barege-delaine and was very 
thin and gauzy. The background was a pale cloudy blue with pink roses 
not more than an inch in size. This dress, with a black silk scarf and a 
white bonnet, constituted my wedding suit. 

We were married, immediately after meeting, about four o'clock on 
Sunday afternoon, September 5th, 1852, by Elder William Gibson, then 
president of the St. Louis Conference. We rented one room in the house 
in which our friends Bro. and Sister Harrison lived. 

After our marriage my husband told me that he had prayed for a 
wife who might be clean, healthy and a good Mormon. Mark the simple 
earnest language of this young man of foreign birth. 

He soon wrote home to tell his parents of his marriage. He told me 
what he wanted to say and so I put it into rhyme for him. This is how it 
ran: — 

"I was married on the fifth of September 

The day, long expected, I shall ever remember, 
To a girl, the age of seventeen, 

The sweetest girl that ever I've seen. 
Mary Walker was her name, 

She was without gold or fame, 
A Mormon she is, in deed and heart, 

And from the truth she ne'er intends to part." 

After our marriage, my husband would tell me of having dreamed 
that he had married some other girl of his acquaintance, but that upon 
awakening he was thankful to find that he had the one whom the Lord 
had given him, in answer to prayer. 

1 00 Before the Manifesto 

About two weeks after we had been married an impression came to me 
that my husband would die. Indeed I might have thought of this before, 
as he had some sort of lung trouble but I naturally supposed he would 
get better after a while. He said that at one time after having walked a 
long distance, which caused him to perspire, he rode on a stage coach 
in the rain. The result was a heavy cold, which in spite of careful nursing 
setded upon his lungs and ultimately developed into consumption. From 
our first acquaintance he had been candid with me regarding his condi- 
tion, but had I foreseen what the final result would be I would not have 
forsaken him for that. 

So the winter wore on without any very bright prospect before us. 

Arrival of Relatives 
In the spring we received word that my husband's family was coming to 
Utah, and in April they arrived. Besides his parents there was his sister 
Barbara [Elizabeth Morris] and brother Hugh [Conway Morris], these 
being the only unmarried children in the family. Our meeting was a very 
pleasant one, for in loving my husband I loved all who belonged to him. 

My Husband's Family 
My husband's father [John Morris] was of medium height, well built, had 
light brown hair, blue eyes, fair complexion and rosy cheeks. He looked 
very happy, when he said, in his best English: — "I am proud of my daugh- 

My husband's mother [Barbara Thomas Morris] was very small in stat- 
ure, with curly hair, grey eyes, an olive complexion and very smooth skin 
and a rather dignified nose. She had her feelings well under control and 
was a person of few words. She was a woman of ability and a natural artist. 

Father Morris, your grandfather, had worked his way up from 
a mason's laborer to a contractor and bridge builder. He was a man of 
industrious habits, full of integrity for the Gospel and fond of children. 

My sister-in-law, Barbara, was small also but quite interesting. She was 
nineteen years old the month after their arrival. Her hair was brown, eyes 
grey, a good complexion and teeth, a shapely figure and a particularly 
attractive manner. Her brother, Hugh Conway, was also small of stature, 
had rather light hair, aquiline nose and was quite good looking. I cannot 
say that his eyes were either blue or grey, as he had one blue eye and one 
grey. He had had more educational advantages than his brothers, or had 
more time for study and was very intelligent. In fact he reminded one of 
a college student. 

We soon began to arrange for our"trip to the Valley" as it was then 
called. My husband's family had paid their way from Liverpool to Salt 

Sketch of the Life of Mary L. Morris 101 

Lake, in what was called the "Ten Pound Company", but how were my 
husband and I to go? 24 Winter is not a very brisk season for painters and 
the spring work had hardly begun. However, we heard of a neighbor, 
whose wife had emigrated in the "Ten Pound Company" but was desirous 
of remaining in St. Louis, as her husband and daughter, who had pre- 
ceeded her some time previous, were not prepared to go on to the Valley 
at that time. 

To the Valley 
My husband therefore purchased the half way ticket for me and on the 
17th May, 1853, Father and Mother Morris, their son Hugh Conway, 
daughter Barbara and I left for the city of St. Louis, Mo. for the home of 
the Saints in the Great Salt Lake Valley. 25 

After about a weeks travel we arrived in Keokuk. 26 We spent the 
night in what must have been a baggage shed for there was merchandise 
of great variety stowed away all about us and we were awakened at dawn 
by the crowing of roosters. I was sad because I did not know whether I 

24. Because of the desire of'so many Mormons to emigrate to Utah, church leaders decided 
to reduce the cost for British converts to emigrate to Utah in 1883 to ten pounds per 
person. Polly Aird explains, "The cheap price was based on reducing everything to a 
minimum: no extra food and more people per wagon and milk cow, which meant each 
person could take less luggage and would receive less milk." Men were also sent ahead 
to buy the supplies and teams at a discounted bulk rate. The plan allowed each person 
over eight years old to take only "one hundred pounds of luggage — including bedding, 
clothing, cooking utensils, and tools." Unlike other immigrating plans, the teams 
and wagons belonged to the immigrants. As a result of cutting costs, the Ten-Pound 
Company's wagons were overloaded, and they experienced food shortages during their 
journey. In 1853 more than 41 percent of the emigrants, as many as 957 people, came 
across the plains in this manner. Aird cites Mary Lois Morris's memoir as one of seven 
surviving accounts of the Ten-Pound and Thirteen-Pound companies in 185.3 and 1854. 
Linforth, Route from Liverpool to Great Salt Lake Valley, 12; Polly Aird, "Bound for Zion: 
The Ten- and Thirteen-Pound Emigrating Companies, 1853-1854," 305-25. 

25. Records of the Joseph Young pioneer company are in "Utah, Pioneer Companies," 
Journal History, September 22, 1853, 1-6; October 10, 185.3, 1-27. Several other 
accounts of members of the company survive, including John V. Adams, "Story of the 
Plains," in OPH, 10:125-27 and Joseph W. Young Emigrating Company, Journal, 124- 
26. For the route of the Mormon Trail, see S. Kent Brown, Donald Q. Cannon, and 
Richard H.Jackson, eds., Historical Atlas of Mormonism, 76. 

26. In 1853, the town of Keokuk, located in southeast Iowa, was the point of departure for 
Mormon emigrants heading west. Until 1853, Mormons crossing the plains got outfitted 
for their journey in Kanesville, Council Bluffs, Iowa. Because merchants and traders in 
Council Bluffs "had commenced a system of inordinate speculation upon emigrants" 
and because of "the somewhat dangerous ascent" of the Missouri River, in 1853 the 
point of outfit was changed to Keokuk, along the Mississippi River. This change greatly 
increased the distance traveled on land through Iowa. Linforth, Route from Liverpool to 
Great Salt Lake Valley, 59; Stanley B. Kimball, Historic Sites and Markers along the Mormon 
and Other Great Western Trails, 48. 

102 Before the Manifesto 

should meet my husband again before we reached our journey's end or 
not but I was willing to make the sacrifice, come what might. From here 
we moved to Montrose where we stayed until the company's outfitting was 
all completed. 27 This consisted of purchasing cattle, wagons and provi- 
sions for our one thousand miles journey across the plains. 

One evening I was taking a litde walk a short distance from the Camp 
and saw a number of persons coming towards us, one of them proving 
to be, to my great delight, my dear husband. In this I felt that the Lord 
had accepted our sacrifice but did not require of us as much as we were 
willing to endure. And here is a valuable lesson; — to be willing to do the 
willof God is often all that he requires. At Montrose we met for the first 
time our future beloved and highly esteemed captain Joseph W. [Watson] 
Young, son of Lorenzo Dow Young and nephew of Pres. Brigham Young. 28 
He was a man of medium height, medium complexion, manner grave 
and unassuming. He had a beautiful wife with him but she was an invalid, 
which perhaps accounted for his grave demeanor. 

Before we started he gave us this advice. — "Contend with no one, pray 
for those who are set over you and they will prove a blessing unto you". 

He was a young man when he said that, but in the fifty years which 
have elapsed since then I have proved his words to be true. 

When we had been some time on the plains he called us together 
to talk to us as a leader must talk to those who are under his guidance. 
Amongst other things he said was; — "A man who talks about doing 'his 
share of the work' should be fed with a teaspoon and sleet with his 
mother!" Once of twice I caught a glimpse of his beautiful wife as I passed 
their covered wagon. 

We had one wagon and one tent to ten persons. Our ration, or allow- 
ance of provisions, was one pound of flour and a portion of bacon each 
day, but we were at liberty to provide any extras we could afford. There 
was a commissary to every ten and a captain of every ten, also captains of 
fifty's who assisted Captain Young. The late Pres. John R. [Rex] Winder 
was captain of our fifty. 

A great deal of patience was required by both captains and people 
to perform the trip of one thousand miles across the plains. We had four 

27. In 1839, Montrose, Iowa, was settled by Mormons along with its sister city of Nauvoo, 
Illinois, on the opposite bank of the Mississippi River. Montrose was "one of the largest 
and most important Mormon settlements in Lee County, Iowa." Susan Easton Black 
and William G. Harriey, eds., The Iowa Mormon Trail: Legacy of Faith and Courage, 32, 
196-97; Brown, Cannon, Jackson, Historical Atlas of Mormonism, 48-49, 58. 

28. A portion of Mary Lois's memoir describing her journey from Montrose, Iowa, to the 
Salt Lake Valley is included in the Journal History. Mary Lois's account is inserted 
beginning with the sentence "At Montrose, we met, for the first time" and concluding 
with the sentence "After a short visit we bade her good-night and betook ourselves to 
our camping ground again." Journal History, October 10, 1853. 

Sketch of the Life of Mary L. Morris 103 

oxen and two cows to each ten. The waggons were for our baggage and 
we walked alongside or ahead of the teams, perhaps riding once or twice 
a day, for half an hour or so. One day I walked twenty miles, the whole 
day's journey, without riding at all. Twenty miles was the distance we were 
supposed to cover each day and sometimes we would have to camp with- 
out either wood or water. In this case we were compelled to gather buffalo 
chips with which to build a fire to cook our supper. Sometimes there was 
no feed for our cattle in the place where we camped for the night, in 
which case we had to rise early and travel on until we reached a place 
where the catde could feed while we cooked and ate our breakfast. 

Our bread we mixed with a piece of light dough or leven, but often 
by the time we reached our camping ground, especially in warm weather, 
it was sour, or in cold weather not sufficiendy raised and then we had 
heavy bread. Sometimes, however, it was just right and then we had excel- 
lent bread. 

While our extras lasted our rations were abundant, but when they 
were gone they were insufficient. Father Morris would not only walk allthe 
way, but carried a double barrel shotgun, with which he often shot rabbits 
or prairie chickens. One evening, when our food was scanty, I asked your 
grandmother where she had got the pepper from? She replied that there 
was no pepper. (I doubt if there was any in the camp.) Yet it certainly 
seemed to me that I could taste pepper in our rabbit supper. One day 
when it was still colder and provisions less than ever, our commissary, Bro. 
William Parry, gave us some bread which certainly seemed to have sugar 
in it, when perhaps there was none in camp. 

An Indian Episode 
One afternoon, as we were traveling in the vicinity of Piatt River, we saw, 
at a great distance, two objects coming towards us. 29 As they approached 
we saw that they were Indians, Pawnee's, a very savage tribe who were at 
war, at that time, with the Souix, another savage tribe. 30 

29. The Mormon Trail followed the North Platte River until Fort Laramie, Wyoming. In 
1847, the Vanguard Mormon Company decided to disregard the precedent of earlier 
immigrants who had traveled along the south side of the Platte. Instead, they made 
their way along the north side of the Platte River. The Vanguard Company's route on 
the north side of the river "established a pattern for subsequent Mormon companies," 
which often followed the same route. William W. Slaughter and Michael Landon, Trail 
of Hope: The Story of the Mormon Trail, 53; Brown, Cannon, Jackson, Historical Atlas of 
Mormonism, 76, 86. 

30. When the Siouan tribes entered the Platte valley, they found the Pawnees had already 
taken up residence there, after also being pushed out of their native lands. As a result, 
beginning in the 1760s, warfare began between the Pawnee and Siouan tribes over 
hunting areas and continued for the next century. The opening of an emigrant trail 
through the Platte valley in the 1840s also spread disease, leaving the Pawnees "less 

104 Before the Manifesto 

At sight of these two Indians, the teamsters stopped their wagons 
and reached for their guns, while the women came to the wagons for pro- 
tection. As these first two Indians came to a standstill, they said, "Pawnee 
shoot! Pawnee shoot!" Then more indians came, dressed in their trap- 
pings and war paint, their numbers seeming to increase every moment. I 
was not afraid however. Something seemed to bear witness to me that they 
would not harm us. One of them came and talked to me, and wanted the 
litde blue jacket I was wearing. There was no more traveling that night. 
After the fires had been lighted the Pawnee chief came and patrolled our 
camp all night, to protect us from his own band. I sat and looked at him 
with pride and pleasure, he seemed so noble and grand. Also I could feel 
a protecting power over us that was more than mortal. It is likely that he 
felt this influence and that a superior power inspired him to do as he 
did. It seems to me that I can never forget the spirit of calm and seren- 
ity that surrounded us as I sat, on an ox yoke, almost alone, near the 
dying embers of our camp fire. So the night passed, the morning dawned, 
we were permitted to continue our journey unmolested and unharmed, 
filled with gratitude to our Heavenly Father for His merciful protection. 

When the rivers were too deep for us to cross in the wagons, the 
young men would carry us over. I think that Wood River was the most 
remarkable one on our journey. I crossed, it on horseback, behind Dr. 
Dunyon, a near relative of Mrs. William D.Johnson, Sr. 

The night we camped on the banks of this river, the watchman, in 
telling the hour, would add, — "Mosquitoes tiresome". But they were more 
than tiresome; it seemed to me that they would devour us. 

We crossed the Piatt River at intervals during five hundred miles 
of our journey, and walked much on its sandy banks. In fact the whole 
region of this river seemed sandy. I remember, in walking, I was so anx- 
ious to save the soles of my shoes, that I walked in the grass whenever pos- 
sible, so that the uppers wore out first. 

Another Premonition 
When about halfway on our journey I again had the impression that my 
husband would die. I could not keep back my tears and sobbed as if my 
heart would break. I was ashamed for the family to see me, for there was 
no privacy, except away from the camp. I never knew what they thought 
of my grief, but my impressions proved to be true. At another time, 
while crossing the plains I was very ill. I had no desire for food, and 
the only medicine we had was a little rice water. I did not mind much 

able to defend themselves against the continuous attacks of their enemies, the Sioux." 
Frederick Webb Hodge, Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico, 2:214—16; Harvey 
Markowitz, ed., American Indians, 2:582-84. 

Sketch of the Life of Mary L. Morris 105 

whether I recovered or not, but I did not like the idea of leaving my 
husband and his mother. 

Trying Times 
We found it very trying when the wind was high, especially as this seemed 
to be the case when it was raining. Then we would try to put up out tent 
in order to protect ourselves from the tempest which often seemed as if it 
would lift our canvas home from its foundations after we had succeeded 
in erecting it. This was often a long and tedious process. First hooks, 
shaped like crochet hooks were driven into the ground, the hooks hold- 
ing the rope, which held the tent to the ground, but when a high wind 
was blowing the tent would be lifted from its holdings as fast as the man 
tried to fasten the rope to the pegs. 

Then again, when we came into camp, tired and hungry and would 
have to hunt buffalo chips, in the dark, and could not get a mouthful to 
eat until bread had been baked by this slow process. But when the eve- 
nings work was done, the bugle sounded and we assembled for prayers. 
In the early part of our journey, when the days were long, we would sit on 
the yokes of the oxen and sing hymns, but as the nights grew colder, we 
often heard the wolves howling not far from us. 

The Post Offices 
As we journeyed across the plains we often passed a "Post Office". This 
would mean the skull of an ox or buffalo bleached white by exposure, 
upon which was written, probably, as follows: "July 15th, 1853. The 
Company of Jacob Gates passed today. All well." "August 15th, 1853. 
The Company of Cyrus Wheelock passed today. All well." And this news 
cheered us and we were glad to know that our friends were well and pro- 
gressing on their journey even if the message were only taken from a dry 
bone. A similar message was of course added by our captan telling of our 
safe arrival. 

(Note: — Illustrate with a buffalo skull engraved with message) 
When we had made about half of our journey, I think still upon the 
Piatt River, we came to Chimney Rock. 31 It was so tall that it was in view 
two or three days before we reached it, and could still be seen several days 
afterward as we continued our journey. 

I must not forget to speak of our little milch cows. These faithful 
creatures, though giving milk to supply us on our journey, were yoked to 
the wagon, between the lead and tongue cattle. They looked very small 

31. Chimney Rock, Nebraska, a natural tower of clay twelve miles west of Bridgeport, was a 
celebrated landmark along the pioneer trail. Hundreds of names were scratched onto 
its soft base by passing travelers. Linforth, Route from Liverpool to Great Salt Lake Valley, 
91-92; Kimball, Historic Sites and Markers, 124-25. 

106 Before the Manifesto 

indeed, as they pulled in front of one yoke and behind the other. I do 
not remember them by name, but I know the lead cattle were called 
Tom and Bill and those attached to the tongue, answered to the names 
of Dick and Ned. Unfortunately our little cows became dry, or so nearly 
dry that they gave but a teacup full of milk a day. The consequence was, 
that our camp kettle, that used to be full of good milk gruel for our 
breakfast, became gradually a kettle full of flour starch with only a cup 
full of milk added. 

Welcome Aid 
A few days before we reached our journey's end a team and provisions 
were sent to our aid. I was invited, with others, to ride, but was so overcome 
with fatigue and also perhaps, the reaction at feeling that our tedious 
journey was nearly at an end, that I fainted, in the wagon. Regaining con- 
ciousness, I found myself in a sitting posture, on the ground, my dear 
mother-in-law in front of me and my husband, supporting my back, he 
trembling the while, and I heard her say to him, in the Welsh language; — 
"It is want of food that ails her." 

Big Mountain 
Before reaching the Great Salt Lake Valley, we had another high moun- 
tain to cross, called Big Mountain. 32 We were anxious to get to it, but 
dreaded the ascent. It was a fine day on October 10th, 1853, when we 
reached it. We had previously arranged our attire, as best we could, after 
such a long journey, in expectation of meeting with our friends, as many 
of the Saints came to greet the companies as they arrived. 

There was a great variety of trees growing on the side of the moun- 
tain, the road was hard, level and well trodden and as we descended 
into the canyon below the scenery was grand indeed. I remember, while 
ascending the Bid [Big] Mountain, and stopping to take breath, I looked 
around, above and below and came to the conclusion that "never again, 
in this life, do I want to cross that mountain". Among the brush I saw a 
bush bearing wild berries and being very hungry, I ate some of them, not 
knowing what they were, but they affected me like poison. 

Little Mountain 
We had stillone more mountain to cross, called Littie Mountain, but 
upon descending, began to feel more cheerful as we began to meet per- 
sons coming to fetch their friends or relatives. The first person whom we 

32. Big Mountain, located east of the head of City Creek Canyon, was the "largest, most 
difficult mountain" along the Mormon pioneers' trail to the Salt Lake Valley. John W. 
Van Cott, Utah Place Names, 33. 

Sketch of the Life of Mary L. Morris 107 

were acquainted with was Bro. Caleb Parry, brother of William Parry, our 

I could not understand why my only sister, whom I had not seen for 
a period of seven years, had not come to greet me. 

I was most forcibly struck with the neat, clean and fair appearance 
of the people as they came up to us and did not realize that in propor- 
tion as they looked fair and clean to us we looked correspondingly brown 
and grim to them. I especially remember a Sister Grateriz, mentioned in 
another part of this sketch. She looked so neat and clean that it gave me 
additional pleasure to see her. I thought I looked pretty well for I had 
taken a good wash, every morning, before starting our day's walk and had 
taken care to shade my face. 

We Camp in Great Salt Lake City 
Our camping ground was situated immediately west of where the Salt 
Lake Knitting Factory now stands, in the Sixteenth Ward. 33 There was a 
litde round house built nearby, Later occupied by your Uncle Richard 
[Vaughan Morris] . 

I think it was our friend Bro. Harrison, who came to the camping 
ground to see us and took us to find my sister, Mrs. Ann Agatha Pratt. Her 
home was situated just west of where the Elias Morris & Sons Company 
marble yard now stands, and on the ground at present occupied by the 
Vermont Building, or perhaps a litde west of that structure. 34 

Meeting with My Sister Ann Agatha Pratt 
My sister had that day presented her husband, Apostle Parley P. Pratt, 
with a twelve and a half pound boy in the person of her oldest son 
Moroni Walker Pratt. I may just state here, as I may never mention him 
again, that this boy as he grew to manhood developed the courage of a 
lion with the meekness and gentleness of a lamb, and other qualities to 

I do not think that my sister had grown during the period of our 
separation, for she attained her full height at the age of fourteen, only 
that lying stretched out in bed she appeared taller. She looked lovely, so 
exquisitely clean and rosy. Everything in her room and surrounding her 
was spodessly clean and appeared so comfortable to one who had just 
passed through such an experience as we had. 

33. In the first decade of the twentieth century, when Mary Lois was writing her memoir, 
the Salt Lake Knitting Works was located at 58 South Main Street, Salt Lake City. Utah 
State Gazetteer and Business Directory, 2:405. 

34. Between 1900 and 1915, when Mary Lois was writing her memoir, the Morris & Sons 
marble yard was located on the Richards Street corner of West South Temple. Morris 
and Sons, 16. 

108 Before the Manifesto 

As I was only ten years of age when she left England I had, as it were, 
to re-adjust my mental picture of her, in order to realize that this beauti- 
ful woman lying with her infant clasped to her bosom, was the sister of my 

After a few hours of conversation we bade her goodnight, leav- 
ing her to her much needed rest, and betook ourselves to our camping 

Greetings from Friends 
The following morning Bro.Geo. B. [George Benjamin] Wallace and Bro. 
Lorenzo Dow Young, came to see us and talked to us as a company. The 
latter was the father of our beloved Captain Joseph W. Young, for whom 
we got up a memorial as a token of the love and esteem in which we held 

Father John Parry, a dear friend of the Morris family also came dur- 
ing the day. He was the father of John Parry, who built the Logan Temple; 
also of William and Caleb Parry, before named and Joseph Hyrum and 
Edwin F. Parry. He was a dear old gendeman and a sweet singer. He had 
been a Campbellite before joining the Church. 

A year previous Elias Morris, my husband's brother had emigrated 
and settled in Iron County, so Father and Mother Morris with their 
daughter and son Hugh continued the journey south to Cedar City while 
my husband and I remained in Salt Lake. We went to live with a family of 
the name of Pell. Our acquaintance with Bro. Pell had begun in St. Louis 
when he boarded in the same hotel as my husband. 

Brother Pell had two sisters, Josephine and Martha, very respectable 
cultured girls. They were from the east and milliners by trade. We were 
the best of friends but it was hard for people who had just taken the jour- 
ney across the plains to eat at another persons table. We could not be sat- 
isfied with an ordinary amount of food and were hungry all the time. 

Soon after our arrival these young ladies were taken ill with 
Mountain Fever, and I nursed them. Miss Josephine soon recovered but 
Miss Martha for many days lingered between life and death. One eve- 
ning as we stood around her bed expecting to see her breathe her last, 
she turned her eyes toward her brother and whispered; — "Lige, I know 
I ought to be baptized", and she desired to have the matter attended to 
the following morning. The weather was cold, but I do not remember 
whether there was ice on the water or no, but the following morning she 
was baptized in City Creek by Bro. John Snider and she was healed. 35 

35. City Creek begins near the summit of the Wasatch Mountains and flows southwest 
through City Creek Canyon for about twelve miles. It emerges into the Salt Lake Valley 
near the state capital building. Van Cott, Utah Place Names, 80. 

Sketch of the Life of Mary L. Morris 109 

Bro. Pell and my husband had gone into business in a small way 
soon after we went to live with them but as winter closed in there was no 
work or prospect of any for some time to come. 

Xmas 1853 
We spent Xmas with my husband's cousin Isaac Conway Morris who lived 
in a house on North Temple and near Fourth West Street. The room was 
without ceiling and I think without plaster. The fire was composed of 
three small sticks of wood placed across two adobes and the sticks were so 
green that we could see the sap ooze out of them and hear it sing. Wood 
was scarce everywhere, as the canyon had been snowed up since the 
autumn. They had a litde baby, born on the plains September 13th, three 
months previous, and as they had been in our ten, we were acquainted 
with the circumstance. . 

Our supper was very plain, consisting of potatoes, some kind 
of bread and I think a small amount of meat, perhaps a litde piece of 

The house was very cold, and we sat keeping warm this fire of three 
green sticks, and all the light we had came from the same source. And so 
passed our first Xmas in the Valley. 

Opening of the Year 1854 
Though want stared us in the face we preferred it to obligation, so early in 
January we took a room in the home of Bro. Alfred Randall situated half 
a block north of the north-west corner of the Temple Block. The room 
was small but neady finished. We had no wood for fuel but a kind hearted 
Scottish brother hauled some willows for us to burn. When we found one 
a litde thicker than a broom handle we were glad. I do not know how we 
obtained flour, but I remember we had to content ourselves with "shorts" 
during nine days. We had no stove, but burned our willows in a small fire- 
place. We had one saucepan, but perhaps that was a borrowed one. When 
we had bread to bake my husband would go down to Sixth or Seventh West 
Street to borrow a baking ketde from a good natured Welsh Sister named 
Daniels, and when our loaf was baked, return it. It was a cast iron vessel and 
very heavy. I remember going with him once, and while he carried the ves- 
sel I carried the lid, but I know either was as much as one would care to lift. 

Housekeeping under Difficulties 
We had no chairs or table but my husband managed, some way, to get 
two stools. I think he paid for them in painting. Then we obtained a dry 
goods box, which we elevated by some means, and I took an old light 
colored skirt, starched and ironed it, and put a shirring at the top and it 
looked quite neat around the box which served us for a table. 

110 Before the Manifesto 

On the plains we were obliged to dispense with our litde clothes 
chest, on account of its weight, so we sewed up our clothing in a bed tick. 
This, filled with straw, was our bed, and our pillows were filled with the 
same substance and remained plump. 

I have no idea where we obtained a candlestick, if we had one, which 
was not a very necessary utensil in our household, however, as a candle 
was a luxury we seldom enjoyed. Our fireplace, too, smoked so badly that 
at times we could hardly see each other across the room. 

About this time my husband contracted a severe cold, losing his 
voice, so that he could hardly speak above a whisper. 

I think that the only work that came during the first two months of 
the year was a little stand to be painted as a checker-board, but we were 
glad to get it, as we hoped by this means to be able to buy a little meat 
which we so much desired. But instead of money or provisions, the young 
man offered in payment to make a rolling pin or a potato masher! I was 
still using both when I broke up housekeeping in 1902. Our library con- 
sisted of a Book of Mormon, Goldsmith's History of England, A Book of 
Etiquette for Gentlemen, bound in red, which belonged to my husband, 
and A Book of Etiquette for ladies, bound in pale blue and gold, which 
he gave to me. Also a volume of the Times and Seasons, which I have 
given to my son Nephi, and a book on Obstetrics. 3 '' 

My husband would sometimes looked at me as if he expected me 
to complain, but a murmur never passed my lips, for we had been taught 
that is was wrong to murmur. Upon seeing this, he said to me; — "You shall 
see better times, for what you have passed through." 

In the month of February we received our Patriarchal blessings, 
under the hands of the presiding patriarch, John Smith, who was uncle to 
the Prophet Joseph. This good man told us things that we did not know 
about ourselves, but which afterwards proved true. My husband happened 
to have a dollar in cash in his pocket and so paid for the blessing, but I had 
nothing wherewith to pay for mine, so I gave a pair of gold earrings in place 
of the money, until I could redeem them. The lady who wrote the blessing 
accepted the ear-rings. She was Mrs. Agusta [Augusta Bowen Cleveland 
Smith], wife of John L. Smith, and daughter-in-law to the Patriarch. 

36. Oliver Goldsmith (1730?— 1774) was the author of An History of England: In a Series of 
Letters from a Nobleman to his Son (London, printed for J. Newbery at the Bible and Sun 
in St. Paul's Church Yard, 1764). The book was subsequently published in a number of 
succeeding editions, often under the title An Abridgment of the History of England: From 
the Invasion offulius Caesar, to the Death of George the Second (London: W. Osborne, 1793). 
The Times and Seasons was a periodical printed in Nauvoo, Illinois, between 18.39 and 

Sketch of the Life of Mary L. Morris 111 

A Blessing 

Salt Lake City.Feb.4th 1 854 
A Blessing, by John Smith, Patriarch, upon the head of Mary Lois Morris, 
daughter of William and Mary Walker, born in Leek, Staffordshire, 
England, May 14th, 1835. 

My Blessing 
Sister Mary, In the name of Jesus Christ of Nazareth, I lay my hands upon 
thy head and seal upon you a Patriarchal, or a Father's blessing; — The 
destroyer shall not hurt you when he passeth through the land. You shall 
be blessed with health and all the blessings of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob 
and all the priesthood that was conferred upon the daughters of Ephraim 
in the land of Egypt. Your posterity shall be very numerous and extend 
their dominions to the ends of the earth. You shallhave faith to heal the 
sick in your house, to cast out devils and even to raise the dead if it is 
necessary. You shall prosper in all things you set your hands to do. The 
powers of darkness shall not prevail against you. You shall live to see the 
winding up scene of this generation. You shall see your Redeemer, and 
converse with Him and shall inherit all the blessings and glories of that 
kingdom with all your father's house. Even so, Amen. 

The earings just mentioned, stood the lady in good stead many 
years afterwards, when her husband was on a mission, and still later she 
bought them back again and returned them to me by the hand of Aunt 
Bathsheba [Wilson Bigler] Smith, free of charge for my blessing given 
fifty-seven years previously. They are still in good condition and I gave 
them to my daughter Kate. 

During the latter part of the winter of 1854 and in the spring, my 
husband was engaged in painting portraits. He made life size bust pic- 
tures of Aposdes Parley P. Pratt and George A. Smith. Also a three quarter 
portrait of Patriarch John Smith. The patriarch was illat the time and the 
picture was completed when he was really dying. 

A Prosperous Spring 
Notwithstanding the difficulty of the different sittings a very good likeness 
was obtained. My husband also painted a family group of about twenty 
persons for Apostie Parley P. Pratt and another family group for Edmond 

He also painted some chairs for a Bro. Dallas, a furniture maker, 
and tookchairs in exchange for his work. These he grained in mahogany 
and being well varnished they had a very handsome appearance. Two full 
length mirrors also came his way, one of which we kept and the other my 
sister Agatha was very glad to buy as she was in the Millinery business. A 
Brother Coleman of the Tenth Ward, a cabinet maker by trade, made 

112 Before the Manifesto 

the frames for them, and as these were grained in mahogany of a darker 
shade than the chairs, ours made quite a nice addition to our room. Soon 
after we were fortunate enough to secure a bedstead and this too being 
grained to match the chairs, all our furniture corresponded. A Sister 
Horner wanted some painting done, and offered a piece of very choice 
rag carpet, and a Sister Davis, sister of our esteemed land-lady, also had a 
fine quilt to dispose of for some painting. I am not suffiendy versed in the 
science of geometry to describe it, but it was very pretty. These acceptable 
articles came to us about the time of spring cleaning, and my husband 
calcomined the walls of our room cream color. 37 These were decorated 
with the unfinished oil paintings which were set off to advantage on the 
spodess walls. We had brought with us some white curtains and as the sea- 
son advanced these contrasted prettily with the purple morning glories 
blooming outside our litde windows. 

We were able to add a litde also to our stock of kitchen utensils, but 
while dinner plates were fifty cents each and everything correspondingly 
high priced, our progress along this line was necessarily slow. Our little 
home began to look quite handsome for those early days. 

In the month of September we secured a very nice leaf table and 
soon after a cover in scarlet and black. We now began to feel that we had 
about as much as could be desired for one small room. 

By this time my husband was in great demand for his work, for he not 
only understood portrait painting, marbling, graining and fresco work, 
but also house and carriage painting. One of his patrons I remember with 
great pleasure, was Bro. Jedediah M. [Morgan] Grant, councilor to Pres. 
Young. During the summer of 1854 my husband painted a carriage for 
him, the wheels of which were done in vermillion with narrow lines of yel- 
low down the center of each spoke. He also painted some cupboards or 
book-cases in American oak with which Bro. Grant was very pleased, for I 
heard him say; — "Bro. Morris, I know that this graining is done correctly, 
for I have cut just such beautiful oak in my native state of Kentucky". In 
part payment Bro. Grant brought from the canyon two loads of excellent 
oak and maple for our winter's fuel. I can see him now unloading his two 
well filled undergears into our door yard for winter use. 

A Son Is Born 
On October 17th a son was born to us. He was a healthy looking child and 
weighed nine and a half pounds. We named him John Walker [Morris] . 
When he was about nine days old he began to cough. We used simple 
remedies but without result. In spite of the cough he seemed to thrive 

37. Calcimine is a "trade name given to a kind of white or coloured wash for walls." The 
Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd ed., s.v. "Calcimine." 

Sketch of the Life of Mary L. Morris 113 

and developed into an intelligent looking baby with large blue eyes, light 
brown hair, well marked eyebrows, fine features and a fair complexion. I 
loved him very dearly. The way had opened up before his birth so that we 
obtained some beautiful material for his clothing which I made by hand 
with a great deal of pleasure. 

A Warning Voice 
One evening, when he was two or three months old I was sitting alone with 
him on my lap, his father being at quorum meeting, when I was deeply 
impressed, or something whispered to me, — 'You will lose that litde one". 
This caused me to feel very sad and when my husband came home I told 
him of the impression that I had received. He replied, "Perhapd you were 
mistaken", but I had no doubt about it. 

Failing Health of Husband and Baby 
We were now in prosperous circumstances, my husband being crowded 
with work, some being so anxious to obtain it that they paid for it in 
advance. Though being perhaps the youngest painter in the town, he 
was very popular, and on one occasion, invited his fellow workmen to 
our home for the purpose of considering matters relative to their trade. 
They formed an association of which, I think, he was made the president. 
As winter advanced, however, his health and that of the baby, began to 
decline. So we concluded to call in our neighbor, Bro. Anthony Ivins, 
who had a reputation for medical skill. With reference to my husband, 
he asked if he had night sweats. Although still in my teens, this question 
was full of foreboding. The symptom, however, had not developed at that 
time, but did later. In reply to my inquiry about the baby, he said that he 
had taken his father's desease. 

In our anxiety about our litde one we asked a friend, who was some- 
thing of an astrologer, what he thought about him. He said; — "If he lives, 
he will be a brighter man than his father ever was, allowing that his father 
is pretty bright." 

My husband's health did not improve and he grew weaker every day, 
but he was so anxious to work, especially to finish the pieces for which he 
had already received payment, that he would not give up, even when he 
was so ill that on returning home he had to support himself by holding 
onto the fences. 

We Go to Cedar City 
About this time we received an invitation from his father and mother to 
go down to Cedar City and visit them. The invitation seemed opportune, 
as we thought the change to a somewhat milder climate might be benefi- 
cial to him and the baby. 

114 Before the Manifesto 

Arrangements had been previously made for us to make the jour- 
ney with a Bro. Wesley Willis, in his covered wagon This Bro. Willis was 
an intelligent man, in good standing in the Church, and he was very kind 
to us. It was in January, 1855 that we started on our three hundred mile 
journey through the frost and snow. Our mode of travel was to make an 
early start with a heated rock at our feet to keep us from freezing, and at 
night we would stop at friends of Bro. Willis's. One night we stayed with a 
Mrs. Roper, a frield of my father's. She was so handsome, intelligent and 
kind that it made me happy to look at her. 

The journey was very fatiguing to my husband, and the baby was so 
ill that as I sat with my husband at my side and my baby on my lap I did not 
know which would die first. Just before we reached Cedar City, it seemed 
that the baby would surely die, but his father, sick as he was, administered 
to him and he grew better, and both lived to reach the journey's end. 

When we arrived we were taken to the home of my husband's 
brother, Elias, who entertained us until Father and Mother Morris came 
to take us to their humble but cheerful home with a kindly welcome. 

Death of the Baby 
We did all that we could for the invalids, but the baby grew steadily worse, 
and for the second time I was strongly impressed that he would die. 
Finally he was taken with convulsions, and on the Second of February he 
passed away. We laid him in the new and barren grave yard in Cedar City, 
Iron County, and so I drank the bitter cup of parting with my own flesh 
and blood. 

The Shadow of Death Still Hovering over Us 
My hands were now empty and I could give more attention to my 
husband, who was no better of his affliction. The month of February, 
1855 was very mild in Cedar City and we would take a walk every day 
for the benefit of his health. He had a peculiarity during his illness that 
I could not understand at the time, but later learned that it was charac- 
teristic of a consumptive. When a friend would meet him and tell him he 
was looking better he would reply that he was not feeling so well, but if 
they happened to say he looked worse, he would always insist that he was 
better. Sometimes I took him outside the Fort, as the wall protected him 
from any cold blast. During these walks, nearly everybody we met had a 
different remedy to offer, but we had brought with us the best remedy, i.e. 
Cod Liver Oil. 

The 20th of February fell upon a Sunday that year, and as he was 
accustomed to go out every day we thought it would not hurt him to go 
to meeting, it being but a block away. That day, however, he seemed espe- 
cially weak and as we came out of the meeting house a stiff wind came 

Sketch of the Life of Mary L. Morris 115 

up, which nearly took his breath, but father and mother being with us we 
managed to get him home all right and seated him in an arm chair at the 
fireside. In taking off his shoes I noticed his feet were swollen and though 
very young at the time it seemed to me a bad omen, and went right to my 
heart, and I called mother's attention to it but she made some reply to 
make me think lightly of it. Although this was done in kindness it did not 
at all remove the anxiety that this new symptom had created. 

The next morning he was no better. I had just put the bedding out 
to air when he asked me to engage in prayer with him. The burden of it 
was a supplication that his life might be spared as we loved each other a 
wished to remain upon the earth together. It seemed to us that some cli- 
max was approaching. 

It happened that the Stake Presidency were in the settlement at the 
time and they were called into administer to him. They told him that if he 
had faith, and his family had fairh, he should be healed. After the admin- 
istration he walked across the floor alone. I went outside the fort wall and 
thanked my Heavenly Father for the promise that the Elders had made. 

Towards dusk however, he grew worse. Towards evening his brother 
Elias and his wife [Mary Parry Morris] came down, when the former 
administered to him, using their own, the Welsh, language. I regretted 
that he had not spoken in English. Elias asked us if his brother had seen 
anything and we told him he had not. He and his wife then returned 
home, but about nine o'clock as my husband was so much worse, we went 
for him again as my husband had a great love for and all confidence in 
his brother Elias. 

Elias, mother, and I continued to watch at the bed side all night. 
The poor sufferer was restiess and could not remain long in one position 
as his breathing was difficult. Part of the time he would be in bed and 
then in a few minutes sitting in his chair again. Towards morning, or long 
past midnight, (there was no clock in the house) I could see that the end 
was drawing near. He was in bed, and the sweats of death were already 
upon him. We all continued to watch, except his father, who had laid 
down to rest. While Father Morris was sleeping, he dreamed that he saw a 
man carrying a suit of empty clothes across his shoulder. We took this as 
a bad omen. 

A Momentous Compact 
Feeling that my husband's end was near, and being anxious to know if he 
had anything upon his mind and fearing that he might become uncon- 
cious at any moment, I asked if he had anything to say to me. His answer 
surprised me. He said, — "You speak as if a fellow were going to die". I said 
nothing more, but continued to watch with anxious eyes. Finally he said, 
"If anything should happen that I do die, I do not want you to leave the 

116 Before the Manifesto 

family". I replied, that I had no desire to do so. Then, turning to Elias, he 
said, — "Will you take Mary, and finish the work that I have begun". Elias 
said, — "I have no objection, if she is willing." I replied, "I am". He then 
said, "Do as Elias bids, you, be obedient to him and do not be influenced 
by other women, but do as you have done." 38 

A few hours later, about nine o'clock in the morning as he was sitting 
straight up in his chair, he looked up to the ceiling, at the corner over his 
bed, opposite to where we were sitting, and said; — "I see Abraham, Isaac 
and Jacob, and John, and the Angels." As he told us what he saw his eyes 
were staring wide open, and appeared almost black in color. When the 
vision ended, his eyes closed, his jaw fell and his spirit was released from 
its fair, but frail tenement. 

He was prepared for burial by a friend of the family, a Mrs. Hannah 
Evans, who told us that he had been during the night to call her, as many 
others had done for whom she had performed the last offices. 

When Elias returned home the next morning, his wife knew as 
much as he did and testified that John had been to see her during the 
night, while we were still watching him, and had told her that Elias was 
going to take me and had asked her to be kind to me. 

As soon as I could, that morning, I wrote down the words that my 
husband had said to me, intending to carry them out as long as life should 

So was I, while yet in my teens, bereft in the short period of twenty 
days, of my husband and my only child, in a strange land, hundreds of 
miles from my blood kin and with a mountain of difficulty before me. 

I will here explain, that in the fall of 1852, Aposde Orson Pratt was 
sent to Washington, D.C., to publish a litde periodical entitled The Seer. In 
this but two subjects were treated, viz. Patriarchal Marriage, and the Pre- 
existence of Man. We subscribed for The Seer, and read and believed its 
teachings. One of its doctrines was from the law of Ancient Israel, — that 
if a man died without issue, his brother should take the widow to wife 
and raise up children to his deceased brother, that in the morning of the 

38. Mary Lois Morris's sister Ann Agatha Pratt described the events of this night in a letter 
to her husband Parley P. Pratt: "I am sorry to inform you of the meloncholly news I 
received from my sister they went to Iron County in feb. Johns health was very bad when 
he went away and graduly grew worse till he died. . . . My poor Mary is left a widow and 
childless before she is twenty years of age. . . . [John] told her he did not wish her to go 
out of their family but wished her to stay and let his bro. stay her and do the work the 
had commenced. Mary told him she would do as he wished. ... I suppose it is all for the 
best but it seems hard for her to stay away from me." Ann Agatha Walker Pratt to Parley 
P. Pratt, March 27, 1855. 

Sketch of the Life of Mary L. Morris 117 

Resurrection he might take her and children she had borne in the sec- 
ond marriage and present them to his brother. 

So you will see, my dear children, how the reading of this pamphlet, 
The &«■ had prepared us for the events that were awaiting us. 

This second bereavement opened the wound of the first afresh and 
I wished that I too, might die and join my loved ones. 

Being so young it seemed to me that I could not endure the thought 
of a corpse being in the rooms where we lived. There was a little room 
leading out of the living room, and not much used, and here the dear 
remains lay while the coffin was being made. Even then, I felt as if I could 
not remain in the house, so went to the home of a very dear friend of 
ours, Bro. Job Rolands, who lived next door. Here I paced the floor hour 
after hour in an agony of distress. 

The coffin was of plain white wood and an ordinary wagon served for a 
hearse, and there we, the mourners, sat; Father and Mother Morris, Elias 
and his wife, myself, and a very few friends. It was a dark, stormy day, the 
23rd of February, 1855, and the clouds seemed to hover over us as we sat 
in the wagon, surrounding the remains as they were conveyed to the cem- 
etary of Cedar City, Iron County, Utah. 

A young man in rough attire, followed on horseback, and I think 
I shall never forget him for that act of sympathy shown in that hour of 
grief. His name was Jack Walker and he was a resident of Cedar City. The 
grave of our little son, which had been made but eighteen days previous, 
was opened to receive the body of his father. 

Later the loving brother Elias erected a monument to mark their 
resting place upon which was engraved an inscription in the characters of 
the Deseret alphabet. 39 

As we sat by the firelight after our return from the cemetery I looked 
back upon my life, and though in deep sorrow, I was able to see where the 
hand of the Lord had been over me and felt how thankful I should be 
that he had sent me to parents who had taught me to serve Him in all 
things, and to count all things as dross, compared with the wisdom that 
God gives to His faithful children. 

39. The Deseret alphabet was an experimental alphabet that grew out of the perceived 
need in Utah for an alphabet that could bridge linguistic differences. The Alphabet 
assigned a symbol or sign to each of the thirty-eight sounds of the English language. 
A school primer was printed in the Deseret alphabet in 1868, and in 1869 the Book 
of Mormon was published in the Alphabet. For a time, the characters of the Deseret 
alphabet were taught in classes throughout Utah, but after the death of Brigham Young 
in 1877, efforts to promote the Alphabet largely ended. Daniel H. Ludlow, Encyclopedia 
of Mormonism, 373-74 (hereinafter cited as EM). 


Before the Manifesto 

John T. Morris 's gravestone 

in Cedar City, where he died 

of lung disease at the age of 

twenty-seven on February 

20, 1855. The gravestone 

is engraved in the Deseret 


Courtesy oj the IJlalt Stale Historical Society, all rights reserved 

As a little child I had so loved to attend meeting that I often went 
alone, even on dark nights, and there I drank in the Spirit of the Gospel 
which now, in the hour of bereavement and tribulation, was with me to 
strengthen me and give me hope which reached beyond the grave. I felt 
that I had served God to the utmost of my ability, that I had His approval, 
and that He would stand by me. 


My husband's parents sympathized deeply with me and told me 
that I should have a home with them as long as they lived. I appreciated 
their kindness, and as their only daughter Barbara, a girl about my own 
age, had just married, and their youngest son, Hugh Conway, was absent 
from home, there seemed to be a niche in the home that I might fill. As 
I understood housework and sewing I could make myself generally useful 
to my good adopted parents, for like Ruth of old, I intended to remain 
true to them and to their beloved departed son. 

One Sunday evening I was taking a walk with my friend Sister Mary 
Rolands and we passed by the mill, where I had so often taken my hus- 
band to walk for the benefit of his health. I was reminded of his absence 
and my intense lonliness and as I wept bitterly I could see, as it were in 
mental vision, the steep hill of life I should have to climb and felt the 
reality of it with great force. A deep depression setded upon me, for the 

Sketch of the Life of Mary L. Morris 119 

enemy knows when to attack us, but our Elder Brother is might to save. 
Through my home training in Christ's example, a practical knowledge of 
the principles of the Gospel and the help given me of the Father, I was 
able to batde with all the forces which seemed to be arrayed against me 
at this time. Having had a thought which I knew was not right, I supposed 
I should confess it to my block teacher, but this experienced and intelli- 
gent Saint, instead of expressing censure, blessed me and said; — "You will 
yet receive a great exaltation." 

As spring approached, one Sunday I was invited with father and 
mother to go to tea, after meeting, at the home of a brother, and there 
met William and Margaret [Pettigreen Hope] Williams, who were mem- 
bers of the choir. The afternoon passed pleasantly and by entreaty I sang 
a song for them. I think this was the first time I had been out since my 
husband's death, except to meeting. Soon afterwards, I was invited to join 
the choir. When I attended the first practice, the leader said to me, "Thou 
must come up by me, because thou art bashful." 

In this choir I found many friends whom I learned to love very 
dearly. They were Mrs. Ellen Whittaker Lunt, Sarah Whittaker Chaterly 
[Chatterley] , Mary Whittaker Thornton, and later Mrs. Mary Ann Wilson 
Lunt. Sisters Ellen W. Lunt and Mary Ann Wilson Lunt were the wives 
of Bishop Henry Lunt. I also met John M. [Menzies MacFarlane] and 
Ann Chaterly McFarlam [Chatterley MacFarlane]. May I meet these dear 
people in a better world hereafter. 

The peculiar circumstances surrounding my widowhood, and the 
agreement I had entered into at the time of my husband's death caused 
some rather unkind criticism by those who did not countenance the prin- 
ciples I was expected to sustain. This opposition was very hard for me to 
bear, especially as sorrow had rendered me extremely sensitive. But my 
trust was in the living God. 

One Sunday afternoon there was a testimony meeting which I think 
I shall never forget. It was a great effort for me to arise at the prompting 
of the Spirit of God, yet I dared not disobey. As I stood, saying my few 
words in weakness a feeling came over me that the Lord was on my side 
and all the world could not hurt me. I had accidently heard that 
by a certain class I was nick-named "Holy Woman" but I did not mind it 
much as long as the Lord was my guide. 

In the month of May following my bereavement, Pres. Young and a 
company came down to visit the settlements, and my brother-in-law went 
to see him relative to my husband's death and the covenant entered 

This met the President's full approval and he set the date for it's 
consumation for a year from that time. The deferring of this event for that 
length of time was a great consolation to me, for while I had confidence 

120 Before the Manifesto 

and great respect for my husband's brother, the thought of marriage at 
that time went against all my natural feelings. 

I continued to live with Father and Mother Morris, who were always 
kind to me and I was as contented as I could be under the circumstances. 
I knew at least I was earning my bread. Of clothing there was none to be 

Our social enjoyments consisted of quilting parties or a wool pick- 
ing, the 4th and 24th of July celebrations and Christmas. 

In the autumn I was invited by a Brother Wardman Holms to join 
a Dramatic Association which had been recendy organized. He said they 
were studying Hannah Moore's Sacred Dramas, by which he wished me to 
understand that every play presented would be stricdy moral and usually 
devotional. 40 Later he asked me to sing solos between the opening Farce 
and the play of the evening. This, for lack of confidence, I blankly refused 
to do. I have always regretted this, for I learned afterwards that at the time 
the organization was effected, the members promised to do whatever the 
manager required, and also I feel that the confidence I should thus have 
gained would have been a benefit to me in after life, as I have always had 
a great dread of coming before the public. The members of the Dramatic 
Association were nearly all members of the Choir. 

A Bro. Samuel Jewkes, a member of the choir, who had a very good 
voice, asked me to sing with him and his sister one evening, which I did. 
I also took part in a farce as Lady Scraggs, in "Sketches in India". During 
the rehearsale the ladies would crochet or knit while others rehearsed, 
thus occupying every moment of their Pioneer evenings. My association 
with this organization afforded me a litde change in a social way. 

In the latter part of the Fall, my brother-in-law asked me to come 
and live with him and his wife and help her. This I was perfectly willing 
to do, taking this view, that as I was young and empty handed and that if 
I lived, and he lived, he would have a great deal to do for me so that in 
turn I should be willing to do all that I could for him and his family. So 
I went and took the burden of the house upon me, for my sister-in-law 
had Barbara [Elizabeth Morris] , a litde girl of two years old, and Winnie 
[Winifred Jane Morris] , a baby in arms, and her time was almost entirely 
occupied in caring for them. 

Two young men named John and Evan Owens, boarded with us. I 
attended night school that winter taught by an English brother named 
Martin Slack, a very refined and intelligent man. There were also quite a 

40. Hannah More 's (1745—1833) Sacred Dramas, Chiefly Intended far Young Persons, the Subjects 
Taken from the Bihte (London: T. Cadell, 1782). This collection of plays on religious 
subjects went through a number of editions throughout the late eighteenth and 
nineteenth centuries. The 1806 edition includes plays on Moses, David and Goliath, 
Belshazzar, Daniel, and Hezekiah. 

Sketch of the Life of Mary L. Morris 121 

number of social parties held in the homes of the people. At these I was 
generally asked to sing. There were no pianos or organs and our musi- 
cal entertainments were altogether vocal. The Dramatic Association also 
afforded us a great deal of enjoyment but this organization was broken 
up by Bro. Holms leaving the setdement. 

One evening during the winter of 1855-6 I was outside the house 
sawing wood (perhaps my brother-in-law was away building) It was twi- 
light, and as I rested for a moment to regain my breath, a vision seemed 
to come before me showing how dark my future would be. Not in detail 
were the events shown to me, but the general impression was a future of 
suffering and woe. 

Twenty Years Old 
I was twenty years old and in the forty eight years that have elapsed since 
that winter evening I have never seen a darker hour. 

I considered the covenant I had made with my husband on his death 
bed. I knew that Elias was worth of all the confidence and love that his 
brother had reposed in him, and I knew that I was all that my departed 
husband had in the world to look to his interest in the world to come and 
his eternal increase. God knows that I believed and had accepted the prin- 
ciple that His law required of me. I took a mind's eye view of the other 
brothers. One was older than Elias and two were younger. The young- 
est, Hugh, had sent word from California that it was his right to have 
me. There were also two Aposdes, to either of whom I might have been 
married, but could I have taken either of these and kept my concience 
perfectly clear before God? Did either of these excel Elias in point of 
honor, virtue and integrity? Could either of these take the interest in my 
departed husband that his brother Elias did? Had either of them, except 
Elias, been asked to perform this sacred duty, though all had known and 
loved my husband? Was I willing to endure whatever might befall me in 
this straight and narrow path I had chosen? Yes, I had already counted 
the cost, had already tasted the bitter cup which I had agreed to drink to 
the dregs. 

A Peculiar Situation 
A few months after my husbands death I chanced, one day, to meet his 
brother Elias, who told me that he and his wife were invited to a wedding 
to which he would have liked to have taken me, but as the invitation was 
for only one couple he could not do so. 

In the Spring he invited me to attend a party with him and his wife, 
and told me that at a certain time he would call for me. Being ready in 
good time and having an opportunity to go with a friend I left before he 
arrived. Perhaps this was unwise, also unkind to him, as opportunities for 

122 Before the Manifesto 

showing me any regard were very meager. My motive, however, was prin- 
cipally to save his wife's feelings, an d also perhaps, I was prompted by my 
own natural independence. 

In the Spring following the winter that I lived with Elias and his wife, 
William P. [Price] Jones, the husband of your Aunt Barbara Morris Jones, 
came home from his Las Vegas mission, and with him came a Brother — 
— , who had formerly beed a drill master in Her Majesty's Army in India. 
I was told that this gendeman had formed an attachment for me before 
he saw me, from what he had heard of me. He was a man of refinement, 
as may be supposed, having occupied such a position, was fine looking, of 
good address, well acquainted with horsemanship, a very good singer and 
devout and sincere in the religion he had espoused. I have no idea how 
he began to come to the house, but he came frequendy and took a great 
deal of pleasure in teaching my brother-in-law sword exercises. He would 
come also on Sunday evenings and sing for us and afterwards we would 
all sing together. 

A Friendly Admonition 
When this had continued for some time, a friend of the family who under- 
stood my position and sympathized with me, drew me aside one evening 
and in a very kind manner told me that if I intended to be true to Elias 
and the covenant I had made, I had better not allow my affections to turn 
in a channel where I might be led to break my sacred vows. This friend 
was unmarried and ten years my senior, and he felt that there was danger 
of my being led in a direction opposed to that of duty, and I must admit 
that it was me and my God and Stirling principle for the battle. 

A Call of Duty 
Some time afterwards, on a Sunday evening, my brother-in-law asked 
me to come and sit down at the family hearth, as he wanted to talk 
about something. Of course I knew upon what subject he wished to 
converse and sensed my position keenly. It was very embarrassing for all 
concerned, as there was a third person present, whichever way we might 
take it, and all had an equal right to be present as all were equally con- 
cerned. In honor of the Principle, obedience to which had created the 
necessity of our coming together as a family, we were obliged to meet in 
order to discuss the preliminaries which should cause us to enter into 
a relationship which would place us in a more trying but more exalted 
position. For how can gold be cleansed from dross except it be placed 
in the crucible? Imagine how hard it was for a girl, not twenty years 
old, to be asked if she intended to be true to one of the three persons 
present, and that in the interest of a fourth person, and he departed 
this life? And yet how very hard also for the lady who was the third to 

Sketch of the Life of Mary L. Morris 123 

the two contracting parties, in this particular case? And how hard for 
this man of God, this loving brother, to take another's wife into his care 
and to all present appearances break up the happiness of his married 
life? Nothing but the love he bore his brother and the covenants he 
had made at the water's edge could have induced him to climb the rug- 
ged path, upon which alone now he could ask the Heavenly Father's 
blessing. And in view of all these circumstances, how very much easier 
for this girl widow to renounce the sacred covenant she had made with 
her husband's brother, at the death bed of the former, than to be true 
to what the law of God required and to the life-long contract she had 
made? No one was to blame for the circumstances which surrounded 
us, but this was one of the ordeals we had to meet, as all have their fiery 
trials to pass through who set their faces like steel to serve God to the 

There was only one answer that I could make to this solemn and 
weighty question, and that was that I intended to keep my covenant. 

The time now approached for our marriage, according to the date 
set by President Young a year previous. There was much laborious work 
to be done to prepare for a journey to Salt Lake City where we were to 
receive our Endowments in the House of the Lord. We traveled by ox- 
team, and were two weeks upon the road. It was in the month of May, 
1856. Our company consistedof five persons, viz. — Elias and his wife 
and their two children and myself. Upon our arrivan we stayed at the 
home of our brother-in-law, Richard V. Morris, which was situated near 
the City Hall, and often, during the time that we stayed there I went 
outside that historic structure and prayed that my deceased husband 
would come in person and tell me if he really did require me to drink 
this bitter cup. 

He came not. I was again left alone, I and my Heavenly Father, for 
the battle. I talked with my beloved and only sister about the matter. She 
suggested that perhaps my husband wanted to prove me and know what 
I should do while standing alone in this dark world. Now, as I look upon 
things, I think that my Heavenly Father wished to prove how I should 
stand the trying ordeal. 

If I had wished to forsake my husband I should have done so while 
he was in this life, and could have chosen another help-meet, and I had 
the power, for I knew that he was not in the best of health. But it was not 
in my nature to desert an afflicted person. No, and now my duty was clear, 
I would lay my life's happiness upon the altar of the requirements of the 
willof God, and trust in him for the future. 

There was no one to take me by the hand and give me a word of 
encouragement at that critical moment, or at least no one did so. All had 
their trials. 

124 Before the Manifesto 

The Consummation 
So I kneeled on the altar in God's Holy House with the deepest dread in 
my heart that I had ever known. No physical strength could have drawn 
me there, had I consulted my own feelings. But God required it. I sensed 
keenly that it was no my happiness alone that was sacrificed, but it was 
marring the happiness of others, which rendered the cup doubly bitter. I 
knew that nothing that I could do would remove the sting that comes to 
the heart of a first wife when her husband enters into the order of Plural 
Marriage. I had been so concious of the suffering she must of necessity 
pass through, that during the time that I had been living with my sister-in- 
law, I felt that no service was too menial, or labor too great, to serve her, 
and so strong was my sympathy for her that I felt willing to forego almost 
everything, except honor, for her sake. There was only one way to relieve 
the situation and that was to recant, and this I could not, I dared not, do. 
I would rather have died than have shrunk from my duty. If God is angry 
with me, I can only leave myself to His Mercy. My motives were as pure as 
those of an angel. 

On our return to Cedar City, we arrived about mid-day and Mother 
had prepared an excellent repast, set out on a long table. I could not imag- 
ine what it was for. It had no charm for me, my heart was too sad in con- 
templating the future. After many, many long years, however, I have come 
to the conclusion that our dear mother intended it as a wedding feast. 

A room had been prepared for my use, as comfortably furnished 
as circumstances would allow, but it was needed as a kitchen for the use 
of the family, and as I was doing the housework I used it as such. My own 
nice furniture, which had come from my home in Salt Lake City, had 
been placed in the sitting room previously, and there I left it, so that by 
permitting my room to be used as a kitchen, I deprived myself of any 
privacy, except I retired into the sitting room after the family had gone 
to bed. In this year, 1856, the Handcart Company came in, and a Relief 
Society was organized for their help, I being called to work in it. 41 The 
following summer the United States troops entered the Valley and after 
the 24th of July I went to Salt Lake City to visit my sister. It seemed as if 
a merciful providence had provided a season of happiness for me at this 
particular time, and I thoroughly appreciated it. My dear sister and I had 
been separated so much that it seemed to take a month for us to get time 
to say all that we wished. 

The next summer, 1858, the soldiers entered the city and the peo- 
ple moved south. I also returned to Iron County that Fall in company 

41. The Salt Lake Fifteenth Ward Relief Society was formally organized in September 1857, 
but as a result of the Utah War, it was broken up and not reorganized until January 
1868. Barraclough, 15th Ward Memories, 131. 

Sketch of the Life of Mary L. Morris 


Mary Parry Morris, 
Elias Morris's first wife. 

with our friend, Job Rolands. On my journey home I read "Uncle Tom's 
Cabin". 42 My heart was full of sadness and dread for the future, and as 
I approached the town I was reading a pathetic part of the story that 
referring to litde Eva, and this coupled with my own sorrow, caused me to 
weep most of the time. 

Upon my return I met all that I had anticipated, and asked my 
Heavenly Father that I might die. One night I dreamed that I was dying 
and felt as if nature were disolving I had been making molasses during 
the day, using pitch pine as fuel, the smoke therefrom being so blacken- 
ing that my underwear had become soiled. In my dream I remembered 

42. Harriet Beecher Stowe's (1811-1896) antislavery novel Uncle Tom's Cabinv/as the "best- 
selling novel of the nineteenth century." It was serialized in 1851 and released as a book 
in 1852. Cindy Weinstein, ed., The Cambridge Companion to Harriet Beecher Stowe, 2. 

126 Before the Manifesto 

this and could not bear the thought of being found in this condition, so 
aroused myself, and found it was only a dream. Another time, I thought 
that I was in the spirit world and meeting my husband, he looked sadly 
at me and in spirit (for we conversed in spirit) , he asked me what I had 
come there for? I told him I was unhappy and wanted to come to him. I 
took this as a rebuke, realizing that God knows better what is good for us 
than we do. I was not going to parties that winter, but took great pleasure 
in preparing lunch for your father and auntie when they came home for 
intermission; also in caring for the children while they were away. On one 
of these occasions, your father told me that he had come home to hear 
me sing. He also bought me a book of songs by one of Zion's sweet sing- 
ers, Brother William Willis, who had come down south to sell his books. 
Bro. Willis was one of the first members of the Sunday School Union 

A Ray of Sunshine, Birth ofEffie 
On the 10th of January, 1859 a litde daughter was born to me. We named 
her Effie Walker [Morris]. I had found the name in Godie's Ladies' Book, 
representing a beautiful lady who gave gifts to the poor at Christmas time 
and who married one of her father's workmen because they loved each 
other and he was good. 43 1 considered also that the first name should be 
one which would blend nicely with our family name. Also, shortiy before 
her birth, the choir, in serenading me, sang Tennyson's beautiful poem, 
the Queen of the May. 44 

A short time previous to this event your father suggested that I 
should keep house to myself, for my own comfort, but I declined his kind 
offer, thinking to save him expense, but I fixed up the log room with my 
own effects in preparation for the coming event. I had waited upon your 
Auntie in numerous periods of illness during the four years that we lived 
together with as pure feelings as if she had been my sister or my mother. 

My baby was indeed a great comfort to me and as good as a child 
could be. I used to carry her in my arms, a distance of a mile to the New 
City, to Sunday School where I was learning to read and write the Deseret 
Alphabet, which we thought would become popular in those early days. 
I remember holding her in my arms while singing in a duet at a celebra- 
tion on the 24th of July. 

4.3. Godey's Lady's Book (New York, The Godey Company) was a popular women's magazine 
published between 1830 and 1898. 

44. Alfred Tennyson's poem "The May Queen" was published in 1832. The poem, which 
is narrated by the "May Queen," refers several times to the May Queen's younger sister 
Effie. For instance, it says, "Don't let Effie come to see me till my grave be growing 
green / She'll be a better child to you than I ever I have been." Christopher Ricks, ed., 
The Poems of Tennyson, 1:456—60. 

Sketch of the Life of Mary L. Morris 127 

When she was in long clothes, we were visiting with a very nice com- 
pany and Mrs. Anabella McFarlane, a lady friend, took her upon her lap 
and said she would see many changes and great events, which she cer- 
tainly has. 

When she was born her hair was red, but turned flaxen and then 
golden color. Her complexios was very fair, her eyes large and blue and 
she was a very pretty child. Even at that early period, I did not want to be 
blinded to my children's faults, physical or otherwise, or esteem them 
above their merit, and I had known people to think their children beauti- 
ful, when they were really quite plain, so I did not want to be guilty of that 
weakness. Her father, however, thought her pretty and as he was a man of 
good sense as well as good taste I concluded to let him be the judge, espe- 
cially as his opinion upon this matter coincided with my own. 

In cutting her larger teeth her eyes became affected and as I was 
keeping house for your Grandfather Morris at the time I was not able to 
give her the attention I should like to have done there being a great deal 
of dairy work besides the general house-work. Your Grandmother Morris 
had gone on a trip to the Big Valley, as Salt Lake City was called, in com- 
pany with your father. 

Poor little Effie was not at all fretful, although I knew that she suf- 
fered, but she followed me about all day, and while waiting for me to lift 
her down the step between the kitchen and pantry, (the only two rooms 
we had) she would bow her little head to shield her eyes from the light 
and moan in a most patient manner. 

When I went to New City to Sunday School my dear friend, Sister 
Richard Robert [Jane C] Birkbeck would invite us to dine with her, so that 
we might attend the afternoon meeting also. She had no children, but was 
an excellent housekeeper, and set the table with beautiful linen and ele- 
gant glassware and made delightful meals out of such things as the country 
produced. I can see her now, in her humble cottage, presiding at the table, 
and the light colored preserves in her clear glass dishes. In those days we 
made molasses and preserves from carrots, beets, squash and melons. Our 
daintiest and best preserves were made from parsnips. This dear friend, 
at whose home we spent so many pleasant hours, told me afterwards that 
she thought Effie would never recover from the effect of her sore eyes. But 
they were as bright and blue as ever when her teeth trouble was over. 

We made our molasses by boiling the vegetables before named, 
until quite tender. The vegetable was set aside to be used as we should use 
fruit for preserving now, and the liquor in which it had been cooked was 
strained and then boiled down until it became thick syrup and was used 
to eat as molasses or in place of sugar for preserving. 

When Effie was nine months old a son was born to your Auntie, 
your brother Elias, and I stayed with her and did the house-work and took 

128 Before the Manifesto 

care of her. When I took Effie intothe room to see the baby, she lifted up 
her little hands with delight. When she was a tiny toddler she would laugh 
so heartily that she would fall down. 

We Remove to Salt Lake City 
Six months later it was decided that the family should remove to Cache 
Valley. 45 There was much to be done in preparation for a journey by ox- 
team occupying from ten to fifteen days with a family to provide for. 

Uncle Ed [Edward] Parry was our teamster and the rest of the party 
consisted of your father, Auntie, their little daughter Hattie, with Elias 
[Parry Morris], a baby six months old, myself and Effie, fifteen months 
old. Barbara had been left behind with her Grandmother Morris and 
Winnie with her Grandmother [Elizabeth] Parry, until we should be set- 
tied in our new home. It was in the month of May, 1860. We had a car- 
riage, a span of mules, an ox team and a wagon. We took our clothing, 
bedding and provisions. 

When we reached Salt Lake City, your father was requested to 
remain in Salt Lake City and work on the Temple Block. 

He bought a house and half a lot where the old home now stands. 
(Note; A lot, in those days, contained one and a quarter acres of land, so 
half a lot contained five-eights of an acre) The house was an adobe struc- 
ture, one and a half stories high with two rooms up stairs and two below. 
It was owned by a gentleman from Liverpool, named Coward (the name 
having just occurred to me) . He was a rich merchant and probably found 
Mormon pioneer life a little too rough for him. The property was left in 
charge of Andrew Cunningham, who was then Bishop of the 15th Ward. 
The price was four hundred dollars, which your father paid with his car- 
riage and span of mules. 

He now started to work for wages, whereas in Cedar City he had 
owned land which he let out on shares and was at liberty to work where 
and for whom he pleased. 

For a few days after our arrival I stayed with my sister, but find- 
ing that your father needed help in planting the garden I came home, 
although dreading it as usual. 

Here we began housekeeping again, with very little to make home 
attractive, having left our furniture behind in Cedar City. 

Your father took most of his pay in provisions which he had to carry 
home on his back. Sometimes it would be a hundredweight of flour, or 
fifty pounds of bran. I remember his remarking that, "A fellow might as 
well be a donkey at once." 

45. Cache Valley is a large valley in north central Utah that contains the communities of 
Logan and Hyrum. Van Cott, Utah Place Names, 61. 

Sketch of the Life of Mary L. Morris 129 

The flour was dark colored and our bread was about the same 
shade as an adobe. But we were thankful for that as flour of any kind was 

Coming as we did, in May, our garden vegetables were later than 
those of our neighbors and we were often obliged to borrow from them 
more than was pleasant, and as I was doing the housework this task fell to 
me. The first thing that I borrowed was an onion from Sister [Elizabeth 
Spur] Eccles. Her son Andrew [Eccles] was then a baby in arms. It was 
quite humiliating, but was one way of becoming acquainted. 

Your father, being a good provider, had brought a barrel of molas- 
ses and Sister Eccles older son William [Eccles], a mute, and then about 
ten years of age, used to enjoy our bread and molasses.. 

In our lot, however, were some currant bushes and this fruit was not 
only a great help but a great treat. Some of our friends sometimes gave 
us a litde pie-plant. One of these was Father John Parry, father of Joseph 
Hyrum Parry and grandfather of E.F. Parry, now Stake Superintendent of 
the Salt Lake Stake Sunday Schools. 

The pie-plant was also a rare treat, and eaten as sauce or made in 
to a bolster pudding with a sauce of sugar cane molasses made a fine des- 
sert. This dear old gentleman also gave us some rheubarb seed, and how 
eagerly we watched the young plants come us the following season. 

One of the down stairs rooms was used as a kitchen and the other 
was your Auntie's bed-room. Mine was the wagon box, but as the Fall 
advanced I made my bed in one of the upstairs rooms which the neigh- 
bors said were haunted. I had one refuge however, and that was my 
daily companion, prayer. Moses Wade, an intelligent old gendeman and 
a thorough Latter Day Saint said, "Bro. Morris is a good man, holding 
the Priesthood", intimating that on that account there would be a better 
influence in the house than formerly. 

We had no stove, our fire-place being a couple of adobes, with the 
wood, cut in small sticks, (for it was scarce) laid across. There was a bak- 
ing ketde in which to bake our bread and a crane upon which we hung it. 
I had to fetch water from across the street some of the time. 

Then your Aunt Barbara came on a visit, at your father's invita- 
tion, for he had his anxieties concerning her. She had dear litde Jeddie 
Qedediah M.Jones], a toddler by her side, and Becky [Rebecca Elizabeth 
Jones] a baby in her arms. 

There was a great deal of opposition in the house that summer, but 
I tried to be patient and make everything as comfortable as I could with 
your father's hard earnings and to prepare as good meals as possible, 
with what there was to be had. As the Autumn approached litde Effie was 
not very well and I had but little time to attend to her, and she being so 
patient it touched my heart in a tender place. 

130 Before the Manifesto 

The work I was doing was altogether too much for me and your 
father would like to have had someone to help me but our means were 
so limited he could not. I used to arise about five o'clock or earlier in 
order to do a litde sewing before starting my daily work and after having 
finished one of our large washes I suffered such sharp pains that I could 
hardly move about, but still I tried to do all that there was to do. 

On the 24th of February following, two days before your sister Addie 
[Marian Adelaide Morris] was Born, on Sunday afternoon, I was sitting 
by my frugal fire with little Effie by my side, feeling as sad as any mortal 
could whose concience was clear. The Lord only knew what I suffered. I 
was weeping. Oh, if only I could have rested my head upon someone's 
breast who could have sympathized with me! Dear little Effie looked up 
into my face and said, "Is 'oo tired, Mamma?" I said nothing, but I could 
feel, standing at my left side, in a position to be able to look into my 
face, — someone who loved me. 

Birth of Addie 
On February 26th, at 9:20 o'clock a.m. in the year 1861, another little 
daughter was born to us. Not having been able to obtain clothing for 
her before her birth your father took some cutlery, given to him by Aunt 
Barbara's husband, to trade for some necessary articles, but being unsuc- 
cessful he went to Bro. Daniel H. [Hanmer] Wells, who as manager of 
Public Works was in the habit of giving the men $5.00 in times of great 
need. Your father obtained this small sum of money as a great favor and 
divided it between his two families. The midwife received three dollars for 
her services, but in what material I do not know and the nurse received 
for her week's work a pair of shoes valued at three dollars. 

The advent of this baby into the world was somewhat critical and 
your father remarked, "Well, Mary, you have lost your rosy cheeks, but 
never mind, the baby has them." She had rather dark hair, well marked 
eye-brows and a little wrinkle in her forehead, direcdy above the bridge 
of the nose exactly like that of your dear Grandmother Morris. As she 
grew her eyes were very large and her skin velvety. A lady who had before 
remarked of Effie, "Bless the child, she won't tan." said of Addie, "She 
seemed all eyes", but I never thought her eyes too large. 

Your father wanted her called Katherine Vaughan, after his grand- 
mother [Catherine Vaughan], who was a good woman and whom he 
almost idolized, but I did not think the name pretty enough. When a litde 
child I was fond of a picture of Queen Adelaide and liked the name very 
much. I consulted your Aunt Aggie and she said, "Call her Marian", so I 
pleased her and myself and hope my dear daughter has been pleased also. 

Just before the baby was born I started to keep house for myself in 
one of the rooms, so that when I was able to be up I had time to do a litde 

Sketch of the Life of Mary L. Morris 131 

sewing. Your father bought a piece of cloth for a suit, which he wished 
me to make. It was a neat pattern and a good piece in black and white 
pepper and salt design, as such mixtures were termed. In this piece black 
predominated. He arranged that our friend Griffith Roberts, a very good 
tailor, should cut it out and give me some idea how to proceed. I would 
not have you imagine that because your father thought I could make this 
suit, which was a simple sack coat style, that he was not particular with 
regard to his appearance. It was on the contrary, quite the reverse, and 
when he could obtain work where money was paid, received an expert's 
wages. I saw a brocaded silk velvet vest which he brought with him when 
he emigrated, which I thought fit for a tided gentleman, and whereas 
he was glad to get buckskin for every day wear, his best clothes, from the 
standpoint of appearance and quality, were such as to call forth the admi- 
ration of his friends. 

I remember that it was a bright Saturday morning in winter that I gath- 
ered my washing together in order that the next week might be devoted to 
my task of "suiting", in more ways than one, this gendeman of taste. 

At this time I had not even seen a sewing machine, but had been 
taught to sew very neady and the material was soft to handle and pleasing 
to the eye. After a lapse of fifty years I can almost feel that soft cloth in my 
hands. It was pleasant to sew and easy to press, and being finished with a 
black braid had a neat and respectable appearance. 

At first my little Addie was quite fretful and when I had work to 
do, I was obliged to let her lie and cry. This worried me and disturbed 
the other members of the family. I concluded to fast and pray about it 
and she became contented. One day, her father coming in and seeing 
her lying on the bed awake, said to her, "You tell them, wherever you see 
them, that they are not better than you." 

A Sad Experience with a Bright Result 
The summer that Addie was a baby there lived in the next house a big 
uncouth girl who was sent one day to say that my litde Effie was stealing 
their currants. She was about two and a half years old at the time. I had 
corrected her several times for plucking things in our garden, but young 
as I was, could see that she must be made to understand that she must dis- 
continue, and it touched my sense of honor that the girl should speak in 
that way. So I took a switch about as thick as my little finger and whipped 
the poor child all the way home. Oh, how my heart ached. I took her litde 
hand and kneeling down in a corner of our room (we had but the one) 
asked my Heavenly Father to cause that I might never more have to cor- 
rect her for that sin. A year passed and she was a litde over three years old 
when she came in one day with her fifteen months old sister by the hand 
and said, — "Mamma, here's Addie, stealing currants." My heart was filled 

132 Before the Manifesto 

with gratitude to find that my little one not only remembered that she 
must do no wrong herself, but would protect her litde toddling sister from 
doing so. I had no more trouble with these dear children on that score. 

The Fall that Addie was a baby in arms, your father brought a man and 
his three little boys to board with me. His name was Thomas Jones and I 
think he was from South Wales and had recendy come to the States. I sup- 
pose your father had compassion on him and I did what I could for him 
and his three children. One day he told me that he was going to get him a 
wife and that she was big enough to change the moon. And, sure enough, 
he brought her [Margaret Spotswood] and she was indeed a very large 
woman. She was the mother, by a former husband, of our town'sman, 
Charles J. [John] Thomas, the musician who is now the leader of the 
Temple Choir and a constant worker in the Temple. She told me that 
her son could detect a discordant note in a choir of a thousand voices. 
Her daughter, also by this marriage, now Mrs. Margaret [Ann Thomas] 
Romney, used to stay with us sometimes. After this lady came to us she 
and her husband slept on the floor in one of the rooms upstairs as I had 
done the winter before. She used often to come and hold Addie and sing 
to her and tell yarns about her life in the Army where her first husband 
had been a drummer in the band. 

While occupying our one room, we invited a gendeman and his wife, 
Bro. Shearman and Sister Shearman, to dine with us. I made a preserve 
pudding, which I suppose I boiled in our bake-kettle and, of course, had 
some meat and vegetables, but only a few sticks laid across two adobes for 
a stove. I felt embarrassed at the idea of cooking and serving the meal 
under these conditions in the presence of our guests but our friendship 
for them was so sincere that I was willing to endure this little humiliation 
for the sake of enjoying their company. However, upon this occasion these 
dear friends, for some reason, did not come, to our great regret when 
we found how delicious the pudding was. This Bro. William Shearman 
was private secretary to Apostle Amasa Lyman and we became acquainted 
with him during the "Move" when the Saints moved South on account of 
Johnson's Army being in Echo Canyon. He afterwards made his home 
with us for a time. Your father was then building at Jacob Hamlin's place 
at Santa Clara, but sent us a letter saying, "Bid him welcome home, wel- 
come to my home." 46 

46. Santa Clara, Utah, is located along Santa Clara Creek, four miles northwest of St. 
George. Jacob Hamblin, "an early Mormon scout and church authority, helped 
establish an Indian mission on the site in 1854. In 1856 a fort was built. The settlement 
was destroyed by floodwaters in 1862, then rebuilt on higher ground." Van Cott, Utah 
Place Names, 331. 

Sketch of the Life of Mary L. Morris 133 

Your sister Addie cut her teeth with a very sore ear, or rather a sore 
behind her ear. I did not attempt to heal it, but bathed it copiously with 
Castile soap and water. One day when I was doing so my father called 
and he remarked, "Do not heal it, but continue as you are doing." I was 
pleased to have his approval for I felt that he understood such matters. 
When the wound had seemingly run its course, the litde child began to 
make flesh and look well. 

I think the last time I mentioned your Grandfather Walker was when 
I spoke of his returning to England on a visit soon after my dear moth- 
er's death and just previous to my marriage to John Morris. He returned 
to St. Louis about the time our party left for the Valley, and travelled in 
Jacob Gates' Company. We met him at Montrose, I remember, while we 
were all waiting the final preparations to continue our journey. When he 
arrived in Salt Lake City, he went to live with my sister. A few years later he 
returned to England again, on a mission, and upon this occasion brought 
with him a sister, named Mary Ann Morton, from Luton, Hertfordshire, 
England, whom he married, and they resided in the Sixth Ward. She was 
a lady of some literary attainments and the author of several Latter Day 
Saint hymns. 47 

My Stepmother 
Your grandfather and grandmother Morris also came to Salt Lake City 
from Cedar City and lived in the Sixth Ward, next door to my father. 

When your sister Addie was litde she liked to play with toads and 
would run about with a toad in one hand and a "piece" in the other. When 
she was a year and nine months old your father went to Camp Douglas to 
build bake ovens for the soldiers, who had lately taken up their quarters 
there. 48 I remember he was given some immense sperm candles, which 
were so large that we could hardly believe the reality. He received cash in 
payment for building these bake ovens. With the portion that I received 
I bought some very pretty soft flannel for dresses for my little girls. It was 
red and dark brown plaid, and I had gilt buttons to fasten them with. I 
had a neat pattern to make them by and felt proud of and thankful for 
these pretty dresses. I can see now my litde Effie and Addie dressed in 

47. Mary Ann Morton (1826-1897), Mary Lois's stepmother, was the author of at least 
six LDS hymns, including "Sweet Is the Peace the Gospel Brings," "O Happy Home! 
O Blest Abode," "A Saint! and Is the Title Mine," "My Father in Heaven," "Though 
Nations Rise, and Men Conspire," and "With Cheerful Hearts and Willing Hands." J. 
Spencer Cornwall, Stories of Our Mormon Hymns, 137, 203; Sacred Hymns and Spiritual 
Songs for the Church offesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 76, 368-69, 377, 379, 398. 

48. Camp Douglas was an army camp on the east bench overlooking the Salt Lake Valley. 
It was established in 1862 when the Third California Volunteers were ordered to the 
Salt Lake Valley to "prevent Indian hostilities and 'keep an eye on the Mormons.'" 
Arrington, Great Basin Kingdom, 201. 

134 Before the Manifesto 

them and playing on the grass on the street on a Sunday evening during 
the Spring, when the weather was mild enough for me to have the door 
open. The streets were green in those days when there was so litde traffic. 

In the Spring of 1863 your father built two small rooms for us, west 
of the house proper, and we were more comfortable. We had some nar- 
row shelves put in a door-way which led into the other house, and these 
served as a cupboard. For a dresser we had a clothes chest with a white 
cover of some kind and an old lilac skirt neady arranged as a flounce. It 
was not very elegant, perhaps, but presented a cleanly appearance. Our 
windows were small square ones and swung on a litde piece of iron. We 
had red curtains, made with a heading and drawn with a string. There 
were very few blinds in those days and no screen doors. 

We enjoyed our usual health that summer but it was a season fraught 
with trial. 

Birth of John Conway 
On August the 22nd, (I think) a son was born to me. My dear niece, Miss 
Aggie [Agatha] Pratt, took care of me and my children and attended to 
the house work and was a great comfort to me. 

Soon after the baby was born, my father sent this word to me, 
"Tell them to call him John Walker". Shordy afterwards your grandfather 
Morris called and said, "I want you to call him John Conway", giving the 
following simple history of the name. "There was once a litde boy found 
sailing alone under Conway Bridge in Wales. No one knew who he was of 
from whence he came. We are descended from that litde boy". 

Next came your father and repeated his father's request. I objected 
to calling my baby after a dead person. Your father reasoned with me, try- 
ing to show that there was no cause for such an objection. For illustration, 
he said, "Here is Bro. David O. [Orson] Calder, who has lately buried 
three of his children with diphtheria, they were called after no one. So 
I yielded, but against my own judgment, and my second son was named 
John Conway [Morris]. He had blue eyes, fair skin, light hair, and to use 
his grandmother's own words, "he was the biggest of the breed" He was a 
good tempered litde fellow and even while he was in long clothes would 
sit in his high chair and watch me while I did my work. Mrs. Shearman, 
who called to see us one day, said; "You have to stay with this baby to know 
how good he is." He was so plump, white and beautiful that Barbara and 
Winnie would contend which might hold him when he was undressed. 
His father said, "Take care of him, he is a model picture". The winter fol- 
lowing his birth his little wrist was burnt, but not seriously. 

This winter, we had the good fortune to secure a stove, which came 
to us second hand, for it had been the property of our neighbor, Bro. 
Nelson A. Empie. That winter, as was often the case, we could not get 

Sketch of the Life of Mary L. Morris 135 

enough tallow to make our candles, so the light from the fire in the stove 
served for illumination as wellas for warmth. Later, however, your father 
bought me a little lamp which cost him $3.50. It would be worth about 25 
cents now. With the lamp came a paper shade with a little scene painted 
upon it. The edge was scolloped and it shaded the ceiling bringing the 
form of the scollops down on the wall. I felt so happy in the possession of 
this lamp that it seemed as if my cosy litde room were a piece of Paradise. 
Speaking of lamps and home-made candles reminds me of soap- 
making. We used to make soap in those days from the cake or prairie 
saleratus and lime, for lye was a dollar a box and money very scarce. I 
remember that on the 24th of July, soon after we came from the South, 
besides the days work I made three ketdes of soap and then went to a 
party in the evening. 

A Birthday Party 
Birthday celebrations were not as general as they are now, but when Addie 
was three years old we thought we would give a litde party in her honor. 
There was a picture on the wallof our room of which she was very fond, rep- 
resenting Nellie Grey sitting by the river with her mother. I can see her now, 
standing upon a chair, dressed in her pretty red dress which showed her 
pretty arms to such good advantage, gazing at this picture. Upon the occa- 
sion of her birthday I taught her a verse of the song "Nellie Grey" to sing. 49 

One of our litde guests was Moroni Walker Pratt, who was about ten 
years old at the time. He recited a poem by Mrs. Hemans on the Life of 
Moses. 50 The last lines were, — 

"And a good man he grew, 

And a wise man too, 
For the Spirit of God was there." 

The poor little fellow was so overcome with shyness that he cried. 
The large heart is capable of much emotion. 

The following March litde Conway was very ill, which terminated in 
serious lung trouble. Your Aunt Aggie thought he caught cold by being 
cradled in a clothes basket which, naturally was not much protection from 

49. The song "Nelly Gray" begins "There's a long green valley on that old Kentucky shore." 
It was arranged by at least five composers, including Thomas Hood (1799-1845) and 
Jonathan Blewitt (1781-1853). Havlice, Popular Song Index, first supp. (1978), 197; 
Kilgarriff, Sing Us One of the Old Songs, 401, 455. 

50. Felicia Dorothea Browne Hemans (1793-1835) was "the most widely read woman poet 
in the nineteenth-century English-speaking world." A search of the various collected 
volumes of her poetry did not find any poems on the life of Moses. Gary Kelly, ed., 
Felicia Hemans: Selected Poems, Prose, and Letters, 15. 

136 Before the Manifesto 

the draughts which came from under the doors. When he recovered, I 
remember how sweet it was, after his life had been threatened, to sit and 
hold him in my arms and sing him to rest. 

The First Matinee 
A pleasant incident occurred in the lives of the children of Salt Lake City 
on the 1st of May, 1865. It was the giving of a Matinee, the first ever given 
in Utah, at the Salt Lake Theatre in honor of May Day. 51 It was given by 
Julia Dean Hanes [Hayne] , a distinguished actress. There were May Pole 
dances on the stage, in which the children took part, holding ribbons 
attached to the pole. This, and the fact of the theatre being darkened 
and lighted artificially, this turning day into night, made a great stir in the 
Capitol City of Utah. 

The play was Chinese in its character and Mrs. Hanes played the part 
of a Chinaman. Her Chinese talk was long remembered by the youngsters 
and you could bear bits of Chinese language for months afterwards. The 
principle word I remember was "Chi-hi". I doubt if Utah had so much as 
seen a Chinaman at that time. 

On May 24th, 1865 your father left us to go on a mission to Great 
Britain in answer to a call from the First Presidency. 

At a Convention held in the Tabernacle the day following the 
preceeding April Conference, some reference was made to Masons. Pres. 
Young, in speaking, made some uncomplimentary remarks concerning 
them. As he sat down, your father rose and said, — "I rise to represent 
a class of workmen who, it has been said, are very dishonest." In a few 
plain and pointed sentences he defended them. His statements were not 
refuted. It may be proper to state here that in a matter in which he felt he 
was right your father feared nobody. 

Missionary Call 
A few days later he met Brother T B. H. [Thomas Brown Holmes] 
Stenhouse, a man of more than ordinary intelligence and editor of 
the Daily Telegraph, the first daily paper in the West. 52 Bro. Stenhouse 

51. The Salt Lake Theatre, which opened in 1862, could seat three thousand people and 
had a parquet, dress circle, and three balconies. Many well-known actors and actresses 
performed in the theatre, which was reported to have been similar to the famous 
Drury Lane Theatre of London. In addition to the traveling actors and actresses who 
performed in the theatre, performers based in Utah also put on plays. In 1928 and 
1929, the theatre was demolished. Ila Fisher Maughan, Pioneer Theatre in the Desert; 
Roderick Robertson, "The Early Mormon Theatre," 40-49; Arrington, Great Basin 
Kingdom, 211-13. 

52. The Salt Lake Daily Telegraph was a newspaper edited by Thomas Brown Holmes 
Stenhouse (1825-1882). It was published daily (except Sunday or Monday) between 
1864 and 1868. 

Sketch of the Life of Mary L. Morris 137 

accosted him with, "Well, Morris, my boy, you're called on a mission, arn't 
you?" "Yes, someone has shoved my name in, I suppose", was the reply. 
"No", Bro Stenhouse said, "I was present at a council of the Twelve, when 
a call was made for faithful, earnest men to go to Wales to clear up a 
Josephite mess which exists there, and your name was mentioned and sus- 
tained as a suitable man to send". 53 So we commenced preparations to 
that end. 

It was a beautiful day, to all appearances, the day he left us; the 
ground white with blossoms of the locust trees and the air laden with a 
lucious perfume. Outside, all was peace and quietness, but within the 
house were tears and heart-rending sobs. Your father was leaving his two 
wives and seven small children to recross the trackless desert and the fath- 
omless deep, in answer to the call ofduty. 

Your Grandmother Morris and a Sister Williams were with us at the 
hour of parting. Sister Williams, it seems to me, had been acquainted 
with the Morris family in Wales. These dear old ladies went from house to 
house trying to comfort us. Your grandmother would come in from your 
Aunties and say, "Well, its just the same here", and then Sister Williams 
would come from there and say, "And its no better here." At one time the 
latter said to me; — "I know what is the matter with you, you are thinking 
of the other one too." And so it was. My grief at parting with your father 
was so deep in my heart that it reached the place where my first husband 
had impressed it and re-opened the wound, and so I wept for both at the 
same time. 

After your father had left, I remember that I went to Pres. Heber C. 
[Chase] Kimball's mill and bought fifteen pounds of rolls. These I spun, 
scoured and colored all with my own hands. 

Speaking of the Mill, I may here mention that Bro. Kimball had 
engaged your father to build a warehouse for him some time previous, 
remarking at the time, — "If Bro Morris builds it, I expect it will be fin- 
ished in this generation." 

53. Mary Lois seems to be referring to the missionary efforts in Wales of the "Josephites," 
members of the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (RLDS) . The 
RLDS church split from the LDS church after the martyrdom of Joseph Smith over 
issues of succession. Joseph Smith's son Joseph Smith III became prophet-president of 
the RLDS church in 1860. By 1865, when Mary Lois wrote of the "Josephite mess" in 
Wales, several RLDS branches had been established in Wales, and RLDS missionaries 
reported progress in their missionary work among LDS members in Wales. One RLDS 
missionary reported in 1863, for instance, "The news from Wales is encouraging for 
the progress of the work. ... I found some of the old saints, who then, for the first 
time, were informed of the existence of the Reorganization, and they seemed much 
interested concerning it." Such reports would no doubt have concerned LDS leaders. 
EM, 3:1211-13; Joseph Smith III and Heman C. Smith, The History of the Reorganized 
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, 3:394-409. 

138 Before the Manifesto 

This was a busy summer for me. I would go from working in the gar- 
den to the spinning wheel, and from the spinning wheel, perhaps, to the 
Tithing Office, seven blocks distant, to purchase and then carry homd 
provisions for my family, then snatching an hour to cook a hot meal. 54 
Often it was currant dumplings, made from the fresh currants in our gar- 
den and as many other good things as circumstances would permit. But 
all was received with a grateful heart. 

Effie was six years old in January and Addie four years old in the 
February previous to your father's departure, and Conway two years the 
August following. Effie was now old enough to go to school, so I sent her 
to the Sixth Ward School taught by a Miss Elizabeth Hattersly. Effie had 
learned her alphabet by the time she was two years old, and from the 
time she went to school in May to the following September she learned 
to read in the Second Reader. That same summer I gave her a piece of an 
old sheet upon which to sew at school. In the afternoon she brought it 
back so neady hemmed that we could hardly see the stitches. Her teacher, 
appreciating this effort in so young a student, gave her five cents. This 
was the first money she had ever had. 

When currants were ripe it was the work of these two little girls to 
pick three quarts daily, Effie two quarts and Addie one. We had two ways 
of drying them; one was to spread them out fresh from the bushes to 
dry in the sunshine, and the other, to cook them until the moisture had 
evaporated and then spread them upon plates to dry. Currants were the 
only fruit we had and therefore of great importance. Squash drying was 
of equal importance in still earlier days when these and melons were the 
only fruit we could get. In case of a sudden storm, I have often gone out 
in the dead of night to gather in the currants bu the flashes of blazing 
lightning. I may say here that while your father was away on his mission, I 
felt safer at night than I had done when he was working only a few miles 
out of town. We had planted an orchard, but the trees were too young 
to bear fruit. It had been my duty to water the trees by carrying water by 
the bucketful. This being faithfully done, every tree, I think, grew and we 
watched with great interest for the first buds and blossoms. 

I was very glad when I could spin several skeins of yarn a day, besides 
the other work I had, and caring for my children. Five skeins a day was 
considered a good days work. Pres. Young reckoned that a woman who 
spun all day walked twenty miles, and many a song I sang as the buzz of 
the big wheel played a bass chord to my tune, this reminds me of Burns, 
who says, — "All day land, Gene spun and sang." 

54. As tithing was generally paid "in kind" instead of in cash, the function of the tithing 
offices was to receive and redistribute the products paid as tithing and to convert 
these items "into acceptable means of payment wherever the church made purchases." 
Arrington, Great Basin Kingdom, 140-41. 

Sketch of the Life of Mary L. Morris 139 

Home Made Dresses 
I had set myself the task of finishing the spinning of my fifteen pounds 
of rolls by September, and a thankful heart was mine when my yarn was 
ready to scour, and still more so when I could see the white hanks filling 
the fence and my joy reached its height when by care, skill and labor, I 
had colored these beautiful white skeins a handsome madder red, indigo 
blue and jet black. And, as I had arranged, I took them to your Aunt 
Hannah H. [Hinchliffe Midgley] Morris to weave into cloth on the date 
in September that I had intended when I commenced the work. The 
cloth that I made for my own dress was black with a fine stripe of red and 
a few threads of blue. That for Effie and Addie blue with a narrow stripe 
of red. This style of cloth was much admired and sought after. I received 
$2.00 a yard for some like my own dress. 

Then we took what dried currants we had to spare and sold them 
for cash and with this money bought some little vegetable dishes of which 
we were very proud. 

Then your father, in disposing of his outfit after crossing the plains, 
managed to send us sixty pounds of lye to make soap of, and some tea. 
It was just like him, good provider and manager, that he was, to think of 
us and to send us something to help us along. I borrowed a wheelbarrow 
from your uncle William V. [Vaughan] Morris, and with a good deal of 
repugnance, wheeled the sixty pounds of lye home. With my share of the 
tea I bought some bowls, thus adding again to my scanty stock of dishes, 
and was thankful for the opportunity. 

A fine fat ox was also sent to us that Fall which your father had pur- 
chased of some immigrants. So through the blessings of Providence and 
our own industry, we had that winter, handsome, warm dresses, some 
good beef and a nice supply of dried fruit. 

Christmas Maneuvering 
And now Christmas, 1865 was approaching and I wondered what I could 
do for my litde ones, for every little girl at lease wants a doll. It is always 
well to begin to think of Xmas early and I think this was the year in which 
we did as follows. — Effie had taken readily to knitting and knitted a pair 
of mittens for a Harry Bowering, who lived across the street, for which 
she received fifty cents. She also knitted a similar pair for Cousin Tom 
Morris, for which she also received another fifty cents, so that her doll 
was secure. But what was litde Addie to do? I had taught her also to knit 
and she put forth her best effort and knitted a pair of garters for a Sister 
Willard, who lived next door to us, so that we had money to buy her a doll 
too. So we went up to a litde store which stood somewhere about where 
the Kolitz Kandy Kitchen now stands on Main St. between South Temple 
and First South Streets. The dolls from which we selected Effie 's were 

1 40 Before the Manifesto 

$1.25 each, but kind Sister Cooper, who kept the store, found one slightly 
damaged which she let us have for a dollar. It had a very pretty face and 
was about as large as could be purchased now for twenty five cents. The 
class of doll which Addie's money would buy were solid china and very 
pretty. By hiding Addie's dollie, and sewing the head of Effie's up in a 
cloth, they did not see them until the right time. As the charm of Addie's 
doll lay in the symetry of its limbs and the beauty of its face it would have 
seemed an injustice to cover its perfect form with paltry clothing, so it was 
ready for presentation, but how to dress Effie's without its being seen was 
a problem. It was accomplished by the dim gleam of candle light, after 
the children had retired. The dress was made of dove color alpacca, as 
glossy as silk. As Miss Dolly had a fine figure we made the waist tight fit- 
ting to display her form to good advantage. The fashionable coat sleeve 
and a gored skirt, which had just come into vogue made the costume of 
the latest style, at that time. The trimming was three rows of narrow braid, 
such as we used in embroidery, and just the size for the litde dress, so that 
when finished it was really very neat and comely. 

I think it was about this time that I had achance to do some knitting 
for Mrs. Lavina Johnson, who gave me some apples from her orchard in 
payment, with which I made my mincemeat. 

Xmas came, and the new dolls were a great source of joy to my litde 
girls, but poor little Addie was doomed to sorrow for her precious doll 
dropped upon the hearthstones and was shattered to fragments. Who 
could comfort her? I had no money, or prospect of any, so all I could do 
was to gather up the pieces and put them away in a drawer for she would 
not hear of their being destroyed, and there she would go and peep in, 
sobbing as if her heart would break, just as a bereaved mother might look 
at her departed baby. This, I think, must have been Addie's first sorrow. 

About this time, during a spell of very cold weather, little Connie 
had his leg burnt; it was rather a deep sore, but he was extremely patient. 
It showed me the different stages of the healing of a burn and what a 
more serious burn would be. 

Hearing that the families of absent Missionaries had the privilege of 
attending the theatre free, I went to Manager John T [Thomas] Caine, 
to see to what extent these favors were granted. He replied that we could 
have a ticket once in a while, so I gladly availed myself of the enjoyment 
this privilege afforded. At this time Bro. David McKenzie was our theatri- 
cal star and we delighted to bask in its brilliancy. He shone particularly 
in a play entided "The Yicket-of-leave Man" in which he took the leading 
part. 35 The name of the heroine of the play was May Edwards, but I do not 
remember what the lady's real name was. 

55. Mary Lois seems to be referring to Tom Taylor's play, The Ticket-of-Leave Man, about 
"a parolee whose trusting disposition leads to misadventures." It was first performed 

Sketch of the Life of Mary L. Morris 141 

About this time I had the misfortune to hurt my right heel, all reme- 
dies seeming unavailing to heal the wound so that upon such occasions as 
I was obliged to go to town my foot was tied up in a white cloth. Becoming 
tired of this, and hearing of a certain remedy for such ailments, I pro- 
cured some and asked your dear Cousin Aggie Pratt to come and spend 
the day with me to help administer the treatment in the form of poul- 
tices. In my case however, it was worse than useless, for by night the entire 
limb was inflamed. 

Soon afterwards, while attending the theatre one evening, I met an 
old friend who told me that the yolk of an egg rendered thick with flour 
had proved beneficial in such cases. The result of the application of this 
mixture was a speedy healing of the sore heel. 

A Dress Bought with Rags and a Ham 
In the spring of 1866 paper rags were in great demand. Previous to 
this, in '61 or '62, our enterprising citizen and later, merchant, George 
Goddard, came with a neat cart with a white cover to collect them, offer- 
ing in exchange, haberdashery and other small wares. But in 1867 the 
Daily Telegraph was in full blast and paper rags were sought and a good 
price paid for them. The depot where they were received was just west 
of Clark's Corner called the Eagle Emporium (the Clock Corner) and 
the building had been erected for Bro. Wm. [William] Jennings by your 
father. 56 Wagons also called at intervals to collect rags. I do not know how 
many dollars I earned by collecting, washing and sorting rags, but with the 
sale of a nice ham of my own feeding and curing, I had enough money to 
buy a handsome dress pattern. In order to make the very best use of my 
money I went to Bro. Naisbitt who bought goods on commission as a side 
issue to his business as a dry goods buyer for S. P. Teasdale's store. By this 
means we could obtain goods almost at eastern prices. My dress pattern 
was a nice quiet shade of blue French Merino of excellent quality. 

Gored skirts were just coming into fashion, but not wishing to cut this 
fine cloth, I laid two large box pleats in the back, to give the skirt a gored 
effect. Coat sleeves were also very stylish at that time so of course mine 
were cut in that shape and for out door wear a small cape terminating just 

in New York in November 1863, and revivals followed throughout the rest of the 
nineteenth century. Gerald Martin Bordman and Thomas S. Hischak, The Oxford 
Companion to American Theatre, 616. 
56. The Eagle Emporium, located at 102 South Main in downtown Salt Lake City, was 
constructed in 1864 by Elias Morris for prominent merchant William Jennings. In 
1868, Jennings "exchanged his inventory for capital stock in Z.C.M.I. and leased his 
Eagle Emporium to the new organization." Z.C.M.I. remained in the Eagle Emporium 
building until 1876. John S. McCormick, The Historic Buildings of Downtown Salt Lake 
City, 8, 62. 

142 Before the Manifesto 

above the waist made a graceful costume. In those days all stuff dresses 
were trimmed with white buttons as may be seen from pictures of that 
time. This was a very neat but stylish dress, and I was not naturally as stout 
as I am now. Cousin Aggie helped me to arrange the pleats in my skirt. 

An Invitation to a Dinner Party 
Early in the following Spring, I, with other missionaries wives, was invited 
to dine at Bishop [Robert Taylor] Burton's. This invitation caused me 
more uneasiness than pleasure, as I was not acquainted with the Bishop's 
family and was uncertain as to the location of the house at which the 
dinner would be held. I knew they were quite well to do people and the 
Bishop, with whom I had often danced at social functions at the ward 
had expressed a wish that I should meet his family. I wondered if I 
should take some work with me, as I always felt more at ease when occu- 
pied. However, I did as I always did when things troubled me and tried to 
worry less. I knew I had a handsome dress to wear but stillfelt so diffident 
about going. There was one comfort, I at least was acquainted with my 
fellow guests. 

At last the dreaded day arrived and instead of having to wander in 
uncertainty as to where to go, a carriage was sent to fetch me. 

Bishop Burton received us at the door and conducted us to the par- 
lor, an unusual luxury in those days. Here I met my friends, the wife of 
James Ure [Janet Scott Ure] and his daughter Jeannette [Janette Scott 
Ure] ; Jane, the wife of Griffith Roberts and the wife of Councellor Joseph 
Pollard [Mary Ann Bailey Pollard or Ruth Allen Pollard] . Our invitation 
stated that the party was to do honor to the missionaries of the ward and 
certainly we were treated right royally. We spent a most pleasant afternoon 
and having taken my work, a litde red stocking, it added to my comfort. 

During the afternoon Bishop Burton ingenuously asked his little 
daughter, Florence [May Burton] , to ask her sister, Mrs. [Theresa Hannah 
Burton] Hills, to play for us. This was a rare treat as very few people pos- 
sessed musical instruments. Mrs. Teresa Burton Hills was a beautiful 
young lady and superintended the dinner, which was a sumptuous repast. 
Mrs. Maria [Susan Haven] Burton remarked that Teresa had kept house 
for two years previous to her marriage. 

During the evening Bishop Burton requested me to sing several 
times and he played the violin for us. I tried to be as much at ease as pos- 
sible and suppose I succeeded as my recollections of that day are most 

Shortly afterwards, at Bishop Burton's suggestion, I was invited to 
join the Ward Choir, the new and highly esteemed leader, Bro. William 
D. [Davies] Williams, remarking that he preferred mature voices. Here 
I remained a member until circumstances made it necessary for me to 

Sketch of the Life of Mary L. Morris 143 

leave. I also belonged to the Tabernacle Choir. 57 I remember very dis- 
tinctly, that one evening Pres. Young met with us. It was just before 
October Conference and he desired to test the acoustic properties of the 
building. I remember he spoke from the stand and a strange impression 
was made upon those who were close beside him, myself amongst the 
number, for it seemed that his voice came from the eastern or opposite 
end of the building. Upon another occasion I was seated at the feet of a 
speaker but was unable to hear and had to sit with the audience below in 
order to do so. Later a canvas was stretched between the ceiling and the 
heads of the people, which I well remember seeing in course of erection 
by Pres. Daniel H. Wells and a staff of men. There was no gallery at that 
time, but later, when that addition was made and the sky-lights put in, the 
trouble ended, I believe. 

I think it was this summer, that of 1866, that I went to Aunt Hannah's 
to twist some yarn on their wheel. I left the house locked, but when I 
returned found that Conway, large child that he was, had managed to 
push his way through a pane of glass 8 by 10 inches, and by climbing 
upon his high chair, had obtained some matches from the mantel shelf. 
With these, he set fire to some stuff in the cow shed and then ran away. 
This was the second accident with fire, although this time the dear child 
was not hurt. 

About a year and a half after your father went away, one Monday, 
having finished my weekly washing as usual, in spite of the fatigue and 
the approach of evening, in order not to break into another day, I went 
to the Tithing Office to get provisions for my family. I took Effie with me 
to help a litde in carrying my load of about forty pounds. Often I had to 
leave my litde ones alone when I went upon errands of this kind. At such 
times I always asked my Heavenly Father to take care of them, and He 
did. But this time I had taken extra precautions and left them in charge 
of Sister Guiver, in her own home. I felt depressed upon this trip and 
fancied that when I asked for the order the clerk looked coldly upon me, 
although he gave me what I asked for. The nearer I came to home, the 
more this feeling of sadness oppressed me. At last I reached the house 
and Sister Guiver brought my two poor litde children, severely scalded 
and stripped of their clothes. I could see at a glance what was before me, 
and no father there to help me bear it. For an hour I was powerless. Sister 
Guiver and another neighbor, Sister Eccles, good sould that they were, 
took olive oil and water and whipped them together until they became 

57. A group of singers from the Nauvoo choir and a Welsh immigrant choir began calling 
themselves the Tabernacle Choir in the early 1850s. In 1869, following a succession of 
short-term conductors, George Careless, a professional musician from England, was 
appointed director of the choir, and under his leadership the choir took on a more 
permanent and professional character. Hicks, Mormonism and Music, 44—45, 95-96, 98. 

1 44 Before the Manifesto 

a salve and this they applied to the wounds. Addie was scalded in five 
places, one on the wrist and the rest upon the lower limbs. Conway was 
scalded more severely. One of his little legs was scalded from above the 
knee down to the ankle, the other from below the knee toward the instep. 
When these good sisters had dressed the wounds I put Addie in bed with 
Effie and made my own bed on the litde kitchen floor so as to be able to 
attend to litde Conway as he was so much worse. The simple salve made 
by the sisters took the fire out of the burns and the children rested pretty 
well, but the worse was yet to come. In the morning there were stains 
upon my sheets as big as plates where the water had run from the burns 
upon poor little Conway's body. Father Busde, an old gendeman in the 
ward came over and told me how to treat the burns. I had plenty of good 
tallow from the Tithing Office to use for making salve and he seemed 
to be progressing nicely until the following Thursday when the blisters 
broke and the flesh was exposed to the air. Oh, what suffering that poor 
child did endure. It seemed too, that it was worse at night. I used to sing 
to him. This would take his attention for a while. He would say, "Sing 
Nennie Day", meaning "Nellie Gray". Then he would say "Sing it adain, 
Ma." When this charmed him no more I would whisde for him, and he 
thought that was grand. Then when he could endure the pain no longer 
he would begin to scream and it seemed to me that his screams could be 
heard a block away. 

One night Aunt Hannah stayed with us, and Uncle William came 
later. I made a bed for them on the kitchen floor. In his good natured way 
he gave me five dollars. He seemed pleased to hear the singing. 

Another night Aunt Aggie came to stay with us. I put her in my bed 
while Connie and I slept in a bed upon the floor in the same room. After 
daylight, while dear Aunt Aggie was conversing with me she said these 
words, — "Mary, the Lord will never allow you to apostatize, you will not 
only save yourself, but will help to save others." At this time I was about 
thirty three years old. 

The poor child suffered in this horrible manner until a white mesh 
began to grow over the exposed places. It was like the meshes of white 
net but the cells were round instead of square. Then we both got a litde 
more rest, but I did not care what I suffered with him so long as I had him 
with me. The accident happened in November, andh the wounds were 
not healed until the following March. Addie's wounds were smaller and 
not so severe. 

The accident happened in this wise. The children were seated in 
front of a stove which was not very firmly set. Upon the stove stood a cof- 
fee pot of hot, or boiling water. The stove tipped and the coffee pot was 
precipitated into litde Conway's lap, Addie receiving some of the scalding 
liquid also. If the little fellow had been dressed in a slipshod manner his 

Sketch of the Life of Mary L. Morris 145 

wounds would not have been so deep, but beinf dressed, in good woolen 
clothing, with his shoes tightly laced and his little knickerbockers securely 
fastened it took some time to get his clothing off him, and by this time 
the heat of the water had spent itself. But after allhis vital organs were 
uninjured and I stillhad him. 

When he was at last able to be up he would sit in his high chair as 
when a baby. 

Still I was obliged to leave these litde children when I went to the 
Tithing Office to get provisions. 

One day as Christmas approached I had occasion to call upon Cousin 
Belinda [Marden] Pratt Stenhouse who gave me two little books for my 
litde girls. They had been sent to her litde daughters by their father while 
he was on a business trip East some years before, but had been kept in 
such good condition they were almost as good as new and she was pleased 
to give them to me with much sympathy and affection. No doubt she 
called to mind the time when her father was on a mission in far off lands 
and realized how scanty our means were to provide for Christmas. 

One of the books, the one intended for Effie, was about "Little-Red- 
Riding-Hood". It was beautifully illustrated. The little maiden was dressed, 
in scarlet hood and cloak, and the artist, in order to bring the design of 
the pretty little figure into bold relief, had placed a black background. 
There was a picture upon every page with just space enough left for a 
four line verse in beautiful clear pica type, as follows: — 

Sweet little Red Riding Hood's mother 

Ties on her scarlet hood 
And sends her with gifts to her Grandma 

All through the lonely wood. 

A Cushat-dove follows her footsteps 

When a wolfe creeps slyly near; 
But she hears the ax of the woodman 

And greets him without fear. 

He wins her to tell him her errand 

Then slyly steals away 
While Red Riding Hood lingers longer 

With butterflies at play. 

The fair child taps at her Grandma's door 
Half wearied now, with play 

1 46 Before the Manifesto 

"Pull the string, and the latch will come up," 
She hears a gruff voice say. 

She enters, she lays aside her hood 

And cries with wild surprise; — 
"Oh, Grandma, what long sharp teeth you have! 

And oh, what fearful eyes!" 

The wolf would have killed her, but shrilly 

Her loud cries pierced the wood; 
The brave woodman came and slew him 

And saved Red Riding Hood. 

The second book, given with the same kind spirit for Addie, had 
belonged to Mrs. Stenhouse's litde Florence and had been kept with 
the same care as the other one. The title was "Hop o' My Thumb", and 
towards Xmas I managed to get a dime or so and bought a small, but 
very pretty book for my litde Conway. This was "Mother Goose's Rhymes", 
daintily illustrated. It contained "Old King Cole," The Cow jumped Over 
the Moon, and another was, 

Little Polly Flinders 

Sat in the cinders, 

Warming her pretty litde toes, 

Her mother came and caught her 

And whipped her litde daughter 

For spoiling her nice new clothes. 

I knew how much pleasure these books would give and with a grateful 
heart laid them away for Christmas. 

Some peach trees your father had planted merely for a fence, by 
careful watering had grown and were bearing heavily. I used to climb the 
trees with a small kettle in my hand and then descend and fill a larger 
one which stood below. As we had no planks or lumber we would climb 
upon the roof of our litde house and spread the peaches out to dry. Litde 
Conway would insist upon following, although but three or four years old 
and as fast as we fetched him down he would go right up again. And by 
some means he would climb upon the roof of the cow shed and sitting 
astride would say; — "Get up, horsey". He was very strong and active. Your 
grandfather wrote one day to your father saying, — "I was passing your 
house the other day and saw something I thought was all Goshen coming, 

Sketch of the Life of Mary L. Morris 147 

when what was it but little Con, carrying a log of wood as big as himself! 
Your grandfather was proud of the litde fellow's physique. He was about 
three years old at this time. 

While the peaches were drying it was time to see what could be done 
towards helping to provide fuel for winter. Across the street was a tennery 
and there the children resorted after school and on Saturday to gather the 
tan bark. There were others besides ours, bare-footed, as they had been all 
the summer, with gunny sacks in their hands and none worked more ear- 
nestly than Effie andAddie so that soon we had a big heap of tan bark piled 
in the corner of the shed where the stove used to stand in the summer. 

As the girls grew a little larger other girls would come over and 
spend the evening with us, a most constant visitor being Janey Wade. She 
was the same age as your sister Winnie and sometimes these girls would 
change clothing and when Sister Wade called Janey to put up the calf, 
Winnie would go instead, and so they would go on until found out and 
then considerable merriment would follow. 

Sister Wade was a dear and old time friend of my father's and an 
early member of the Manchester Conference. When my father formed her 
acquaintance first she was Sister Armstrong and was highly esteemed. In 
her earlier days she had been a lady's maid and was as gracious as she was 
refined. If we sent her any little gift of anything which she did not have, 
she was never satisfied unless she sent us something of as much, if not 
greater value, in return. Thus a bond of friendship existed between us on 
my father's account, and also that friendship which exists between those 
who have known each other during the time when they first embraced 
the Gospel. 

Besides housework, gardening and manufacturing cloth I used to 
cut a great deal of wood. Sometimes I would hack away at knotty logs until 
I could not straighten myself up to walk into the house. This was hard 
work but valuable from the standpoint of experience and better perhaps 
for my stove and the comfort of my family than for my physical system. 
Your Grandfather Morris once sent up a man to cut a little wood. It was 
just such knotty pieces as I was accustomed to work at and after watching 
him for a few minutes I quietly suggested to him how he might, I thought, 
overcome the difficulty. He did not dispute the question but adopted my 
method to his entire satisfaction. I was daily working at the wood, every 
time I needed it, while his experience had been on other lines. 

In the spring of 1868 I dreamed that I stood in mud with just enough 
of solid ground for me to stand upon. All that I could see was mud or 
earth, the walls surrounding me were mud. There was nothing but mud 
as high as I could see. 

Also somewhere about this time there came to my bedside a person 
in the form of a little boy. He wore rather a grim looking shirt. I knew 

148 Before the Manifesto 

that the spirit was not of God, and perhaps it was not a litde boy at all, for 
as I understand, spirits can assume to be that which they are not. Living 
as I was, and situated as I was, I do not think that Our Heavenly Father 
would allow a grown person to appear to me in my lonely condition. I did 
not dare to disturb my little children so had to battle with the influence 
alone. My anxiety was to get rid of him. Having attended meetings since 
my childhood and having learned the principles of the Gospel, I knew 
what to do, so with allthe courage I could muster, I arose and said: — "In 
the name of Jesus Christ of Nazareth, depart!" He answered me, in spirit, 
"I do not know which way to go." I said to him, "Go, the way you came.", 
and he went. It seemed to me that he came through a corner of the lit- 
tle kitchen and he departed the same way. I did not sleep any more that 
night but prayed and sang, and sang and prayed until daylight. 

Death of Little Conway 
Along in May I was coming home from Uncle William's with Effie, Addie 
and little Connie. I had the latter by the hand and it seemed to me his lit- 
tle hand had never been so dear and precious as it was that evening, and 
at night, after we had retired, as he lay at my side, his presence seemed 
more precious to me than at any other time. There seemed to be some- 
thing magnetic in his touch, and more lovely than I had words to express. 
There seemed to be running in my mind: — "There is sweet rest in Heaven, 
there is sweet rest, there is sweet rest, there is sweet rest in Heaven". 

The next morning, according to appointmet your Grandfather 
Morris sent a man to do some whitewashing, which I was accustomed to do 
for myself usually. If I could have proceeded according to my wish I would 
have had my little bedroom done first and after having put the things 
back there have had the kitchen done, but my rooms being so small I was 
obliged to upset the whole place at once, in order that he might proceed 
without delay. In preparing the kitchen a box of matches had been tipped 
over, but I picked them up at once. Perhaps he also picked some of them 
up and put them into the pockets of his pants, as children love to do. 
Effie and Addie had taken Connie to school in the morning and not see- 
ing him about I concluded they had taken him again in the afternoon. 

Early in the afternoon I was very busy shifting things so that the 
man might go on with the whitewashing, when I smelt brimstone and saw 
a fire in the chicken coop. I ran out to save my chickens. As I reached the 
coop, oh, my! what a sight met my eyes! There was my little Connie, in the 
lucern patch, lying on his back, with his little hands turned upwards and 
all his clothes burned off him. Oh, my, what a sight! By this time a man 
by the name of Shingleton approached and leaped the fence. He had 
seen the blaze from across the street where he was at work. A chair was 
brought out for me to sit upon. Sister Wade was by my side and said to 

Sketch of the Life of Mary L. Morris 149 

me, — "That child will have Celestial Glory for what he has suffered and so 
will you!" By this time many friends had gather round and had taken the 
child into the house. There was a hence south wind blowing at the time, 
which sent all the sound up the street or I might have heard his screams. 
People a block away could see the flames before I knew anything of it. A 
Brother [William] Paul, the father of Mrs. Priscilla [Paul] Jennings, and 
well acquainted with your father, was working in the tannery opposite and 
came over in a very kind manner. When I went into the house to see my 
poor boy, he assurred me, with much sympathy, that there was no hope. 
Then he, or a doctor, prepared linseed oil and lime, it seems to me, and 
applied to him. They had laid him upon the bedroom floor, that room 
being empty. He asked continually for water to drink. I asked him if he 
had taken matches. He knew it was contrary to my wishes for him to play 
with tire. 

Brother Paul took me over to Brother Eccles house and forbade me 
seeing the child again so I left him to the skill of kind neighbors, friends 
and relatives, for I was powerless to render any aid. 

I paced the floor in agony. Many neighbors from the 16th Ward 
came to see me and Sister Butterworth from the 6th Ward. I felt that my 
mind was leaving me and exercising all my self control asked to be taken 
back to my home and there found a calm and heavenly influence which 
restored my soul a little. While I had been away little Connie had passed 
the throes of death. 

Dear Aunt Aggie and Bro. William R. [Roberts] Jones, sen., had lov- 
ingly laid him out. Aunt Aggie begged me not to see him, telling me he 
was not tit. 

Sister Kate Thurgood South had picked up my house-cleaning 
where I had left it off and all were anxious to help and comfort me. My 
spring seated rocker which had been my companion on many previous 
heart rending occasions, stood in its accustomed corner. Here I sat and 
passed the night. And although a spirit of peace was in our habitation as I 
sat in that chair, I endured weeping and wailing, and gnashing of teeth; — 
the gnashing of teeth being from the agony of my soul. 

The following morning Aunt Aggie and Bro. William R. Jones pre- 
pared my treasured child for his last resting place. Later, Apostle John 
Taylor called on me and he preached the funeral discourse. The funeral 
was held in Auntie's front room, the house being unoccupied at the time, 
Auntie being down south on a visit. I have no recollection of going to the 

Knowing that work was the best remedy for sorrow I went right at 
it, and after cleaning the pieces of linsey which had been applied to my 
darling's wounds, I prepared to use them for making a warm quilt for the 
winter. Friends continued to call upon me, and Cousin Lona, who spent 

150 Before the Manifesto 

the week with me, wished they would not do so as my feelings were being 
constantly harrowed up. 

Finally dear Cousin Lona was obliged to return home, but Miss 
Rachel Guiver stayed with me at night until the Fall, as I could not bear 
the thought of being alone, my sorrow being always fresh upon my mind. 

One morning, after I had arisen, Effie dreamed that she saw Conway 
up towards the ceiling. She said he was wearing his Sunday clothes and 
looked rosy and fair and she noticed that a few freckles, which had been 
upon his face in life, were no longer there. He looked very happy and 
said it was a nice place where he was. Then he remarked; "There's Addie 
yolled out on e floor.", and sure enough Addie had rolled out on the 
floor as he had said. I believe he came because I was out of the room. Our 
friends do not like to be near us when we are in grief. 

One day, I think it was the first time I had been out after his death, 
his absence came upon me so forcefully that it seemed as if my heart 
would break and tears streamed from my eyes as I moaned in my loneli- 
ness and yearning for my treasured one. 

One evening, as I was standing silently weeping at my gate, Father 
Wade came by and said; — "Don't you know that in the morning of the 
resurrection you will take your little boy by the hand, just as you had 
him in this life?" I cannot tell you how these words comforted me. Your 
father had a warning about trouble and after receiving word from Uncle 
Richard, went into mourning for little Conway. When he wrote to me he 
said that he attached no blame to anyone and that it might have been 
worse, since others might have been with him to share the same fate. He 
asked me to writehim more particulars as soon as I felt able, but it was 
more than two months before I had strength to comply with his request. 

One day, as I was passing Sister Lavina Johnson's house she remarked 
that she did not see how I could keep my senses. I told her that I tried to 
keep possession of my mind, because if I did not do so, some other power 
would soon possess it. 

During the summer, our neighbor, Sister William R. Jones, lost a 
litde child and I went to render any assistance I could to her in her trou- 
ble. As the funeral discourse was delivered the wounds in my heart were 
laid bare, as if by a surgeon's knife, and I could not repress my violent 

Sister Jones was a very neat thrifty person and we were good friends. 
After the funeral she told me that she liked my way of working, and asked 
if I would arrange to some to her during the winter when she expected 
to be sick. 

Poor little Addie was heart-broken at the loss of her little brother 
and she longed, yes yearned, to continue her play with him, and refused 
to be comforted. Often she would cry and say she wanted to play with 

Sketch of the Life of Mary L. Morris 151 

Connie. She even clung to a large cat we had, because it was associated 
with herself and litde brother around the family hearth. 

When chips were put upon the fire, for we had no coal, if the flame 
was a little high up the chimney Effie and Addie would watch my face 
with great anxiety. 

If a bon-fire was kindled in an adjacent lot I could not rest until I 
knew it was extinguished, and often, in the middle of the night I went out 
to see if any fire had been left in the embers, and carry water to extin- 
guish it if there was. One night I went into the street and found a large 
heap of ashes containing so much fire that when I poured water upon 
it, the steam and sparks rose to the second story of the house, where the 
inmates unconciously slept. 

If a train approached during a wind I must go down upon my 
knees and ask my Heavenly Father to protect us from the falling sparks. 
I took the two little girls to the theatre where we witnessed a play enti- 
tled "The Streets of New York", and during the street scene where the 
fire occurs, the poor litde things watched my face until the agony had 
passed from it. 58 

Third Year of Missionary Life 
In January, 1868 I went to our friends Bro. and Sister Wm. H. Jones, 
according to the promise previously made, but in order to do so, I had to 
make arrangements for my two remaining children to be cared for dur- 
ing my absence from home. Addie stayed with Auntie and Aunt Aggie 
made Effie happy and welcome. 

I had plenty to do in my new position, for I was housekeeper, cook 
and laundress, as well as nurse. The washing I was obliged to do in a room 
without fire for but few people had more than one stove in those days, 
it being hard enough to obtain fuel for even one fire, and I did not con- 
sider that the steam from laundry work would be suited to my patient and 
her new born baby. I went home at night, Bro. Jones being at home then 
to attend to his wife. 

I well remember, after washing in the cold room all the afternoon, 
how my feet felt as I hobbled in the snow to the Tithing Office to pur- 
chase flour, and from thence home to climb the haystack, in the dark, to 
feed my cow. But I did not murmur, for I loved the Gospel and was willing 
that my husband should preach it to others. 

Sister Jones' baby was named Patience Mary Jane [Jones], and is 
with us yet, bless her. 

58. The Streets of New York (also called The Poor of New York) was a play by Dion Boucicault first 
performed in 1857. In the play, a New York tenement is set on fire. Bordman, Oxford 
Companion, 505. 

152 Before the Manifesto 

Bro. Jones and his sons, William Richard [Jones] and James Samuel 
Qones] , brought in wood and water at night for my use during the day, as 
was the custom in all wellordered households. 

Talking of firewood, I have seen the time, during your father's 
absence, when I was as hungry for warmth as a person could be for food. 
Once I went to a neighbor's to get warm, leaving the children in bed. 

Upon another occasion I was picking up a few chips of wood in the 
Tabernacle grounds when a man ordered me off, refusing me this small 

One day I went to get a missionary order, as usual, but was told there 
were none, but that we could get help from the ward. This so wounded 
my feelings that I wept all the way home, feeling that I would rather rent 
my two smallrooms and live in a tent than accept ward relief. 

We had not lacked for food up to this time, as the order s we received 
from the Missionary Fund gave us provisions from the Tithing Office. 

Some time after this I was making a dress for Janey Wade, and the 
sun was shining in our little kitchen making it look warm and bright, 
although there was very little fuel in the stove, only tan bark and a little 
wood and it was bitterly cold in spite of the sun. Sister Wade came in and 
remarked how bright and cozy it was, but we had nothing in the house to 
eat but bread. Had she known this she would have paid for the work in 

Lack of sufficient nourishment began to tell upon me and the chil- 
dren also. There was a heavy log of wood upon our sawing horse and 
when I stopped to regain my breath after sawing, little Effie would vol- 
unteer to help, but this work was too much for her and her heart began 
to trouble her. I took her to Dr. Benzon, a gentleman of our faith, and 
he told me to give her plenty of nourishing food and not to let her work 
beyond her strength. 

One day Mrs. Empie came in and asked me if I would go over and 
wash for her as she was going out of town unexpectedly, and in return 
gave me some red calico with which I made my little Effie a dress with 
yoke and belt waist. I was very thankful for this as she needed a new dress 
to wear at an entertainment at the Sixth Ward a few days later. 

On another occasion I did some washing for Sister Eccles. our kind 
neighbor, but it was almost too much for me. There were no washing 
machines or boards in those days, everything was rubbedin the hands. 
They noticed my weakened condition, and said; — "Now, we know that 
you are not strong". To help me they made lunch several times, giving me 
tea to drink, but when I reached home I could not sleep my limbs ached 
so much and also the tea prevented me from resting. 

Finding that I could not do such hard work, I tried to obtain some 
sewing. Amongst other things I made a fine shirt for Proffessor Orson 

Sketch of the Life of Mary L. Morris 153 

Pratt. I was sitting on my door step stitching the fronts by a drawn thread 
when a rather inquisitive neighbor passing, came and stood near me, but 
I did not fear her scrutiny for I had learned to stitch by the thread at 
school and had made shirts for my husband while yetin my teens. 

As the spring advanced, instead of renting my rooms, as I had pro- 
posed, I tried to turn my knowledge of minninery to some account, and 
with the help of Aunt Aggie worked up a nice litde business. When I had 
a difficult piece of work I went to her home, eight blocks away, for help 
and advice. 

I often made over hats for customers which required more skill than 
making new ones, and also obtained work from the millinery stores in 
town and even succeeded in satisfying one lady by remaking a hat she had 
just bought from a millinery store. 

I made straw hats for gentlemen as well as ladies, one of my patrons 
being Bishop Robert T. Burton. I also made one for Joseph Henderson, 
Uncle Isaac's Brother-in-law in Weber County. With the money I received 
for the latter I bought two quarts of coal oil to burn in my pretty little 
lamp, and can remember to this day how proud I felt, for coal oil was a 
luxury in those days. 

At this time there was a great deal of beautiful straw braid made 
in Utah, also straw trimming which looked like lace, but was more sub- 
stantial. This was very dainty and becoming, and was much worn. I had 
a white straw bonnet with straw trimmings which looked very nice with a 
purple dress your father had sent me and I was thirty years old then and 
in the prime of life. 

About this time Bro. T. C. [Thomas Cott] Griggs asked me to teach 
in the Sunday School, saying "It strikes me you would make a good 
teacher". I had a nice class of girls, some of whom were the sisters of 
Thomas F. Howies, Ellen and Ella Gant, Emma [Louisa] Brown (sister of 
your brother-in-law James S. Brown), their cousin Amy Chamberlain, a 
daughter of Bishop Benjamin [Thomas] Mitchell and others. 

The First Relief Society 
I also did active work in the Relief Society and Ward Choir. I rember when 
the Relief Society built their new hall how proud I felt to give a bonnet 
of my own making as my donation. It was of rice straw and trimmed with 
blue, if I remember rightly, but I know it was sold and the money applied 
as I had intended. I saw our beloved President, Sister Sarah M. [Melissa 
Granger] Kimball lay the South-east stone of thie edifice, with a silver 
trowel. Bro William L. [Lawrence Spicer] Binder led the singing in which 
I was privileged to take part. Ours, the Fifteenth Ward Relief Society Hall, 
was the first to be built in this dispensation, and Sister Sarah M. Kimball 
the first, or one of the first, to speak of erecting a Women's Building. It 

154 Before the Manifesto 

was opened in May, 1869. The lower part was used for mercantile pur- 
poses and continued to be so used until 1900, when a new substantial 
brick structure was erected in place of the old one. 59 

Speaking of the Relief Society reminds me that the first Primary 
Association of the Ward was held in the north side of the old Fifteenth 
Ward Grainary. I was called to take charge of it, while Sister Sarah M. 
Kimball directed it, offering the use of her school house in which to teach 
the children their little songs. Many of these were written by Sister Eliza 
R. [Roxey] Snow, and Sister Kimball wrote one, averse of which I remem- 
ber, as follows: 

"Come and join our labor classes, 

Join with us in doing good, 
What we do may help to furnish 

Some poor child with clothes or food. 

Mrs. Robert T. Burton taught the class to braid. I think these little 
meetings were first begun in our house in 1867 when we invited some of 
the neighbor's children in and taught them to sew and talked to them 
about good things. 

Father Returns From His Mission 
In June 1869 your father returned from his European Mission, having 
left home on May 25th 1865. It may be of interest to note here that he 
then brought with him the first company of Saints to cross the plains by 
rail.'' The railroad then terminated in Ogden. In referring to the Church 
Cronology I find the above statement to be correct. 

I need not describe his joy at returning home to his loved ones or 
our gratitude to our Heavenly Father for this happy reunion. You can 
picture this for yourselves, having, many of you, passed through similar 

When your father say my efforts in the Millinery business, he wanted 
to build me a store next to his, upon the block where the Deseret News 
Building now stands. While I appreciated his confidence in my ability, yet 

59. The Fifteenth Ward Relief Society Hall was the first such building in the church. The 
building's cornerstone was laid in November 1868. The building, which cost $2,631, 
hosted Relief Society meetings in its upper story and had a store operated by the Relief 
Society on its lower floor. Barraclough, 15th Ward Memories, 131; Derr, Cannon, and 
Beecher, Women of Covenant, 99-102. 

60. Elias Morris returned from his Wales mission in May 1869 in charge of a company of 
over three hundred members of the LDS church immigrating to Utah. This was the 
first company of LDS immigrants to travel over the transcontinental railroad, which 
had been completed in 1869. "Elias Morris," in Romney, The Gospel in Action, 122; AJ, 

Caul ''tt'sy of tin' Utah State Historical Satiety, all rights reserved 

The Salt Lake Fifteenth Ward Relief Society Hall was the first such 
building in the IDS church. The building's cornerstone was laid 
in November 1868. The building, which cost $2,631, hosted Relief 
Society meetings in its upper story and had a store operated by the 
Relief Society on its lower floor. 

156 Before the Manifesto 

I could see far enough into the future to realize that when my children 
might be passing through attacks of illness, if I were obliged to be absent 
from home in order to attend to this business, they must naturally suffer, 
and perhaps, might even die, because deprived of a mother's constant 
care, so I declined his kind offer. 

In contemplating the above circumstance, I find that I had builded 
better than I knew then, for if there is one thing connected with my chil- 
dren which is dearer than life itself, that is their morals, and had I been 
engaged in business away from home I could not have plucked out the 
litde weeds as they peered through the virgin soil of their litde minds, and 
planted in their place a flower to bloom and flourish in their future lives. 

I continued however, to do millinery work at home and it was quite 
a help to your father, as of course it took some time to establish his busi- 
ness again, after having been absent so long. 

The winter of 1869 and 1870 had more of happiness in it for me 
than I had known for the past seven years or more. I continued my atten- 
dance at the Ward Choir and actively engaged in Relief Society and 
Sunday School work. The Superintendents and teachers of the Sunday 
School contributed original articles and poems to a monthly paper called 
the Educational Solicitor. 61 This afforded us much intellectual enjoyment 
and some amusement, as humorous subjects were sometimes treated 
upon. Miss Sallie Russell was the editor. I well remember taking my first 
littie contribution, and hearing Sister Grey, another of the committee say, 
"I'll risk it". This kind concession encouraged me to more pretentious 
efforts in the future. 

Then there were pleasant parties given in the ward in which I had 
my chare of pleasure. At one of these little affairs I was told by a lady 
friend, Sister Nell Pratt Driggs, — 'You look as sweet as a peach, as if you 
hadn't a baby at all." 

The First Railroad Train Enters Salt Lake City 
On the 10th of January, 1870, the first railroad from Ogden to Salt Lake 
City was completed. I saw the last spike driven in the line which brought 
the first train to Utah's Capitol. President Brigham Young drove the 
spike and Joseph A. Young made the speech. 62 It was welcomed by a great 

61. The Educational Solicitor was a monthly magazine put out by the Salt Lake Fifteenth 
Ward Sunday school beginning in January 1869. The publication had "ladies' and 
gentlemen's departments, edited by different members of the school. The editors were 
changed for each number. The magazine was read at each session of the teachers' 
monthly meeting." History of the Fifteenth Ward Sunday School, Fifteenth Ward, Salt Lake City, 
Utah, 9. 

62. The transcontinental railroad was completed at Promontory Summit, eighty-five miles 
northwest of Ogden, Utah, on May 10, 1869. Soon after its completion, the Utah 

Sketch of the Life of Mary L. Morris 157 

celebration. At night we stood upon the steps of the theatre to witness 
the great display of fireworks in honor of the occasion. One piece was 
General George Washington on horseback. This created quite a sensation 
in those early days. Effie was then ten years old, having been but six when 
her father went away. 

Soon after your father's return from his mission he took a trip into 
Iron County with the intention of locating there again, and was received 
with open arms by his friends, but being advised to remain in Salt Lake 
City, he came back and after a while obtained employment as Engrossing 
Clerk to the Legislative Assembly, there being nothing doing in his trade 
during the winter. 

The trip occupied a couple of months, during which time he would, 
had he been at home, have made provision for the cold weather, but 
under the circumstances we found ourselves poorly provided with fuel, 
having almost nothing but the tan bark collected by the little girls. Upon 
one occasion I remember being unable to obtain sufficient heat to make 
the potatoes boil, but when the usual supper hour arrived, was surprised 
to find the potatoes were perfecdy cooked, although they had not boiled, 
so I thanked kind Providence for this, as for other blessings received from 
time to time. 

My knowledge of millinery work was a great help to me during the 
following Spring, for a mason's work does not open up early, although 
by the middle of March your father had begun building an addition to 
the largest hotel in town, the Townsend House. 63 Often we could not get 
butter for our bread, but I felt more sympathy for Auntie's family than for 
ourselves, asshe was sick. I was glad to take whatever I could get for my 
work such as dried fruit, fish or even flour. I remember taking a few hats 
to the Ward Store for which I was to receive thirty-five cents, and buying 
something to eat with the money. I know the last five cents was spent for 
butter! You younger children do not know how good food tastes when 
you have been deprived of it. 

As the Spring opened up however, I was able to save a litde money 
and finally, by borrowing five dollars upon a piece of velvet I had by me, 
had enough to send to England for a sewing machine. It was called the 
"Littie Wanzer". Your father had brought one with him for the combined 
use of his two families, but I thought I would get one for my exclusive use 

Railroad Company constructed a branch line from Salt Lake City to Ogden. Construction 
of the branch line was begun in May 1869 and completed less than eight months later. 
The last spike was driven in by Brigham Young in Salt Lake City on January 10, 1870, 
"in the midst of great rejoicing." Comp. History, 5:249-51. 
63. The Townsend House, or Continental Hotel, was used for social occasions and was 
frequented by tourists visiting Salt Lake City. E. V. Fohlin, Salt Lake City Past and Present, 

158 Before the Manifesto 

while trade was brisker than it might be after the Fourth of July. I bought 
dresses for Effie and Addie and shoes also I think, and proud was I to see 
my two litde daughters neady dressed by my own earnings. The dresses 
were dark blue delaine with smallpink roses on them, and being a mil- 
liner their hats were easily arranged for. I also made a hat for your father 
of fine rice straw, which he wore for best. Your brother Johnnie when he 
was six months old, I made a turban with a round brim, of fine white rice 
straw trimmed with blue plush with rosettes to match. 

Birth ofNephi 
In May of this year I discontinued my very pleasant associations with the 
Ward Choir and on October 2nd, 1870 my son Nephi wasborn, about two 
o'clock in the morning. He was a welcome guest and was received with a 
thankful heart. When, a month later, I took him to the Fast Meeting his 
father blessed him, to be mighty in the Truth, like Nephi of old. Before 
he was many months old I had a gathered breast and before this had 
healed the other breast gathered also, causing me much suffering. While 
the first one was so bad I did my work as usual and made a litde dress 
for Addie to wear at a party. Sister Eccles, who was herself an industrious 
woman, remarked; — "I don't see how you manage to do it all under the 

When he was four months old I took him in my arms and visited my 
block in the capacity of a Relief Society Teacher. A litde later a slight erup- 
tion appeared upon his head which gave me great uneasiness, so I took 
him to Bro. C.R. [Charles Roscoe] Savage, the photographer, to have his 
picture taken, fearing that he might die. Bro. Savage spoke sharply to me 
telling me that the eruption was nothing and was a good thing for the 
child, but I had not recovered from the shock of the horrible death of 
my last litde child and the least thing made me nervous. Before he was 
a year old he became seriously ill with summer complaint, so much so 
that at one time I listened to hear if he still breathed. The night that the 
desease assumed its most dangerous symptoms was the night that your 
grandfather Morris lay dead at his home in the Sixth Ward. Thinking I 
might get some consolation, about midnight I took him in my arms and 
carried him to where your father was watching by the remains of HIS 
father, but I carried my baby back home again, without consolation, and 
so the night wore on. The following morning your Uncle Richard came 
over, in a very kind manner, to see us and suggested some simple rem- 
edy. In those days for summer complaint we would burn a corn cob and 
make tea from the ashes. Sister Eccles also came over and begged me 
above all not to become discouraged for the sake of the child, so for his 
dear sake I tried to be brave and after a time was thankful to see signs of 
restoration to health. This illness occurred soon after we had moved into 

Sketch of the Life of Mary L. Morris 159 

a little new two roomed house which your father had built for us in the 
lucern patch. 

Value of a Bucket of Water 
A litde incident happened just about this time which is worthy of being 
mentioned Your Aunt Nancy's [Nancy Cook Morris] little daughter 
Catherine Vaughn [Morris] , was very seriously ill, so your father and I 
went over one night to relieve them by sitting up with the sick child. It 
had been my custom to bring in a bucket of water every evening in case it 
might be needed during the night. Upon this occasion we left Effie with 
the baby, in my bed room and Addie, with Addie Ridges, who was stay- 
ing with us, upon a lounge in the kitchen The carpenter, in finishing the 
kitchen, to make it more complete had put a small cupboard in the fire- 
place to hold the stove furniture, also a large cupboard upon either side, 
These, with the mantel being of wood, the whole side of this room practi- 
cally was of that material, even the top of the little cupboard, upon which, 
unknown to us, during the evening, some soot had fallen and was smol- 
der ing, and during the night broke into a blaze, burning the cupboard 
and part of the mantel and would soon have reached the other woodwork 
but for the presence of mind of our little Effie, then about eleven years 
old. Addie, and Addie Ridges were paralyzed almost, with fear, but Effie 
coolly took up the water provided and extinguished the flames, and so 
the children were saved. 

A few days later little Katie Vaughn, your cousin, went to a brighter 
and better home. 

The following spring your father added three more rooms to this 
house and in the following May we moved into these, renting the first two 
and adding a pantry to our side. 

Birth of Ray Godwin 
On June 20th, 1872 another little son came to bless our home. We called 
him Ray Godwin [Morris] and he was as fair and amiable as one could 
desire. It has been said that he was too fair and good for this world, but 
I think many have lived as fair and pure as he was. Patient, even when 
imposed upon, I can see him now sitting, all too long, in his high chair, 
while I prepared supper for our two boarders who lived with us the fol- 
lowing winter. Their names were Ed and Will Durnford, and they were 
doing work upon the Germania Smelting Company's plant which your 
father was building. Their home was in the eastern part of town but they 
boarded with us, having to go to work each day upon the train which 
passed our house. They were nice pleasant young men and we enjoyed 
their society. Cousin Isaac [Conway Morris], then an orphan and about 
12 years old, was also added to my family a little later. 

The two rooms of which this house at first consisted were built from 

160 Before the Manifesto 

material that had been formerly used in the Overland Stage Office. After 
the advent of the railway this building was pulled down and your father 
engaged to erect another building upon its site so he bargained for the 
old material for his own use, hence the two large cupboards which had 
glassdoors, in the kitchen where the fire took place. While these rooms 
were neither modern nor elegant they were nice and comfortable for 
those days, especially when a front and back porch were added. 

The summer that little Ray was born your father built a handsome 
new house for Auntie's family. I was told that the paper upon the walls 
was the most cosdy in the city. After it was finished your father invited 
some friends to come to his home after meeting, and as the friends were 
dear to me also asked me to come over and jokn them. As I stood upon 
the threshold of this elegant parlor I asked myself the question, "Shall I 
enter here and have my feelings hurt?", but these friends being related 
to me in marriage and knowing that I had a warm place in their hearts, 
I said, "Yes, I will enter." But I wished that I had not done so as I sat near 
the door beholding so many things that would have wounded a nature 
even less sensitive than my own, as I sat there like a stranger. 

The following February, when litde Ray was seven months old, your 
father was taken seriously ill and with little Ray in my arms I went over 
to see him on my way to meeting. While in meeting I felt impressed that 
trouble was ahead of us and in spite of every effort could not keep back 
my tears while the meeting was progressing, feeling all the time that your 
father was going to die. 

A few days later I again felt the presence of death so vividly that I 
could not shake off the presentiment. The baby too was quite sick, and 
I had taken him to our dear friend Sister Esther Le Baron, who pro- 
nounced the trouble which he seemed to have in his groin, as canker. She 
knew a great deal about sickness and many remedies, but was opposed to 
doctors, saying that she wanted no more children killed by them. I had 
often seen babies sore in these parts during teething and had known of 
many obstinate cases where, when the trouble with the particular tooth 
was removed, the soreness had healed by itself. Auntie's little son Earnie 
[Ernest Edwin Morris] , during teething, had been troubled with an erup- 
tion upon his head which the doctor had succeeded in healing, only to 
have it break out in another place, so I could not see that any good had 
been done by his attendance. 

Death of Little Ray 
But had I realized that it was the canker that ailed my baby and known 
at the time the seriousness of this dread disease, which like a snake may 
attack the vitals before we are aware of its presence, I should have been 
aware of the danger and might have taken more precaution, perhaps. 

Sketch of the Life of Mary L. Morris 161 

And so our treasured one passed away on the 20th of February, 1873. The 
snow was so deep at the time that we did not step out of the carriage. It 
was a great shock to me as I had not realized the gravity of his condition. 
In order to bridge over my grief a litde, dear Aunt Aggie took me home 
with her for a few days. Litde Ernest was so bad that night that we did not 
know how it would go with him. 

Here are some poems I wrote some time later, in memory of our 

Poem To Little Ray 

Little Ray. 

Son of Elias and Mary Lois Morris, Born June 20th, 1872 

Died February 20th, 1873 

Thou art gone far away to thy beautiful rest 

We cannot behold thee again, 
Thine own precious image we may not caress 

In this world of sorrow and pain. 
We fain would retain thee, it 'twere Heaven's will 

That thou shouldst remain with us here. 
But the Father hath called thee, a mission to fill 

In yonder bright Heavenly sphere. 

We cannot recall thee, nor ask thee to stay. 

Thy sufferings are grevious to bear. 
While angels are waiting to take thee away 

Where all is most lovely and fair. 
Thy hand is outstretched to receive the last kiss 

Thy mother doth fondly bestow 
Thine eyes glancing round, on thy father to gaze, 

For death, now, creeps over thy brow. 

Thine eyeballs grow weary, thy patience unchanged 

Thy sufferings no tongue can describe 
(The heart-strings are subject to piteous pains 

Where death has the power to divide.) 
Thy breath draweth shorter, thy life's ebbing fast 

Thine eyelids now closing in rest. 
Thy woes are all ended, thy tortures are passed, 

Thy spirit is now with the blest. 

162 Before the Manifesto 

Poem — The Vacant Chair 

The Vacant Chair 

The vacant chair, that hallowed spot 

Where sat my cherub bright; — 

His limbs were round, his eyes were blue, 

His brow was spodess white. 

His gende ways, his happy smile, 

His patience seldom met, 

For even when imposed upon 

He was contented yet. 

The golden glint upon his hair, 

His soft and loving touch 

There's nought to me that can compare 

And nothing else is such. 

Wilt thou not take a word of love 
To dear ones, gone from earth 
From parents who, though now bereft, 
Were honored in thy birth? 

Go, Angel, Lamb, and stay thee there 
In those fair realms of light 
While we, for lasting peace prepare 
In this dark land of blight. 

To Little Ray 
June 20th, 1873 

A ray of rosy sunlight 

That gladdened all my heart 
Alas, too soon, it perished 

And left a stinging smart. 

'Tis the birthday of my cherub 

And he has passed away; — 

Sketch of the Life of Mary L. Morris 163 

How sharp the pang that pierces 

My heart, this livelong day! 

But the rosebud fair will blossom 

On a brighter, happier shore 
And there we may caress him, 

Where parting is no more. 

The ways of God are perfect 

The "why" not always clear 
But resting in his perfect love 

The end we need not fear. 

I will turn back a year or two in order to relate an incident, which in view 
of subsequent events became important in the history of our family. 

In the Fallof 1871 Edward Ashton, one of the early members of the 
15th Ward and a man highly respected in the community, came, bringing 
his eldest son, Edward T [Treharne] Ashton, to your father in order to 
apprentice him to the firm of Morris & Evans to learn the building trade. 
When the preliminary arrangements had been completed Bro. Ashton 
jocosely remarked that perhapd when his son had finished his period of 
apprenticeship he might wish to continue the association by marrying 
one of Elias Morris's daughters. 

The Spring following the death of little Ray, Sister Maria Burton 
was very sick with canker, and having her son Willie's [William Shipley 
Burton] dear litde motherless babe [Julia Home Burton] to tend was 
badly in need of help. Your father wanted Effie to go and render her 
what assistance she could, especially as Bro. Burton was just preparing 
to go on a mission and there was much to be done. Sister Burton was a 
good housekeeper but our little girl, although only fifteen years of age, 
was able to give her such good satisfaction that when she was leaving and 
Sister Burton was settiing up with her, she remarked, 'You have done the 
work of a woman and youshall have the pay of a woman". Effie was always 
energetic and the year previous to this, when we had litde Ray, although 
only fourteen years old, she would do the week's washing and then ask if 
she might go up to Aunt Aggie's. This summer, I remember, she wore a 
simple, though tastefully made buff suit with a sailor hat with blue gauze 
streamers fastened with a bunch of daisies. This hat was becoming to her 
face with her large blue eyes and wealth of golden hair. 

The following winter she went to school. About Christmas time 
Sister Sarah M. Kimball, president of our Relief Society, offered a prize 
of a gold ring for the best essay on the Birth of Christ. Sister Kimball 

164 Before the Manifesto 

remarked that if her daughter Lizzie [Kimball] would read it, she would 
write an essay for her upon this subject. I concluded that if it was right 
for Sister Kimball to indite the paper for her daughter, it was perfectly 
proper for me to do so for mine, knowing that with her retiring nature, 
Effie would deserve the ring if she could get sufficient courage to read 
the essay. So I carefully read over the story as contained in the Gospels 
and one morning I arose early and taking my paper in hand, asked for 
Divine guidance upon my labor. Sister Kimball had charge of the affair 
which was to be held on Christmas Day. The meeting house was dark- 
ened and candles burning upon a large Xmas tree gave a subdued but 
beautiful illumination. Bishop Edward Hunter, of the Presiding Bishopric 
was the guest of honor and Mrs. Belle Guthrie and Bro. T. C. Griggs the 
adjudicating committee, with one other. Effie wore a very plain, neatly 
fitting black and blue plaid dress with a pink ribbon. One of the girls who 
was competing was a rather pompous person and dressed accordingly, 
and as Effie passed her she seemed to feel an influence come from her, 
which might have been expressed in these words; — "You need not think 
that a poor litde thing like you can get the prize". This added to poor 
litde Effie's nervousness and lifting up her heart to God she asked Him 
to cause that the one who deserved the prize might get it. This simple 
earnest prayer could not fail to ascend to the place to which it was wafted 
by a sincere heart. I suppose too, that Effie read the litde essay in a spirit 
of humility, trusting in God alone. In any case, it proved satisfactory to 
the adjudicators and she received the ring. This added to the enjoyment 
of our Xmas repast, to which we had invited Mrs. Lulu [Louisa Lula] 
Green Richards, Editor of the Woman's Exponent and herhusband Elder 
Levi W. [Willard] Richards, fellow missionary with your father, to Great 
Britain. Your dear Aunt Aggie and Aunt Kesiah [Keziah Downes] Pratt 
were also our guests upon this occasion. One of the dishes we had for din- 
ner was dressed ducks. Your father said something about the bones, and 
Bro. Richards rather humorously remarked that he supposed they were 
made to hold the meat that was on them. 

Sister Richards made a complimentary notice of our little dinner in 
her paper, and later Bishop Hunter asked for a copy of the essay that Effie 
had read and a synopsis of it was published in the Exponent. 64 My father, 

64. The Woman's Exponent (1872-1914) was a periodical published and owned by LDS 
women that discussed a wide range of topics, including women's suffrage and rights, 
geography, literature, history, and current affairs. Issued bimonthly, it was eight pages 
long and was widely read. The magazine was independent of the LDS church but had a 
strong emphasis on themes of the Relief Society, such as thrift and home industry, and 
it strongly defended polygamy. Part of its mission was "persuading the scornful East that 
Mormons were respectable and should be admitted to the union." Bushman, "Reports 
from the Field: The World of the Woman's Exponent," 297-300; Sherilyn Cox Bennion, 
"The Woman's Exponent Forty-two Years of Speaking for Women," 222-39; EM, 1571. 

Sketch of the Life of Mary L. Morris 165 

who was then residing at De Kalb, 111. saw a notice in a paper with regard 
to it and was much pleased and sent Effie a beautiful book mark in black 
and white silk with adesign representing Our Saviour blessing the Cup. 

Efne, by this time, was able to make her own clothes and showed 
much ability in this direction. Upon one occasion I gave her a pair of 
dotted swiss curtains, with which she made a very pretty polonaise, which 
worn over a blue skirt had a good effect. She also made a pale green 
chambray, which was very becoming to her, but one which I think I liked 
the best was a white dress with a soft gilt leather belt which corresponded 
with her hair. At that time young girls wore what was called a Grecian 
braid. The hair was combed to the back of the head where a braid as 
broad as the hand was made, tapering of course naturally to the end, 
where it was tied with a bow of ribbon, or, as Effie did, with ties made of 
some inexpensive material. Some of the girls had such beautiful hair that 
their braid would reach halfway down their skirts. 

Speaking of Christmas just now reminds me that a few days before 
Christmas in 1872, 1 think, your father took one of his best teams and one 
of his men and canvassed the ward, asking for provisions, etc. to make 
Christmas happy for some of the less favored brethren and sisters. This 
was the beginning of the custom of the Bishop's collections at Christmas 
time which has now become general. It would take a man with a generous 
heart, like your father, to concoct such a plan. 

Our home by this time was quite comfortable. The two rooms that 
I had previously rented becoming vacant, your father told me to go to 
Brother [Samuel Lineam] Evans and he would attend to the matter of 
furnishing the litde parlor for our use. The carpet, which your father 
helped me to select, was a handsome ingrain with shades of brown and 
orange with a white thread for relief; also a rug to match. Then we had 
a large round table and cane seated chairs and a rocker. For the table I 
had a beautiful green damask cover which your father had brought from 
England some four years previously. This cloth is handsome today after 
the wear and tear of thirty years. A fire-place was built under the mantel- 
piece to which I referred in speaking of the fire and this gave the room a 
cheery appearance. The window was small but looked well for those days. 

Birth Of George Q. 
I remember the night of the 19th of February, 1874 as distinctly as if it 
were last night. Effie, Addie and I were seated comfortably in our front 
room and I was directing Effie in making a school dress. I was not feeling 
very well and retired early leaving her at work. The next morning about 
11:20 another precious son was born to us. The morning was cold and a 
heavy snow had fallen during the night, drifting so that it was higher than 
the front porch, and the little snow birds came to the window looking for 

166 Before the Manifesto 

food and leaving the marks of their tiny feet upon the snow. But within 
the happy mother and her darling baby lay cozy and warm. 

We named him George Q_. [Quayle Morris] in honor of our highly 
esteemed aposde George Q. [Quayle] Cannon. His hair was yellow, his 
skin fair, and his eyes of a hazel color. When he was about three weeks old 
he had jaundice, and a week later, a gathered finger which affected the 
tiny finger nail, leaving a mark which remains to this day. At two months 
he contracted a severe cold which turned to pneumonia. Alarming 
symptoms set in and Sister Pierpont, a neighbor, assisted me in putting 
him through a course of Lobelia. 65 While under the influence of this 
treatment we thought he was going to die, so your father, in administer- 
ing to him, ordained him to the High Priesthood. When he recovered 
from the affects of the lobelia, however, he seemed better, but I took him 
out of the kitchen and remained in the bedroom with him and did not 
attempt to do anything but take care of him. Your father stayed with me 
while he was so ill and your Aunt Aggie, Sister Ridges and Aunt Hannah 
Morris all helped by sitting up at night. 

The night Aunt Aggie sat up with me she asked me what I thought 
of him? I told her that I thought he would recover. One afternoon our 
dear president, Sister Sarah M. Kimball called and taking him upon her 
lap, she remarked; "It is no matter now, but if you ever have a case like 
this again, put a wet cloth over his chest with a flannel one over that." On 
her way home she called on our mutual friend, Sister Le Baron, and said, 
"I think in the morning you will send me word that he has gone home." 
He used to like me to sing to him and it seemed to comfort him. One 
night I sat up all night with him in my arms, singing at intervals, and your 
father good humoredly remarked that it was as good as a concert to be 
here. But the Lord was gracious to us and spared this precious babe to 
prove a blessing in later years. 

Death of Grandfather Walker 
Your Grandfather Walker and his wife had moved some time previous to 
this, to De Kalb, Illinois, where his wife had died and Aunt Aggie, hear- 
ing that his health was failing him, sent for him to come and live with her 
in her home in Sugar House Ward in order that she might care for him 
to the end, but when he arrived, your cousin Aggie being very ill, your 
father and I met him at the depot with a conveyance and brought him to 
our home where he stayed for several weeks. I remember how delicious 

65. Lobelia (Lobelia inflata) was used to stimulate respiration and cause vomiting, but if 
too high a dose is taken, it "slows respiration and lowers blood pressure drastically." 
The toxins in lobelia can cause nausea, paralysis, convulsions, coma, and death. Claire 
Kowalchik and William H. Hylton, eds., Rodale's IllustrateA Encyclopedia of Herbs (Emmaus, 
Pennsylvania: Rodale Press, 1987), 364. 

Sketch of the Life of Mary L. Morris 167 

the children found the remains of his lunch, in spite of the fact that it had 
been brought hundreds of miles over the railroad. He was interested in 
the children and would amuse litde George, then about nine months old. 
One day he remarked, with regard to Addie; then about thirteen years of 
age; — "There is a great deal of the executive about that child". 

In the beginning of this "Sketch of My Life", my dear children, I 
gave a brief account of my father's conversion to the truth of the Gospel 
and of his faithful labors in the missionary field. At that time he was fullof 
the Spirit of the Gospel and the blessing of the Lord followed his efforts 
wherever he went. After the death of our dear mother he returned to 
England where he again engaged in missionary work. At the time he left 
we were living in St. Louis. I married soon afterwards and came on to the 
Valley with my husband and his parents. It was four years before my father 
returned, and during this time I had buried your Uncle John, and at the 
latter's request; — and in strict accordance with the command of God 
to both ancient and modern Israel, I had married my husband's elder 
brother — namely, your father. 

In the meantime, my father had married a Miss Mary Ann Morton, 
whose acquaintance he had made in Great Britain during his missionary 
labors previous to our emigration. This lady was of a refined nature and 
very devotional. She was the authoress of several hymns which are to be 
found in the Latter Day Saint's Hymn Book, above her signature. 

It was during a visit to your Aunt Aggie, that I first met Mrs. Walker 
and I treated her with all the respect due my father's wife. I also stayed 
at their home a few days later, while I made a suit of Temple clothes by 
hand, for your Uncle Charles. 

Now, Mrs. Walker, though a very devout person, and believed 
firmly in the Bible, did not seem to understand that God must have 
a channel through which to communicate to His people. It was dur- 
ing one of the nights of this few days of my stay with them, that I 
tried to convince Mrs. Walker of the necessity of the Holy Priesthood. 
During this interview she told me that she received Mormonism and 
Spiritualism at the same time! 6 '' (No wonder that they did not assimilate 
very well!) I continued to labor with her, but in the morning she was of 
the same opinion. 

66. Spiritualism was an alternative religious movement (somewhat similar to "New Age" 
movements) that was influential in the U.S. between 1850 and 1890. Influenced by 
the Swedish mystic Emanuel Swedenborg, spiritualism argued that "matter and spirit 
were essentially one and that the universe contained a multitude of 'correspondences' 
between the physical and the spiritual." Spiritualism also taught that there was a 
benevolent afterlife with no hell or punishment and that it was possible to converse with 
spirits of the dead. Richard Wightman Fox and James T. Kloppenberg, A Companion to 
American Thought, 650-51. 

168 Before the Manifesto 

About two years later, during another visit to your Grandfather's 
home one Sunday afternoon, he read to me from a periodical called 
"The True Latter-Day Saint's Herald" 67 It was a vile sheet and very much 
like the Salt Lake Tribune in spirit. I listened to him very attentively until 
he had finished. He then paused for a moment as if for comment. After 
a litde reflection, I said to him, — "Father, I am your child, and but a child 
compared to you, yet I can see that if you continue to read that paper, you 
will apostatize." He made no reply verbally, but I could read his answer 
in the influence that came from him, as plainly as if it had been written 
upon his face, and it was this; — "It makes no difference if I do." 

I think it was during this visit that he gave me my choice of one of 
three Daguerriotype likenesses of himself, and the one I chose I have to 
this day. 

After our return to Salt Lake City from Iron County, he used often 
to call to see us, but seemed to have a fault-finding spirit. On one occa- 
sion he was returning from his High Priest's Quorum meeting and he 
sneered at the singing of the President of the Quorum. At another time, 
in conversation with reference to the building of the Salt Lake Theatre, 
he asked; — "Why build a theatre, why not build the Temple and do work 
for the dead?" 

Your Grandfather was of course aged by this time and perhaps 
did not realize as wellas he might have done when he was younger, that 
working men need some wholesome recreation. And besides, it was not 
my father's place to attempt to steady the Ark! 

At another time when I called upon him and reference was made 
with regard to the setding of Dixie, as St George was then termed, and I 
happened to state that the climate was improving, he replied that he did 
not believe it. I assurred him that it was so however. This was after your 
Uncle Charles had moved down there. 

During the time that we were living in St. Louis, Mo. we, made the 
acquaintance of a man by the name of Joseph Morris, who was a member 
of the St. Louis branch of the church. This man Morris was very good 
looking, but decidedly soft, in my opinion — and you will agree with me 
when I tell you a little incident with regard to him. — 

One day he called, and in conversation with my father, told him 
that he had received a letter from a young lady who had made love to 
him. The episde was signed Caroline Parthing, and she gave her address. 
I remember an extract from the letter as follows; — "Come to me, dear- 
est, I am lonely without thee; Daytime and night time I'm thinking about 
thee." At the same time he told my father that he did not get along with 

67. The True Latter-day Saints ' Herald was the magazine of the Reorganized Church of Jesus 
Christ of Latter-day Saints. It was published from 1860 to 1876 in Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Sketch of the Life of Mary L. Morris 169 

his wife very well! The burden of his errand was to get into communica- 
tion with the young lady, and he seemed to think that your grandfather 
could help him, so it was agreed that I should call at the address and see 
her. I was only fifteen years old and did not relish the job at all, but would 
not think of disobeying my father, so I found the young lady but she knew 
nothing about the affair, so we concluded that someone had been mak- 
ing a fool of Mr. Joseph Morris. 

You may well ask, "What has this to do with your Grandfather's apos- 
tasy?" but you willsee presently. It was said that this man Morris was twice 
cut off the Church for committing adultery. 

Notwithstanding this he found his way to the Valley, and started up 
a new sect, if you please. He had a fascinating manner, but did not have 
brains enough to carry on any great scheme, but was assisted by a man of 
the name of John Banks, who was a man of great intelligence and who had 
presided over the London Conference at the time that your Grandfather 
was travelling in that district. 

There was also another man named Richard Cook who was very 
prominent in the Manchester Conference at the time that Banks was in 
London. Both these men joined the Morrisites, as they were called, and I 
think helped Morris found his new sect. 68 

My heart aches as I recall the names of these men whom we had so 
loved and esteemed, but who were now treading the downward path, and 
I feel like saying with David of old; — "How are the mighty fallen!". 

These new religionists once held a meeting in my father's home 
here in Salt Lake. Your grandfather Morris, whose house was next to your 
grandfather Walker's concluded to stand outside and listen to what they 
had to say. This is the doctrine that one of its members had to advance. 
Speaking on the principle of plural marriage, he said, — "I will not believe 
it, no, not if an angel from heaven should teach it to me." As a number 
of the members of their sect were in this order of marriage, it made them 
appear very small and unprincipled to adopt a religion which caused 
them to break their covenants with their wives who were the mothers of 
their children. 

68. Joseph Morris (1849-1862) joined the LDS church in 1849 and immigrated to Utah in 
1853. On April 6, 1861, Morris started his own church with a following of members from 
South Weber, Utah. Richard Cook, the former bishop of the LDS ward in South Weber, 
and John Banks were his counselors. The Morrisites lived communally and believed in 
the imminent coming of Christ. The church, which was centered at Kington Fort in 
Weber, grew to as many as five or six hundred members. In 1862, when dissenters were 
imprisoned in Kington Fort, government officials went to the fort to investigate. The 
Morrisites refused to give themselves up, and a battle ensued in which several Morrisites, 
included Joseph Morris, were killed. Comp. History, 5:39-48; C. LeRoy Anderson, Joseph 
Morris and the Saga of the Morrisites. 

1 70 Before the Manifesto 

These people took up their quarters in Weber County, Utah, and I 
think your grandfather was the only one who did not move up there. 

Your father had asked me to question your grandfather at some 
time when he called, with regard to the doctrines of this new sect. It was 
your grandfather's custom to come to our house upon his return from 
meetings at the headquarters of these people, so I thought one day that 
I would talk to him upon the subject. I had put some milk down to heat 
near the coals on the hearth (we had no stove in those days) knowing 
him to be very fond of it. While the milk was heating I ventured to put the 
question your father had suggested. Instandy he became very angry, and 
replied. — "Do you think that I do not know the difference between a gas 
light and a rush light"?, and picking up his hat he left the house and the 
comfortable lunch I was preparing for him. 

Another day, I had occasion to call upon him on a litde matter of 
business which was to his interest, when he took a paper from his pocket 
and read it to me. The article purported to be a revelation received by 
Joseph Morris, and was to the effect that spirits who were destined to 
earth were ordained to a certain priesthood before taking upon them- 
selves tabernacles of flesh. I listened attentively while he was reading and 
upon his looking up at me for an answer, I simply said, in a very calm tone 
of voice, that it might be true, or not, but it was of no importance to us. 

Time went on apace, and he opened a little school in his own house 
and his teaching gave so much satisfaction to the parents that he was 
asked to take charge of the Ward school. However, before the matter was 
consummated someone remembered that he was an apostate and on this 
account not eligible for the position. When he was told this it so hurt his 
feelings that he concluded to leave the country. At this time the Civil War 
was in progress. 

So he and his wife commenced to make preparations for their 
departure, which seemed a pity since they were quite comfortably situ- 
ated. While Mrs. Walker was not much of a housekeeper, she was very 
clever at her trade, that ofa straw braider. She did beautiful work for 
gentlemen's hats as well as for ladies hats and bonnets. For this it was 
necessary that she should keep her hands soft and smooth, but your 
grandfather, having been the eldest of a large family, had been taught 
the art of housekeeping. So, by united effort they could make each other 
very comfortable. Your Uncle Charles also made his home with them, 
adding his portion towards the support of the home. In this way they were 
independent, I think, although your grandfather must have been quite 
Seventy years old and Mrs. Walker seemed just about the same age. 

Your Aunt Aggie and I went to see them before they left and when 
we departed he accompanied us part of the way home. It was a pleasant 
evening in the spring, I remember; all was peace and tranquility. As we 

Sketch of the Life of Mary L. Morris 171 

were walking along together, enjoying the peace and safety with which 
we were blessed, your grandfather began to talk of his grievances. Among 
other matters he spoke of the Ward School incident, and remarked; — 
"They who would take my bread would take my life!" I answered, "You 
belong to the general class of people, like myself, and nobody wants to 
kill me. Why go to the seat of war to find peace?" He replied; "I wanted 
to spew, — I have done so." We made no reply, and when he had walked 
as far as he cared to, he returned and we continued on our course home- 
ward, contemplating the influence of one who is possessed of a faultfind- 
ing spirit. The manner in which he spoke to us was so different to what we 
had been accustomed to, for he was a man who dearly loved his children. 
And, I believe too, that he also regretted his attitude, for the next morn- 
ing he called early and ate breakfast with me. 

After they had been away some time, he wrote to your Aunt Aggie, 
expressing a good deal of bitterness towards certain persons. Again, he 
wrote a letter to your sister Effie and enclosing a note for one dollar, sug- 
gested that her mother would advise her what she should do with it. 

Knowing that he had always loved her so much I thought he would 
be pleased to have a likeness of her. Accordingly a tin-type picture was 
taken and sent to him. In the return letter he expressed a dislike for the 
style of her hair, although it was quite simple. At that time it was the style 
for young girls to wear a circle comb and Effie 's hair being very abundant 
we thought it becoming, as the hair rolled from the forehead made a 
background to her face that many would have appreciated. I suppose he 
preferred the Quaker style, parted in the middle and combed smoothly 
at each side. 

Some time afterwards he sent me twenty dollars. He was quite fru- 
gal in his habits although generous where he saw a person in need. He 
also believed in having something on hand for a rainy day, and debt was 
a stranger to him. 

Your grandfather and his wife were living in Illinois, but after a while 
Mrs. Walker died, and hearing that her father was in poor health and her 
children all being married except Wilford, your Aunt Aggie wrote to him 
to come and end his days with her, so he again turned his face towards 
the City of the Saints. 

Your father went, I think, three different times to the depot before 
the delayed train brought him to us. As your Cousin Aggie was very ill at 
the time, it was agreed that your grandfather should remain with us until 
your Aunt Aggie was at liberty to take him to her home in Sugar House 
Ward, which was five miles out of town. 

He was somewhat reduced in flesh, his beard long and silken and 
whitened with the frosts of Seventy-seven winters. He had lost that bitter 
feeling and love had returned to his heart. He spoke very kindly to litde 

172 Before the Manifesto 

George Q_. who was then a baby. He also met your father with good fellow- 
ship and appreciated the kindness he had shown him. 

In due time your Aunt Aggie took him and had the satisfaction of 
making him comfortable in her quiet peaceful home. When his cough 
grew worse she would arise during the night and prepare him something 
warm to comfort and strengthen him. His former loving spirit seemed to 
return and the family became much attached to him. 

Your cousin, Elnathan Eldridge [Eldredge] , particularly admired his 
intelligence, his gift of relating anecdotes and his original style of doing 
so; also his fund of general knowledge. 

During the fine autumn days that followed, he would take long 
walks, and at such time he would often call upon your cousin Eva and 
have pleasant chats with her. The following Christmas she got up a party, 
in his honor, I think and invited us to be present. During the evening he 
asked me to sing, but little George Q. seemed so sensitive that he would 
begin to cry as soon as I started to sing, so I concluded to wait until he 
should go to sleep. I then sang my father's favorite song; — "Woodland 
Mary". 69 

A little later he was asked to make a few remarks. One of the first 
things he said was, — "I would walk five miles to hear that child sing", 
pointing to me. He spoke of card playing, which he had always shunned; 
also of the intoxicating cup, to which he had never been addicted; then 
he added — "But if, in the end, Elder Walker is not right?" Little did we 
think what was revolving in his mind. 

Your Aunt Aggie's home was, as you will remember, situated in a 
clear grassy place, with large windows letting in plenty of light and sun- 
shine. One day, while in conversation with your cousin Lona Eldridge 
[Malona Pratt Eldredge], he told her that he wanted to be where they 
would be in the future, and added that ever since he had been at your 
Aunt Aggie's he had been looking for a place where he could be bap- 
tized. He then told her that the 11th day of the coming month of March 
would be his birthday into the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, 
and he added, — "I will be baptized that day, if I die!" 

Having formed the above resolution, he one day, when your Aunt 
Aggie had come up town, sent for Elder Abraham O. [Owen] Smoot, and 
made the following statement, in substance; — "I have been away ten years, 
have come back, and want to be baptized." 

I will here remark that although your grandfather was very devo- 
tional, there was nothing sanctimonious about him, and being some- 
what proud there would be no palaver about his statement although he 
was quite penitent at heart. I suppose he mentioned the 11th of March 

69. The author was unable to locate any information about the song "Woodland Mary." 

Sketch of the Life of Mary L. Morris 173 

as the date as that was the anniversary of his birth into the Church, so 
it was agreed that your cousin Moroni Walker Pratt should perform the 
ordinance of baptism upon that day at the Warm Springs bath-house 
and Bishop Abraham O. Smoot promised to come over and confirm 
him. 70 Your Aunt Aggie was to go with him to assist him, since she 
had been his attendant and nurse during the preceding four or five 

So they set out on the day appointed, March 11th, 1875, although 
the day was cold and the ground covered with snow. Arrived at the baths, 
Sister Arnold, who was stationed at the bath-house, did all in her power 
for his welfare. But the five mile journey to the Warm Springs, added to 
the fatigue and possible excitement of the ordinance of baptism, seemed 
too much for him, and while riding in the buggy upon the return journey 
he became so weak that he was unable to sit up, so Moroni held him up 
while Aunt Aggie drove the team. 

Upon reaching home he was put to bed as quickly as possible with 
hot water botded placed to his feet. He continued to complain of cold- 
ness in the extremities, and becoming alarmed at his condition your Aunt 
Aggie sent for Bro. Preston Free, a neighbor, to come and administer to 
him, but it was found that your grandfather had departed this life. 71 

Bishop Smoot, who had promised to come and confirm him had 
been called to guard President Brigham Young, who was a prisoner in his 
own house, and had, on that account, been prevented from keeping his 
promise. 72 

That day, I and my family, at your father's request, had moved from 
the cottage he had built for us, to a much larger house recently vacated by 

70. The warm springs were in north Salt Lake City and had temperatures of between 95 
and 104 degrees. The Warm Springs baths were located on Second West Street, between 
Eighth and Ninth North. Van Cott, Utah Place Names, 389-90. 

71. William Gibson Walker (1797-1875), the father of Mary Lois Walker, met Mary Ann 
Morton in England, and the couple married upon his return to Salt Lake City in 1858. 
Shortly afterward, Walker joined the Morrisites but soon broke with them and moved 
to Illinois. After Mary Ann Morton's death in Illinois, Walker returned to Utah. He was 
rebaptized as a Mormon on March 11, 1875, but died that night before he could be 
confirmed. CWD, 923. 

72. In 187.3, Ann Eliza Webb Young, Brigham Young's youngest plural wife (said to be his 
twenty-seventh), sued for divorce, "charging neglect, cruel treatment, and desertion." 
Ann Eliza wanted alimony, which Brigham Young refused, saying that her previous 
divorce from James Dee had not been legal. Judge James McKean ordered Young to 
pay $3,000 in court fees and $500 a month to Ann Eliza. The judge said that their 
marriage was legal since Utah had no marriage laws. Young refused to pay the fee, 
waiting for an appeal to a higher court. On March 11, 1875, Judge McKean found 
Young guilty of contempt of court, fined him twenty-five dollars, and sentenced him to 
the penitentiary for one day. Young spent that night in the territorial prison, but five 
days later, President Ulysses S. Grant removed McKean from office, in part because 

1 74 Before the Manifesto 

your Auntie. As most of our belongings had been taken over to the house 
we were soon to occupy, I slept on a couch that night. Now I knew noth- 
ing of what was going on at Sugar House Ward, and was not frightened or 
uneasy, but somehow I could not sleep. Early in the morning, even before 
I was up, your cousin Moroni came and told us what had occurred and 
that he had come, at his mother's request, to consult with your father as 
to the best mode of procedure in reference to the funeral. 

After a few moments reflection your father concluded that it would 
be best to hold the funeral that day, and from your Aunt Aggie's house 
where the remains lay. So a little later your father, Effie and I were on 
our way to Sugar House Ward. When we arrived your Aunt Aggie had all 
in order, your grandfather's clothes beautifully made and a lovely lunch 
ready for us after our long cold drive. 

Aunt Aggie said that your grandfather had looked miserable after his 
death, but when dressed in his temple clothes his countenance changed. 
His brow was smooth, his teeth perfect (for all that I ever knew), his eye- 
brows dark and wellmarked, and his venerable beard long, silky and of a 
snowy whiteness. One might imagine him to be in a sweet peaceful sleep. 
I could lean on his casket and take solid comfort in looking at him; — 
whereas, had he not returned to the fold of Christ I do not think he could 
have rested in his grave. 

Your father was asked to take charge of the funeral. Your Aunt 
Aggie's house being situated near that of President John R. Winder, she 
and Sister Winder were very intimate, and knowing that your grandfa- 
ther was not in the best of health Sister Winder came over through the 
deep snow to inquire after him and just in time for the funeral. Your Aunt 
Aggie led the singing, I taking the alto part. The first hymn was "Unveil 
Thy Bosom, Faithful Tomb" (L.D.S. Hymn Book Page 220). Your father, 
who was the principle speaker, in his remarks said, — "There is no spirit 
of death here", and such was the case. The spirit of peace and tranquility 
pervaded the house and the funeral. The same spirit remained with us as 
we followed the dear remains to the City Cemetery. Some years later your 
Aunt Aggie and I had what work was needed done for him by a very excel- 
lent man Bro. Wm. H. Miles, a brush maker who had emigrated from 
New York. And so we leave him in the hands of an All Wise Father, who, 
as the Psalmist says, "Knoweth our frame, and remembereth that we are 
but dust." 73 

of this incident. James B. Allen and Glen M. Leonard, The Story of the Latter-day Saints, 
361; Alexander and Allen, Mormons and Gentiles, 97-98. For Ann Eliza Young's own 
account, see Ann Eliza Young, Wife No. 1 9; or, The Story of a Life in Bondage, Being a 
Complete Expose ofMormonism, and Revealing the Sorrows, Saerifices and Sufferings of Women 
in Polygamy. 
73. Psalm 103:14: "For he knoweth our frame; he remembereth that we are dust." 

Sketch of the Life of Mary L. Morris 175 

When we arrived at our home after the funeral, we found that 
Addie, then fourteen years old, had, besides tending the baby, laid the 
dining room carpet and put up the stove in the house into which we were 
just then moving. This substantiated her grandfather's opinion of her. 
She was a fine litde mother, and when the railroad was built in front of 
the house would run out to see if the little boys were all right. I believe 
she would have risked her life to save theirs. She was very fond of dressing 
her litde brothers and taking them out, but evidently thought that boys 
did not offer sufficient scope for her talent and would remark ruefully, 
"Say, I wish I could make him into a girl!" 

In the Fall of 1876 Nephi was five years old. One day he had two 
tasks to perform. One was to wash a tubful of small potatoes and the 
other to pile some wood into the woodshed. By night the potatoes were 
all washed and the wood piled higher than his head, which we thought a 
good days work for a litde boy of his age. His birthday came on the 2nd of 
October and I spent about three hours selecting a suitable book for him. 
At last one which would suit our purse and yet was fine enough to present 
to the little boy we loved so well was found, and Effie and I sat up till 
almost mid-night devouring its contents. It was about eight inches square 
and upon the cover was a sunny faced litde girl in a blue dress and a red 
hat with a white plume upon it. It was called "Litde Snow-Flake's Album". 
On one page was a picture of two litde girls praying, and these words fol- 
lowed; — "And as ye would that men should do unto you, do ye so unto 
them in like circumstances." Upon another page was represented a litde 
girl descending a handsome staircase and holding to the banister. Then 
followed these verses. — 

"This is our baby, our darling 

Coming alone down the stair, 

Just washed and dressed for the morning, 

Looking so sweet and so fair. 

Papa will watch from the landing, 
Mamma will watch down the stairs. 
Soon we will all have our breakfast, 
But now, fold your hands and say prayers. 

Another litde verse was; — 

Dear little children, don't waste the day, 
Always remember that work sweetend play. 

1 76 Before the Manifesto 

Upon the fly-leaf I wrote the following lines; — 

"Accept this book, my little boy, 
It's lessons treasure well. 
'Twill be to you a source of joy 
When you can read and spell. 

Take it, keep it, while you live, 
That when I'm dead and gone 
'Twill tell you of the love I bore 
My darling litde son." 

A little before Christmas father gave Effie and Addie some money 
to buy some new winter dresses. Effie chose a pretty shade of green and 
Addie's was red. I worked hard to make the dresses by Christmas day, 
as the two girls were invited to a party in the evening, and also were 
beginning to receive attentions from their young man friends. 

Besides the dresses your father had given Effie and Addie each a pin 
cushion with a pocket mirror upon one side, and a tablet on the other. 
Master Nephi, then about five years old, evidently considered them cute 
also, and took Effie's to school with him, afterwards trading it with one 
of his litde school mates for something else he wanted. When I was made 
aware of the fact I told him he would have to get it back and return it to 
it's owner and also ask forgiveness of his sister. Then taking him alone 
I told him what an awful thing it was to steal and that he must also ask 
forgiveness of our Heavenly Father and return fourfold to the owner the 
amount of the article he had taken. After dark that evening I took him 
out where there were some tall trees and with the stars looking down at 
us I talked to him again, and he was impressed, for the first nickel he 
received, he brought to Effie and continued to do so, until he had paid 
four times the value of the small article. 

Our parlor was a very pleasant room, and with a bright fire in the 
grate reflecting upon the handsome rug before it made the room appear 
still more cozy, and when during the afternoon, the girls received their 
callers, a good feeling prevailed. One of Effie's presents, I remember, 
which she received during the evening party, was a large orange; a rare 
treat in those days.. 

About this time Effie and Addie attended a singing class, conducted 
by a worthy young man of the ward, named Douglas Swan. This class gave 
them much enjoyment and on one occasion the members surprised him, 
taking picnic, and spent a very pleasant evening. Addie's cake, on this 
occasion, was the first she had ever made and was quite a success, being 

Sketch of the Life of Mary L. Morris 177 

beautifully baked in a rather flaring tin, scalloped at the edge and much 
used thirty years ago. 

Another surprise was one which Effie took upon her esteemed 
friend, Miss Jane Barlow. In opening a new can of yeast powder she had 
found a recipe for making a cream cake. It was the first we had heard of 
but she tried it, and was delighted with her experiment, as it stood on 
the table with the stiffened cream showing between the well baked lay- 
ers. The happy company of pure young people gathered together at our 
house first, where the picnic was placed in a large clothes basket. This, 
with much merriment, they carried with them, Elder Thomas [Francis] 
Howells taking one of the handles I remember, while Effie, busy and 
happy, although not without care and anxiety to the success of her proj- 
ect, followed in the rear. 

During the winter of 1875-76 your sister Effie worked at a tailor's 
shop. It was conducted by a member of the ward and was a ward enterprise, 
the employes being also members of the ward. Your father thought it would 
be a nice place for Effie to learn something of that trade, but we did not 
know that she would be required to work a No. 2. sewing machine, which 
was entirely too heavy for her, and indeed positively injurious to her health. 

She was also such an active member of the ward that almost every 
evening she was engaged, — Tuesday at mutual, Wednesday choir practice; 
and Thursday, Sunday School Choir-practice. On Sunday also she took no 
rest, being anxious to attend Sunday School and evening meeting. 

She soon became thin and nervous and I remember your father's 
partner and esteemed friend Bro. Sam'l L. Evans saying to her, — "Effie, 
whatever you do, try to rest at night". But the poor child was too fatigued 
too sleep and soon her health became so seriously impaired that she has 
felt the effects throughout her whole life. 

The Explosion of the Powder Magazine 
On the 5th of April, 1876, two boys, one a son of Bro. Archibald Hill and 
the other a son of Dr. Robinson, were amusing themselves on Arsenal 
Hill with a gun. One of them shot at the great powder magazine which 
was located there. In an instant it exploded, shaking the earth for miles 
around like an earthquake and blowing the boys to atoms. 

That day, having a quantity of good soft rain water, I had washed 
my linsey sheets previous to putting them away for the winter, and was 
hanging them out on the south side of the house when the explosion 
occurred. I thought it was the report of a gun and was indignant that any- 
one should fire so near the house. Then came another report followed 
almost immediately by a third, when the chimney of the house occupied 
by my neighbor, Mrs. Van, fell down. At the same time Addie was standing 
upon the step between the kitchen and pantry, holding litde Georgie by 

1 78 Before the Manifesto 

the hand. She felt the shocks, heard the glass in the windows smash and 
the hams, etc. suspended from the ceiling of the storeroom above, come 
crashing to the floor. Calling for litde Nephi, she exclaimed; "The world 
is at an end — we shall all go together!", and many older persons were of 
the same opinion. 

Your father was in his buggy in the vicinity of Arsenal Hill return- 
ing homeward from a trip, and his horse, instead of taking fright, to his 
great astonishment, stood perfecdy still while huge pieces of rock came 
whizzing past them, but they were unharmed. A woman, not far distant, 
however, was killed in a most shocking manner. 

Birth of Catherine Vaughan 
On the 10th of April, five days later, my litde Kate was born, and I con- 
cluded that my love of cleanliness saved me from injury and my little 
daughter from premature birth, as the shock received while standing 
upon the ground outside was not nearly as severe as if I had been inside 
the house. 

Fifteen years had elapsed since a litde daughter had been born to 
me. When Addie was told by the midwife that her mother had a little 
baby, she closed her eyes tighdy, and remarked, "If it is a boy, I won't look 
at it!" 

Our baby had dark hair and eyebrows and a rosy face, and was as 
welcome as the flowers in May. When she was nine days old someone 
declared she laughed. Your father went over to Auntie's and told the folks 
that baby had long curls the next morning after she was born. As I had 
thwarted him in naming our daughter Addie I determined to let him 
have his way about naming this one. He had almost idolized his maternal 
grandmother, and wished to have the baby named after her. At the fast 
meeting when he took the baby in his arms to bless her, he asked me, very 
politely, if I had a preference, and upon receiving my assurance that I had 
none, he named her, after his wish, Catherine Vaughan. 

When baby was about three weeks old, Nephi, George and she con- 
tracted measles. The two others had it in a mild form, but litde George 
had a more severe attack. Effie continued to work at the tailors shop so 
Addie and I had to do the housework and attend to the sick children. 

One night George was very sick, my nurse had left me and I was feel- 
ing far from strong. Your father, too, was out of town. About four o'clock in 
the morning we were much alarmed and prayed ernesdy to our Heavenly 
Father for help and He again listened to our suplications and made him 
better. It was a long time, however, before he recovered his health and his 
sweet disposition, which was one of his chief characteristics. Addie will 
remember his periodical crying spells, and he would not stay in bed after 
he had been put to rest for the night, but we loved him just the same. 

Sketch of the Life of Mary L. Morris 179 

Edward Treharne Ashton 

(1855-1923), the son of 

Edward Ashton and Jane 

Treharne, married Effie 

Walker Morris 

on April 4, 1878. 

Courtesy of the Ashton i'amily Organization 

Miss Baby continued to thrive and would lie on the pillow and laugh 
and kick for hours together, making us all very happy. 

The following Autumn your father took a contract to build the 
Great Ontario Silver Mine [in Park City]. He took a number of workmen 
with him, among them being Edward T. Ashton and his Uncle William 
Treharne. He also took his daughters Winnie and Effie to cook for the 
men, and a man to butcher the beeves and help the girls do the heaviest 
part of the work. 

As Ed and Effie were now keeping company, and both going away 
so far from home, I requested Effie to have no more association with him 
than with any other of the men during their stay at the Park, and was grat- 
ified to learn that his parents, with the same careful forethought concern- 
ing his welfare, had made a similar request of him, or at least instructed 
his uncle to see that he was in bed by nine o'clock. 

Effie was as careful to carry out my wishes as I had been to give them 
and when Ed, good natured boy that he was, would go into the kitchen 
and offer to help the girls with the dishes, Effie would leave them to him 
and Winnie while she went to another table to mix bread. Winnie, from 
her youthful point of view, thought this restraint between Ed and Effie 
was time wasted, but we did not think so. 

The night that Effie left to got to the Park, Addie and I felt so lonely 
that we actually brought our beds down into the dining room for the first 

180 Before the Manifesto 

night or two and we watched eagerly for the mail to bring us letters from 
our loved one. The litde boys, too, were anxious for her return and would 
send loving messages to her. 

Father came home to attend the October Conference and Winnie 
came in a day or two later, but Effie stayed till the job was finished. During 
this time Effie was the only lady in the camp, but there was not a man who 
would have harmed their litde "Red Bird" as they called her (because she 
wore a red waist) , so she locked herself in her litde bed room at night and 
enjoyed the sweet sleep that hard work and innocence can give. 

A little before Christmas she returned home and was joyfully wel- 
comed by us all. 

Christmas day she cooked the dinner assisted by Ed Ashton, who 
seemed very happy to cut wood for her and render any help he could, in 
spite of the fact that he was not to enjoy the repast, his own parents being 
desirous of having his dear presence at their family board. Some time 
previous to going to the Park, Ed had asked permission to call upon Effie, 
but at this particular period there was no positive engagement between 
them so far as we knew. So he went home to dinner and returned in the 
evening to take her to a party. During the evening Ed returned home, and 
came into the parlor, where Bro. Morris and I were seated, and formally 
asked for the hand of our dear daughter in marriage. Her father gave his 
free consent, having known him intimately for a number of years, and I 
told him that there was no one whom I preferred. The time for the mar- 
riage was set for the coming spring. 

A pleasant incident occurred on the following New Years Day. Your 
father had sent a message asking Ed Ashton to comeover to our house. 
When he entered the Parlor, after wishing us compliments of the season, 
he remarked; — "Bro. Morris, I brought no tools with me, as I did not 
know what kind of work you wanted me to do." Your father then pre- 
sented him with a beautiful silver cased watch engraved upon the inside 
plate, stating that it was presented to him by Elias Morris and Samuel L. 
Evans as a token of their esteem. Father said that during the four years of 
his apprenticeship he had not spoken in an unbecoming manner or been 
guilty of an unbecoming act, or broken a rule of the agreement entered 

Effie 's earnings stood her in good stead as she turned her attention 
to the coming event. Besides the trousseau there were household furnish- 
ings, quilts, rug, carpet and mat. When the Log Cabin pieces for the quilt 
were completed they were set together and a quilting party arranged 
for. Those invited were dear Aunt Aggie, Cousin Belinda [Marden] Pratt 
Musser, and Cousin Lucy Pratt Russell. The quilting was done in out cozy 
parlor and pleasant jokes passed around the quilt as the needles sewed 
upon the pretty blocks. This, with the rug and door mat were all made 

Sketch of the Life of Mary L. Morris 181 

from pieces of cast off wearing apparel so that they represented part of 
her maidenhood's history. 

She had already, with neatness and care made some pretty suits of 
underwear and a short time previous a nice dark blue cashmere dress. 
Sister [Elizabeth] Bird, an expert dressmaker was engaged to do the cut- 
ting and fitting, but the rest was Effie's own handiwork. It was made with a 
polonaise, and she also made a winter wrap to wear with it, and bought a 
black felt hat of becoming style. 

A pale blue cashmere was selected for the wedding dress which was 
given into Sister Bird's hands to make, but a dainty white dress to wear in 
the Endowment House, Effie made herself. 

The date for the wedding was the 4th of April, 1878. By this time all 
was in readiness but the date had been kept a profound secret from all but 
Aunt Aggie, until the day previous, because of the bashfulness of the young 
couple. They did not wish for an elaborate wedding, so in the afternoon 
of the eventful day we went quietly to the Endowment House, there being 
no Temple nearer than St. George. In order not to attract attention Effie 
and Aunt Aggie went along Second South Street and Winnie accompanied 
me on Third South Street. Winnie represented the other family, in order 
to show them proper respect. Then Bro. Ashton took his invalid mother 
[Jane Treharne Ashton] in a buggy and father came over from his office 
with his coat thrown over his shoulder, for the day was warm. 

Apostle Joseph F. Smith, (now President) performed the ceremony 
which made them husband and wife, and Aunt Aggie said she saw the 
ruffles on Effie's dress tremble as she knelt at the altar to be married. 

In the meantime Addie, little brick that she was, had prepared a 
nice hot supper. Before we sat down, Aunt Aggie took her beloved niece 
upstairs and soon returned with her arrayed in her perfecdy fitting pale 
blue princess dress and presented her to us as Mrs. Ashton. 

Sister Ashton being an invalid we appreciated her company very 
much. About ten o'clock the party broke up, the bridal couple going to 
their pretty new home built by the groom's own hands, which was situ- 
ated on the south-east corner of First South and Sixth West. 

The Ashton family had expressed their love by many substantial 
presents, and Sister Ashton sent a quantity of provisions, so that they 
would be supplied for some time. 

The day following their marriage Effie made a cake and some lem- 
onade, in order to entertain the friends who would be sure to call when 
they heard the news. The lemonade of course, took the place of wine, 
which is so often served upon such occasions, but they would have no 
intoxicants, and those who desired such would be placed at small value. 

The following Sunday, the boys and girls came down in a troop with 
shouts of joy, bringing many tokens of their affection and esteem. 

182 Before the Manifesto 

You willremember a picture of your brother Nephi, when he was a 
little fellow, dressed in a velvet kilt and cutaway coat with a horn attached 
to his belt When Georgie was three years old I made him a pair of knick- 
erbockers of this kilt of Nephi 's, which worn with the little jacket made a 
nice suit of which he was very proud. 

We began to teach him to recite verses from a linen picture book 
Bro. Evans had given him. It contained Scripture incidents. The one we 
taught Georgie was as follows: — 

"Behold the Dreamer comes, 

Seize him, hold him fast, 
And in the lonely darksome pit 

Was gentle Joseph cast." 

(he pronouncingjoseph — "Jovus") 

A few weeks later he recited the following verses at the Sunday School. 
They were taken from "Litde Snow-Flake's Album" which Nephi had 
received for his fifth birthday. 

"A litde bird built a warm nest ina tree, 

And laid some blue eggs in it, one, two and three 

And then very glad and delighted was she. 

She spread her soft wings on them all the day long 
To warm them and guard them, her love was so strong, 
And her mate sat beside her and sang her a song. 

Then after a while, how long I can't tell, 

The little ones crept one by one, from the shell 

And the mother was pleased, for she loved them all well. 

One day the young birds were crying for food, 

So off flew the mother, away from her brood 

Then came up some boys, who were wicked and rude. 

They tore the soft nest down, away from the tree, 

The little ones tried but could not get free 

So at last they all died away, one, two and three. 

When back to her nest the mother did fly 

Oh, then she set up a most pitiful cry, 

Then she moaned a long time, and laid down to die." 

Sketch of the Life of Mary L. Morris 183 

Birth of My First Grandchild, Edward Morris Ashton 
In the early part of 1879 my daughter Addie was called as counceller in 
the Primary Association of the Fifteenth Ward. On the 12th of the same 
month, (January) my first grandchild was born, in the person of Edward 
Morris Ashton. His Aunt Sarah Roberts called him Edward the Third, 
because his father and grandfather bore the same name. 

The Sunday Afternoon that he was blessed there were two of 
your father's grandsons present to receive a name. One was litde Willie 
[William] Swan, who was blessed by your father, who, in the course of 
his remarks said that he expected to see his children's children. Eddie 
was blessed by Bro. Ashton. Both grandfathers were called upon to speak. 
This was Bro. Ashton's first grandchild and in speaking he made this 
very humble remark; — "I hope that I shall never do anything to disgrace 
him." Bro. Thos. C. Griggs selected an appropriate hymn for the occasion 
commencing, "This Child We Dedicate to Thee". (Bless his memory) 
Page 223 L.D.S. Hymn Book. 74 

Another Son is Born and Dies 
On the 20th of July, 1882 another son was born to me [Richard Vaughan 
Morris]. He was a remarkably large child, weighing fifteen or sixteen 
pounds, the midwife said, but was lost for want of proper help. Your 
father was at home with me and would have gone anywhere or given any- 
thing to get help but it was not obtainable at the moment. The loss of this 
little baby was a great disappointment to me and also to Addie, and even 
little Katie, although only five years old, felt it keenly and would go to the 
drawer where the tiny articles of clothing had been placed and weep bit- 
terly. I was forty-seven years old at the time and my husband fifty-seven. 

Lines In Memory Of Richard Vaughan, Son Of Elias 

And Mary L. Morris. Born July 20, 1882. 

Died July 20, 1882 

Little floweret, you have left us 
In this shady sorrowing sphere 
Death's cold hand has thus bereft us 
Thickly falls the bitter tear. 

Who was it hovered near our bed 

74. The hymn "This Child We Dedicate to Thee" is on page 223 of several of the Salt Lake 
and Liverpool editions of Sacred Hymns and Spiritual Songs for the Church offesus Christ 
of Latter-day Saints. See the 16th ed. (1877); 19th ed. (1889); and 22nd ed. (1897). 
The words of the hymn are by Christoph F. Neander (1793) and were translated from 
German to English by Samuel Oilman (1823). 

184 Before the Manifesto 

When in the throes of Motherhood? 
Who was it came with noiseless tread 
And bore our Baby heavenward? 

Perchance some dear departed one 
Commissioned from the realms of Joy 
To take our little new-born son 
Where pleasure reigns, without alloy. 

On August 16th, 1878 Auntie too lost a dear litde daughter two years 
old. The following lines were composed by me upon that occasion. 

A Tribute To The Memory Of Little Jessie Pearl [Morris]. 

Daughter Of Elias And Mary P. Morris 

Born August 22, 1876— Died August 16, 1878 

Oh, sweet little Jessie, the pride of our heart, 
How litde we thought that with thee we must part; 
How bitter the sting; how piercing the smart! 

Thy beautiful eyes! How they follow us now. 

How bright were the curls that decked thy fair brow. 

We fancy we're smoothing thy silken locks now. 

Pearly thy teeth, and sweeter thy kiss, 

The sound of thy dear litde feet, how we miss; 

To have but one look at thy face would be bliss. 

Oh, sweet litde Pearlie, who brightened our path, 
How fain would we take thee from cold mother earth. 
To cheer us, and bless us, and gladden our hearth. 

We think thou art coming, but no, it is vain, 

We never shall clasp thy fair image again 

In this world of sorrow, and darkness and pain. 

We know thou art gone to the dear ones above, 

Their arms shall embrace thee, their hearts beat with love 

We know they will take special care of our dove. 

When my litde Kate was five years old I taught her to sew and com- 
posed the following litde poem, which she learned to recite. 

Sketch of the Life of Mary L. Morris 185 

Come, little Kate, upon my knee 

And bring your work and thimble, 
And make nice stitches, one, two, three 

You soon will be quite nimble. 

Your alphabet you've conquered now 

And soon you'll learn to spell 
And pretty lessons then you'll learn 

And pretty stories tell. 

And then you soon willlearn to knit 

And many useful things; — 
For surely half our happiness 

From love of labor springs. 

When she was about three years old, we made her a winter suit of 
very soft and rather bright blue flannel, with hood to match. It was a 
pretty sight to see her in it, with her bright blue eyes, rosy cheeks, fair 
complexion and brown hair, her new dolly in her hand, as Effie took her 
over to her little home. 

Before Effie was married Addie was beginning to receive attention 
from a young gentleman friend, and was often invited to nice parties, but 
the young lady seemed to be very hard to please and this young suitor was 
followed by several others. 

After the death of the little baby to whose advent we had all looked 
forward with so much joyous anticipation, she seemed sad and gloomy, 
and as a young lady who had been staying with us was about to return to 
her home in St. George she wanted Addie to return with her so that she 
might visit her Uncle Charles Walker and his family. We hurried and did 
a little sewing for her and in due time she departed. The day she left I 
cleared away the remains of our dressmaking and tried to do some ironing, 
but finding some of her clothes I began to weep and felt almost as if I had 
lost her, and when I went into the quiet orderly parlor I so missed her dear 
presence that it seemed for a while as if she had gone from me forever. 

While she was away I cleaned the house throughout as I always did 
in the Fall, and also that it might look pleasant to her, as well as doing the 
usual housework. 

On the 24th of December she returned. When the train which bore 
her passed the house it was about 7 a.m. and I was upon my knees scrub- 
bing the porch. A few minutes later she arrived from the depot, bringing 
with her her Cousin Zaidee [Walker] , which I had not seen since she was 
a little toddler. Now she was seventeen years old and reminded me very 
much of her father, my brother Charles. She possessed a good deal of her 

186 Before the Manifesto 

Grandfather Walker's wit, humor and satire. She was of medium height, 
fair complexion dark brown hair and eyes and smallhands and feet. I 
felt rich now with my daughter and niece also. As it was the day before 
Christmas and I was very much absorbed in home affairs, I concluded 
that, for an outing Addie and Zaidee could do the Christmas shopping. 
Father gave them each a new dress for Christmas. 

As Christmas Day this year fell upon a Sunday, our esteemed friend 
and Sunday School Superintendent, Bro. T. C. Griggs, suggested that 
we keep the celebration on Monday as to presents. So on Sunday eve- 
ning, after the children had gone to bed, Addie and Zaidee arranged the 
presents upon the side table. While they were doing so, Addie made this 
remark; "I bet I'llbe married in two years from now, if I want to." 

One of Nephi's presents was a Chatterbox, which his cousin took 
great pleasure in reading to him during her visit. 75 I remember a favor- 
ite story was about a man named Paul Parker who killed a mad dog and 
thus saved several lives. Many of the stories were of English life and very 
interesting. There was also a little joke about England to the effect that 
their American cousins think that England is so small in comparison to 
their own vast continent that English people are afraid to go to bed at 
night for fear they will find themselves in the sea in the morning. 

Again, under a picture of a donkey were some verses referring to his 
very hard life. I think there were some carrots dangling in front of him to 
make him go by coaxing him along. Two of the lines were as follows; 

In all the three kingdoms you scarcely could see 
Such a little, old, rough looking donkey as he. 

Your cousin Zaidee was extremely fond of reading, and like her grandfather, 
was a good conversationalist and would have us laughing till we shook. We 
became very much attached to her during the nine months she remained 
with us. The day she returned home we prepared a chicken dinner. Auntie 
Barbara happened to call in and asked me to accompany her to town, 
remarking that I should be back in time to see Zaidee off. This was how- 
ever, unfortunately, not the case and as the dear child stood at the depot 
and realized that the last ray of hope of seeing her Aunt Mary before she 
left was passed, she sobbed with grief. And that aching spot is in my heart 
yet to think that my beloved niece so longed to bid me a loving good-bye. 

On January 1st, 1884, Mr. George M. [Mousley] Cannon and his 
friend Dr. Leslie W. Snow called and left their cards. We had noticed that 
Mr. Cannon was showing our daughter Addie some attention and your 

75. The Chatterbox (London: Wells Gardner, Darton & Co.) was a weekly English magazine 
that contained children's stories. It was published beginning in 1866. 

Sketch of the Life of Mary L. Morris 


George M. Cannon, 
the husband of Mary 
Lois 's daughters Marian 
Adelaide Morris and 
Katherine Vaughan 

Courtesy oj Jack and Mary Lais Wheatky 

father had expressed his satisfaction, he being an intimate friend of Bro. 
Angus M. [Munn] Cannon and knowing the son to be intelligent, a good 
business man and a consistent Latter Day Saint. 

In the early part of the year Bro. Angus M. Cannon and his family 
dined with us and a little later we went to dinner at their home, where 
we spent a very pleasant evening. Apostle Erastus Snow, who was on the 
eve of taking his departure on a mission to a distant part of the country, 
(probably Mexico) was one of the guests. 

Later in the evening Addie accompanied Mr. Cannon to a Leap 
Year Ball, a function which was not at all to Addie's taste. Some time after- 
wards, I remember, she was called to act as floor manager at a Leap Year 
Ballin our Ward, a position which was repugnant to her natural feelings, 
but she performed her task well, however. 76 

As we were returning from the dinner party your father told me 
that Bro. Geo. M. had asked if he might pay his addresses to Addie, and 

76. In nineteenth century Utah, holidays often ended with grand balls lasting until early 
in the morning. Dancing consisted mostly of square dances, such as the Virginia Reel, 
which allowed little intimacy. Brigham Young allowed one or two round dances, such as 
the waltz, at each dance, especially as the century wore on. EM, 1380; Hicks, Mormonism 
and Music, 78-86. 

188 Before the Manifesto 

he had replied that there was nothing in the way. I objected to this last 
statement, as she was corresponding in a friendly way with a young man 
who resided in a distant part of the state, and had several other admirers. 
It was, I think, the following morning, about 10 a.m. that Mr. Cannon 
called to ask my permission also. I expressed my esteem for him person- 
ally but explained that the choice must rest with the young lady herself as 
to whether he should be the favored suitor. 

When father would bring Addie a letter from this other gendeman 
he would look rather archly over his spectacles at her and ask; "How many 
beaus are you going to have?" 

It was on Sunday night, the last day of the Spring Conference that 
Mr. Cannon had the promise that Addie would be his wife. 

The following month, her friend, with whom she had been corre- 
sponding, came to Salt Lake on his way to Logan to attend the dedicatory 
services of the Temple there. 77 He had heard of her engagement, and 
called several times in a friendly way, but previous to his departure, came 
with the intention of talking the matter over with her. Some time later I 
saw him about to leave the house, and in a kind manner asked him to stay 
to dinner, but he replied, "I am extremely obliged to you, but not now." 
My sympathies are very strong, and I felt so sorry for him that I wept most 
of the afternoon. It seemed so cruel for a young man of his worth to come 
hundreds of miles to offer his hearts best affection and find that it was 
not returned. Addie did admire him and appreciated his fine qualities, 
but if she had a choice, it was her privilege to manifest it. Both these gen- 
tlemen are friends today, and even at the time there was no bitterness in 
his heart towards his rival, for he remarked, while wishing her good-bye, 
"Well, Addie, if youdecide in favor of Bro. Cannon, he will have one of 
the best wives in the world." I may say that this young man later obtained 
a wife of many gifts and graces and as good as thw world makes. 

Upon one occasion I remarked to Br. George M. that after he had 
travelled out in the world, as most of our Elders do, he might see some 
fair maiden whom he would have preferred to my daughter. His reply was 
very fine I thought. He said, "Sister Morris, if the Gospel does not make 
girls more attractive than those of the world, then I haveno more to say." 

He would like to have married Addie in June but she would not 
agree to such an early date, nor yet in September, nor at Thanksgiving, 
but finally consented to let the event transpire on Christmas Day. So we 
did our best to have matters in readiness. She made many fancy articles 

77. Addie's "friend" was Mr. Bendy, a young man from St. George, Utah, who also wished 
to marry her. Logan is located at the mouth of Logan Canyon in northern Utah. The 
Logan Temple, the second functioning temple in Utah, was dedicated on May 17, 1884, 
by President John Taylor. N. B. Lundwall, comp. Temples of the Most High, 102-3; Van 
Cott, Utah Place Names, 232. 

Sketch of the Life of Mary L. Morris 189 

to ornament her new home and sewed carpet rags, which I dyed in bril- 
liant colors. I made three quilts, one a dainty greyish blue shade of soft 
flannel with a red star set in every other block and quilted to match the 
pattern. It was a beautiful quilt for a brides outfit. A second was of botde 
green cashmere arranged in what was called a goose-chase pattern, in 
suitable colors. A third had diamonds of orange and blue shaded mate- 
rial arranged upon a soft flannel background. Besides these I had earned 
enough money to buy a guitar, which I thought to give as a wedding pres- 
ent, but upon second thoughts bought a handsome Chamber set instead. 

Addie's Wedding 
Three days before Christmas I hired Miss Annie Waterfal [Waterfall] to 
do my kitchen work while I cleaned house, painted, and varnished and 
cooked. On the 23rd and 24th I dressed fat chickens and a turkey. I had 
engaged Miss Amelia Howells to make the cakes and pies and they were 
well done. I had also made a fruit cake. Father brought another turkey 
weighing seventeen pounds, on Christmas eve. 

It was three o'clock of the morning of the 25th before I went to bed 
and two hours later I arose. At seven Bro Ball came to ice the wedding 
cake, which was in three tiers and was made by Sister Ann [Whitehead] 
Duncanson. We prepared for sixty guests and had food enough for twice 
that number. Aunt Nancy came and cooked the vegetables. 

The young couple had desired to go to the St. George Temple to 
be married as they had received their endowments there, and also it was 
the birthplace of George M. but on account of the approach of severe 
weather it was deemed wiser to go to the Endowment House in Salt Lake 
City. They were accompanied thither by the parents of both, — Bro. Angus 
M. Cannon and his wife Sarah Maria [Mousley Cannon] , your father, 
and myself. President Cannon performed the ceremony of marriage and 
kissed his son and new daughter at the close. We reached home early in 
the afternoon and soon afterwards the groom presented his bride with a 
set of jewels, a breast pin and ear-rings. The design was a beautiful little 
bird with a diamond in its mouth. This was a magnificent present and a 
token of love in more ways than one, for I think the birds were doves. 

Among our guests were Pres. Angus M. Cannon, his wife Mrs. Sarah 
Maria Cannon, and Aunts Amanda [Ann Amanda Mousley Cannon] , 
Clara [Clarissa Cordelia Moses Cannon], and Dr. Mattie Hughes Cannon 
[Martha Hughes Cannon] , with all of the grooms brothers and sister 
together with Mina's [Wilhelmina Mousley Cannon] husband Abram 
H. [Abraham Hoagland] Cannon and their children. Also two little girls 
whom Aunt Clara Mason Cannon was rearing. Bro. Abram H. Cannon was 
a cousin of the bride-groom but also a brother-in-law, but we felt unable 
to invite all the cousins, except Cousin Billy [William C] Morris and his 

190 Before the Manifesto 

wife Diantha [Empey Morris] , whom father insisted must come as he was 
the eldest and more like a brother, although Addie was afraid of giving 
offense by this discrimination. 

I was obliged to leave the bride to entertain her company while I 
superintended affairs in the kitchen. The huge turkey was in the oven 
by two o'clock, allowing it four hours to cook and claimed more or less 
attention all that time. We had fires in the dining-room, parlor and down- 
stairs bed-room where the presents were displayed. Also in the cook-shed 
where the fat chickens were gentiy stewing, and in the kitchen, where the 
lesser and greater turkeys sent forth their savory odor while the vegetables 
cooked to taste. I believe our six o'clock dinner was cooked without acci- 
dent and our guests were pleased to pass a favorable judgment upon it. 

During the evening Dr. Mattie recited "Mary, Queen of Scots" in 
a very pleasing manner. Addie was induced to sing, but broke down in 
tears. It was a song of home. That very evening, two years previously 
Addie had remarked to her cousin Zaidee, — "I guess I'll be married in 
two years from now, if I want to." and so her own prophecy had come 
to pass, to the very hour even. When ten o'clock arrived the guests took 
their departure. 

When the last of the guests had gone the groom waited to take his 
bride to their pretty new home, but litde Katie, then about nine years old, 
began to raise objections to this plan. With her arms about her beloved 
sister, who was about to leave the parental roof, she piteously begged 
her not to go, crying, "You said you would not leave me tonight!" The 
groom walked the floor in silent distress, while Miss Waterfall, who had 
been assisting in serving the dinner, joined her tears with Katie's. The 
gentleman, however, did not seem much affected by our sentiment and 
quietly waited, while his brother in a buggy outside, where it was raining, 
did the same. Finally Addie was able to tear herself away from her little 
sister and stepped into the buggy with her husband, to make bright and 
happy their future home. 

I am afraid Mr. Cannon did not love his bride's little sister very 
much in those days, for Katie had been rather spoiled and had the idea 
that where her sister was, there she might be also. I know she had often 
intruded herself upon their company, when he, at least, could have 
dispensed with her, although it was at Addie 's invitation, not because I 
wished it. 

On the 11th of October, 1884, another strange feeling came over 
me and I felt as if I were going to a higher sphere I began to weep and 
did not know why. It was Saturday night, the evening meal was over and 
your father had finished his stay with us for that week. But before his 
departure I asked him if he required any more of me, in my course of life, 
than I had already done. Putting his hand affectionately upon my head 

Sketch of the Life of Mary L. Morris 191 

he replied, — "No, lass." After he had gone I wept still more, and thought, 
"Well, if I am to depart this life, I am perhaps, as well prepared now as I 
shall ever be. My house is clean and so is my person," and I felt at peace 
with all the world. And so I retired to rest. 

Appointed President of Ward Primary Association 
The next evening, as I was seated in the meetinghouse, Brother Binder 
came down from the stand and told me that the Bishopric wished to see 
me. I remained seated after the meeting had closed and Bishop Pollard, 
with his counselors, William L. Binder and Nathaniel V. [Vary] Jones, came 
and told me that they wished me to preside over the Primary Association 
of the Ward. I remarked upon my lack of qualification for such a position 
but they replied. — "You are qualified, if you will only take hold of it." 

The following Thursday, I think, October 16th, 1884 a little meet- 
ing was held in our fine new meeting house when the organization of the 
association should be effected. Besides the Bishopric there were present 
the officers of the Relief Society; Mrs. Ellen [C. Spencer] Clawson; Stake 
President of the Primary Association with her councellors Mrs. Camilla 
C. Cobb and Mrs. Lydia Ann Wells. In those days, before the Primary 
Association had a General Presiding Board, the Relief Society had juris- 
diction over the Primary Associations, so Sister Sarah M. Kimball, our 
beloved friend and President of the Relief Society, had charge of the 
affair and expressed her desire to make it as important as might be. Mrs. 
Elizabeth [Henderson] Duncanson, president of the Visiting Committee 
of the Relief Society was also invited with Sisters Susannah [Bacon] 
Waterfall and Hortense [Mary] Langjones. After preliminary remarks by 
the President, Bishop Pollard addressed the meeting as follows: — "I have 
looked this ward over and over again and can find no one as suitable as 
Sister Morris. She has reared her children in the order of marriage that 
the world is fighting and her children are a credit to the ward, and I con- 
sider her a proper person to help others to rear their children." 

These eulogistic remarks caused me to feel very humble and tears 
came to my eyes. Mrs. Duncanson turned to me and said in her emphatic 
way with her Scotch brogue; — "Ye mustn't refuse, but we will excuse ye 
from visiting the blocks." 

My councellors were Sisters Susannah Waterfall and Hortense 
Lang Jones, with my son George, then ten years old, as Treasurer, as 
Sister Kimball suggested that I could then oversee that part also. Prudie 
[Prudence] Brown was our Secretary with Vernie [Isabell] Lufkin as assis- 
tant. Our first meeting was appointed for the following Thursday, which 
being Thanksgiving Day, we concluded should be in the form of a party. 

While the children were happily dancing, two or three boys, aged 
from fourteen to fifteen, came and stood beside me on the stage. One 

192 Before the Manifesto 

of them remarked, rather contemptuously, — "Too small! Too small!" 
His companion replied, "Rather than speak to a lady as you have spoken 
to that lady, I would sack my head." A litde later Bro. Henry P. Lindsey 
[Henry Patrick Lindsay] came and stood beside me but he was delighted, 
and said, "This is pretty! This is beautiful!" One litde maiden danced so 
beautifully that had we been in possession of a bouquet we would have 
presented it to her, but upon consultation we concluded to give her the 
money to buy a pair of shoes, as her mother was a widow. 

We had $4.00 in the Treasury at the beginning, and this was spent 
for much needed books, but this entertainment brought us $16.00, half 
of which we gave to the Ward fund to pay for the use of the hall. 

Our next meeting was in the form of a concert by the children, but 
of course there was but little time for preparation, but Sister Sarah M. 
Kimball, who came to visit us, was much pleased, and Sister Elmina S. 
[Shepard] Taylor, General President of the Y.L.M.I.A., who had accompa- 
nied her, spoke encouragingly to us. 

I put my best energy into the work. I loved it; I loved the children 
and the children loved me. I controlled them by kind firmness and would 
allow no harshness used towards them. I never went to a meeting without 
seeking Divine guidance. My gift for singing served me well in this work 
and my natural idea of reciting was a help also. With cheerfulness, kind- 
ness, patience and firmness, aided by the Spirit of God we got along very 
nicely and enjoyed the work. 

We gave many entertainments in which the children took part, but 
did not charge for admission as I felt that the work was too sacred in 
its character. If we needed funds we raised them in some other way. For 
instance, a fair, which I worked hard to get up, left fifteen dollars in the 
treasury when I left the Association. 

At one time I had an elocutionist of some merit for one councel- 
lor and a good reciter for the other. But I, being president, did not pro- 
pose to stand idly by and let them do all of this class of work, although 
I always paid them due respect and consulted with them in everything. 
But when I had anything to teach to the children and did not feel myself 
quite qualified, I went to the best elocutionist in town and at considerable 
expense took private lessons on the exercise I desired to teach, so, having 
learned myself, I was competent to teach others. Many times, mothers, 
feeling proud of the achievements of their children would come to me 
and say; — "You have more patience with my children than I have myself." 
and they would express their gratitude for my efforts. 

I held the position of Ward President of the Primary Association 
for twelve years to the day, lacking one month, and was then called as 
Councellor to the President of the Salt Lake Stake Primary Board. . . . 

Sketch of the Life of Mary L. Morris 193 

[At this point, a twenty-one-page section from the memoir has been omitted from the 
book. Although it is within the earlier portion of Mary Lois Morris's memoir it was 
not included here because it details her church responsibilities in the IDS primary 
organization after 1887 and a patriarchal blessing that she received in 1894. It 
describes the primary curriculum that Mary Lois composed while Fifteenth Ward 
Primary president and a member of the Salt Lake Stake Primary presidency and 
includes the full transcription of several spiritually themed poems and dialogues 
that she wrote for the primary children to read in church meetings.] 

Home Life 
In looking over my past life and the many years I have worked in the dif- 
ferent offices I have been called to fill in the organizations of the Church, 
it is a satisfaction to me that I have not neglected my children. And any 
success I may have had in this regard also, I have my Heavenly Father to 
thank for His assistance, through the inspiration of His Holy Spirit. No 
matter was too small for me to rais a petition to Him for help, and my 
prayer was always answered. 

Even in those early days, when we had no bathroom or many changes 
of clothes, I made a point of bathing the children and giving them clean 
underwear twice a week. 

Little Kate would be the first. Having a large towel warm to 
receive her, I would wrap her in it, head and all, and after rubbing 
her, pretend that I had lost her, until a few minutes later I uncovered 
her little brown head and smiling face, pretending to have found her 
again, to her great delight. The bathing would occur on Wednesday 
and Saturday evenings usually. If all could not be bathed at night, it was 
done the following morning. One morning, I remember, I had only 
twenty minutes to bathe little Nephi, or he would be late for School. 
I was unwilling that he should miss his bath or be tardy, but with the 
help of my Heavenly Father, all went well, and he was bathed, changed 
and off to school in time. 

It was My Heavenly Father and me in the rearing of those children, for 
I had sent my petition to the courts above that the King of Kings would send 
me spirits who would have a desire to serve Him above all things on earth. 

Nephi had a very strong will; He was not inclined to do evil, but 
not always aching to do what I knew to be for his best good. But I could 
not let it go at that. This strong willpower needed directing. Sometimes I 
would kneel down, perhaps three or four times, before I could get him to 
go to Sunday School, but it was generally successful. In the line of duty, it 
was my God, and then my children. 

When he was about ten years old I had entreated him to go to meet- 
ing with me, but this time to no purpose, so I went my way without him. 
Your sister Addie, who was always very careful of her litde brothers, was 

194 Before the Manifesto 

at home, so I had no anxiety upon that score. While in meeting I saw a 
man go jp to the stand as if to take a message, and then your father rose 
and went out. As I neared Third West on First South Street, your father 
met me with a buggy, and told me in a pleasant manner that Nephi had 
broken his leg. In his afternoon meanderings he had been down to the 
barn and climbing a fence, his knickerbockers had caught, and hang- 
ing there, his weight had broken his leg. By the time I reached home he 
had been made very comfortable by Dr. Joseph S. Richards. His precious 
leg was encased in leather splints and over this they had put one of a 
pair of red and gray striped stockings, which I had knitted for my own 
use, such being the style in those days. This fitted cozily over the splints 
and gave added support. He was put to bed on the lounge in the dining 
room, which was lofty, roomy and airy, so with the bright glow of the fire, 
made a pleasant room for an invalid boy. I made a bed for myself in the 
recess near the fireplace and having just completed some warm winter 
night gowns, I was ready and it was a real pleasure to wait upon him if he 
needed anything at night. 

Many friends called to see him, amongst others Miss Mary Jones, 
who brought Claude Clive, a boy about Nephi's own age. She also used 
to come and bring him grapes, etc. Ed brought him a map of the United 
States, in blocks, which gave him much pleasure to put together. 

In about three weeks the doctor said we might take him to his 
office. It was on a fine frosty Sunday that Ed Parry took us up in a buggy. 
Your father was at the time in Parley's Park building the Ontario Mine. 
That night as we began to ascent the stairs to retire, Nephi stumbled over 
the first step. My heart filled with loving compassion and tenderness as I 
helped him back into the dining room and drawing the lounge near the 
fire, took him in my arms as I would have taken a newly-born baby, only 
love was so much stronger. His utter helplessness and his having suffered 
so much already, drew forth the deepest sympathy of my heart. 

The same afternoon, I think, the floor in front of the hearth, which 
had been built by a short-sighted workman, with only a foot of the space 
where the ashes fell, caught fire, burning the carpet and the floor under- 
neath. Upon examining the hole in the floor, I could see shavings under- 
neath and feared that a spark might have fallen amongst these and that 
it might smoulder, and later break into flames I extinguished the fire, 
and poured water allaround, but litde Nephi being so crippled and your 
father away from home, I felt very anxious. So I called the family together 
and had prayers, asking God to take care of us and after that we felt no 
uneasiness. The following morning we had a man come to enlarge the 
hearth and make it safe. 

I am reminded of a pleasant incident that occurred a few months 
previous to this. The two little boys, Nephi and George, had some 

Sketch of the Life of Mary L. Morris 195 

beautiful new suits made by your father's Welsh tailor, Bro. John Thomas, 
and I had knitted them some red stockings, and thus arrayed I took them 
to town to see the Strassburg Clock, in miniature, which was displayed in 
one of the stores. When this clock struck the hour, images representing 
the twelve aposdes came out and bowed before the Saviour. It was April 
conference, and seeing the clock, and enjoying a feast of oranges, was a 
great treat to the litde fellows. 

When Nephi was in his early teens he was called and ordained a 
deacon. 78 It would sometimes happen that a party would be held upon 
the same evening as his quorum meeting but I always urged him to attend 
his meeting first and go to the party afterwards, or in other words, to seek 
first the Kingdom of God. 

As soon as he was old enough, he went to the Brigham Young 
Academy, at Provo. 79 1 wrote to Bro. [Karl Gottfried] Maeser, asking him 
not to allow my boy to room with some who might have been sent there 
to reform bad habits, as I had taken great care of him, thus far. 

While he was there, however, I had an opportunity of seeing him 
sometimes, for part of the time I was in hiding, on the "underground" as 
we called it, I resided in Provo. 

On the Underground 
When it was nearing Christmas, my daughter Addie was much concerned 
at my being away, thinking that it was a dreadful thing for a mother to be 
absent at the festal season, so at the end of November, much against my 
judgment, I went to Salt Lake. I expected to return to Provo in February 
and bring my son George Q. (whom I had left in charge of his sister Effie) 
back with me to attend the B. Y. Academy with his brother Nephi. 

I have often thought since, how much more comfortable I should 
have been at Aunt Clara Loverage's than to have returned home to a 
cold, dusty house, which of course my first thought was to make as clean 

78. A Deacons Quorum was first organized in the Salt Lake Fifteenth Ward in 1877. At this 
time, the office of deacon was gradually becoming associated with young men. The 
main responsibilities of deacons were collecting fast offerings and making distributions 
for the bishop of their ward. Barraclough, 15th Ward Memories, 75; Arrington, Mormon 
Experience, 215. 

79. Provo, Utah, is forty-five miles south of Salt Lake City. Brigham Young Academy, located 
in Provo, was an early predecessor of Brigham Young University. President Brigham 
Young began the Academy in 1875 and appointed Karl G. Maeser, a German-born 
convert and educator, as principal. The school's first students were primarily in the 
elementary grades, but in later years the Academy became a secondary school, a teacher 
training college, and then Brigham Young University. During the 1885-1886 school 
year, while Mary Lois was in hiding in Provo, her son Nephi attended the Academy. See 
Keith L. Smith, "A History of the Brigham Young University: The Early Years, 1875- 
1921"; Ernest L. Wilkinson, ed., Brigham Young University: The First One Hundred Years. 

196 Before the Manifesto 

and cosy as possible. But even then I had to be in hiding, and it was well 
that I did so, as after events proved, for it was by the veriest chance that I 
got out of the City again without being caught by our persecutors. I had 
asked Arnold [Gustave Giauque] to give me an account of the amount I 
had received from the office during a certain period, and during the eve- 
ning received a letter from him as he passed down the street to his own 
home. I naturally concluded it to be merely the memorandum referred 
to, and as I was very busy laundering some clothes to send to Provo to 
the boys the following day, I put the envelope on the mantel, behind the 
clock, and thought no more about it. The next day was Fast Day, in those 
days held on Thursday. As I sat by the fire during the afternoon I chanced 
to look up and detected your father's handwriting upon the envelope. It 
was from the Blue Bird Mine, which he was building for the Walker Bros, 
in Montana. He said he had had words with a man who was working for 
him, and was afraid he intended to make trouble, so I had better get out 
of the way as soon as possible. 

How to wash, iron and pack to leave my home for an indefinite 
period, in a few hours, was a pussier. I had to have my wits about me. 
First I put in one place all I intended to take with me and worked as 
hard as I could. At dusk, I went to the office to make some necessary 
arrangements. As I set out all went like clock-work. The car was at the 
top of the street when I arrived and at Main Street I met Dean Swift, 
who went to the office to see if Arnold Giauque were still there, while 
I waited upon the corner. I shall always remember his kindness. He 
brought back word that our faithful friend and businessmanager had 
not yet left, having been detained (for my benefit, it would seem.) I 
went into theoffice and made my business known to him; — if I had been 
a titled lady he could not have treated me with more respect; I shall 
never forget him for it. He gave me what money I needed and a nice 
purse to hold it, and promised to see that my trunk was at the depot 
the following morning in time for the train. So next day, the 5th of 
December, 1885, at 6a.m. I started out, holding litde Katie by the hand. 
I went early for safety and it was so dark that I had to feel my way over 
the foot bridge. I was thickly veiled and afraid to look or speak, and 
when I met my son Nephi at Provo I was afraid to own him or speak to 
him. He, however, came to me and introduced me to a Bro. Louveridge 
[Ledru C. Loveridge] , who took me in aconveyance to the home of his 
wife, Aunt Clara [Pratt Loveridge] , a particular friend of ours, to whom 
he introduced me as Mrs. Vaughn. She received me quite kindly, but 
when I removed my veil she exclaimed; "You litde gypsy", and was ready 
to shake me with delight. And so I reached my place of refuge in safety. 
Dear Aunt Clara made us very happy for a short time, and was very dis- 
sappointed when I made up my mind to go up to Salt Lake again just 

Sketch of the Life of Mary L. Morris 197 

before Christmas Day. She was a great friend of your Aunt Aggie's and 
was pleased to entertain her sister. 

Christmas day was not a very happy holliday for me, as I was afraid 
to go out and remained in hiding alone, at home, but had the consola- 
tion of being with my daughter Addie as much as I could during my stay, 
and was with her when, on the 11th of the next month, (January) little 
Addie was born. Your father, however, did not consider it very safe for me 
to stay, so I returned to Provo, where I spent Washington's Birthday very 
pleasantly. It was a beautiful day and the sun shone brightly as I sat look- 
ing over some back numbers of the Juvenile Instructor, which was a source 
of intellectual enjoyment. 80 

In March your father came to Provo upon some business matter, 
and during his short stay asked me if I would like to go to St. George. 
When I was in Salt Lake he had asked me to do so, but I had declined, as I 
did not want to be separated from my children, but now that I was already 
separated from them, I was pleased with the idea and gladly anticipated 
the pleasure of renewing my acquaintance with my old friends in Cedar 
City, where I had spent some very happy days, and also experienced some 
bitter trials. But alas, before he returned, he had concluded that I had 
better remain in Provo and have Nephi and George board with me, so 
as to lessen expense. This disappointment, together with a spellof very 
cold weather, made me feel rather blue, as it is so seldom that I give way 
to anticipation, and I wanted to go south and stay for a litde while. The 
following month your father again came to Provo, as the April General 
Conference was held there. When we first went there your father had 
requested me to take the name of his dear Grandmother Vaughan, but 
one frosty day, litde Miss Katie wrote her name upon the window pane, 
and so gave us away. 

Before the close of the school year, we went to Spanish Fork, to visit 
some old friends of your father's. 81 It was during the month of May, 1886 
and we, litde Katie and I, were met at the depot by a Mr. Stringer with a 
good conveyance and in the evening there was a meeting at which the 
real Welsh language was spoken. It took me back fifty years! His wife, who 
had formerly been the wife of John Roach, received us very kindly and we 
spent a pleasant week visiting friends of your father's. 

The following week, on May 26th, we went to the closing exercises 
at the Academy, conducted, of course, by Karl G Maeser and James E. 

80. The Juvenile Instructor was published semimonthly from 1866 until 1929, when its name 
was changed to the Instructor. A publication of the LDS Sunday School, it was edited by 
George Q. Cannon. 

81. Spanish Fork, Utah, is located about eight miles south of Provo. Van Cott, Utah Place 
Names, 349. 

198 Before the Manifesto 

[Edward] Talmage. In those days of poverty these worth gendemen had 
not yet received the tide of "Doctor". 

The exercises were delightful indeed; the pure spirit of the Gospel 
ran through all of them. Bro. Talmage was a powerful factor in the mirth- 
fulness of theoccasion, at the close of which we took the train for our 
home in Salt Lake City. 

A litde before this your father had been subpoened by those 
appointed for such work. They came to him early one morning. He spoke 
rather sharply to them as follows; — "What do you want to come here for at 
this time of the morning disturbing the family? I am in my office, and in my 
buggy and around town, and you can get me any time. I am not running 
away." On their route they had been down to your sister Effie's, but they 
would have it she was Briggie Ashton's wife and not Elias Morris' daugh- 
ter, so they did not get her. When the deputies went to the Academy, wise 
Brother Maeser brought your brother John [Parry Morris] to them, and 
kept Nephi and George back. The time for the trial had not yet been set, 
but when all was in readiness your father told me to take his name again. 
An amusing incident occurred just beforel left Provo. I had been told the 
Deputies were after me, and hurried to some kind hearted family, whose 
name was Meldrum, I think. Seeing a man coming towards the house, Aunt 
Clara hastened over to me saying; — "Aunt Mary, there is a Deputy at the 
house now, where are you going?" I replied, "I am going to stay right here." 
So the "Deputy" came to the house where I was hiding, and when he made 
his appearance this much dreaded man proved to be your father! 

When we arrived home from Provo a warm welcome awaited us. 
Your father and Addie had united in trying to make the house look home- 
like and a warm supper was cooked and ready to serve. Addie had made 
me a fine white apron for my birthday present and we were as glad to be 
home as they were to have us return. 

I was now free to set to work at my house-cleaning, feeling free for a 
while, or at least until the trial came off. I was surprised to find how much 
dust could collect in an un-occupied house, although Addie had hired a 
woman to clean it before we came. But in due time it was all done, even to 
the wallpaper in theparlour, which I had hired a woman to clean. 

George, who was twelve years old, now went to work for the Home 
Bakery, in which your father was heavily interested. The agreement was 
that he should be on hand at three o'clock a.m. but should return at nine 
a.m. for his breakfast and then rest. This concientious child would say; 
"Now, Ma, wake me before three." which I did, although it hurt my feel- 
ings to have him get up so early. On the part of his employer, however, 
the agreement was not kept. After he had raced about town for hours 
delivering bread, he was given a piece of dry bread to eat, or perhaps a 
piece of very plain bun, and expected to attend to the team he had been 

Sketch of the Life of Mary L. Morris 199 

using and do many other things. Or if the boss was getting up a banquet, 
he was asked to go and help, or stay and make candy. The boss liked him 
very much, and felt he was to be trusted in everything. In speaking to 
a mutual friend of this man's utter disregard of the child's welfare and 
need of rest, she replied: — "Why, Aunt Mary, he works so hard himself 
that he never thinks of it!" We shall see the result. 

When Nephi was working at the flour mill in which your father was 
interested, one of our faithful workmen said to me; — "Nephi is working 
toohard and lifting too many sacks for a boy of his age". I felt thankful 
to him for this information, although Nephi had uttered no complaint. 
I spoke to your father with regard to the matter, but he was not very well 
pleased. I had done my duty however. But in the case of Georgie I had 
made no protest, although I suppose I made a statement to the facts in 
reference to the treatment he was receiving. But to come out and assert 
plainly that "My boy cannot do this, or that.", and take the backbone out 
of him, is not my idea of rearing children. And then my circumstances 
were different to those of many others, and my Heavenly Father knew it. 
He was watching over us. 

During that summer, Aunt Net. Coslet Qennette Cosslett] came to 
occupy a furnished room in our house, and later Addie and George M. 
came to stay with us while their home was in course of erection. 

One Monday morning, early in September, I was busy cleaning the 
cellar, and happening to look up, I saw a gendeman standing at Auntie's 
door and was impressed that he was a Deputy. I ran upstairs to comb my 
hair, and then went back to my work again, my sleeves turned up to my 
elbows. I did not mind that he should find me hard at work, but did not 
want to be caught with my hair uncombed. Soon the man was at my door. 
I bade my heart cease its throbbing and went to greet him as if I were 
pleased to see him, and bade him be seated. He declined, but asked me 
to be seated, saying, — "You are tired". I called for a chair for him and 
spoke to him as if he had been a friend. He answered pleasantly, and then 
in an apologetic manner gave me to understand that we should have to 
appear at court. When the date of the present interview was mentioned, 
I suggested that there was a mistake, and after a moment's thought he 
admitted that there was, and so we parted with a pleasant "good-morn- 
ing". I knew that it would not do for me to be fearful and hang back, 
for I was next in importance as a witness, to the defendent, and perhaps 
moreso. So I prayed continually for courage, wisdom, and strength, for 
if I were to manifest fear it would give a guilty tone to the whole case. 
Also I realized in what light I should be held by the other members of 
the family if your father had to go prison for my sake. In the meantime I 
was taken to Lawyer Richard's office and drilled as to what I must do. He 
remarked to your father, 'You need have no fear from this lady, she seems 

200 Before the Manifesto 

quite collected." None of my children were subpoened, but nearly all of 
Auntie's were, hired help included. 

During the summer Nephi had expressed himself in some way as if 
he did not feel just right as to the way things were going. Children have 
their eyes open and no doubt have their trials. I asked myself the question 
"Have I said anything at any time to make my son think less of this prin- 
ciple that I have spent my life in sustaining?" In talking to him upon the 
subject, hesaid; — "You do nothing else but sustain it." I thought; "That 
will do, I can stand that!" 

About a week before the trial at court, George came home feeling 
sick, and instead of taking an interest in things, he hung around and 
could not eat. He always seemed thirsty, but when he drank anything it 
caused nausea. 

The Trial 
Finally the day of the Trial, arrived, and in order that no one would think 
that I was afraid, I went early. Rose Thompson was with me. She and her 
mother were living in one of our rooms at the time. She had been sub- 
poened as a witness at the same time that the papers were served on me. 
I dressed in my best, which was a black cashmere dress, heavily trimmed 
with passementrie; with bonnetand parasol to match. When we arrived 
at the County Building, the colored janitor had not yet completed his 
work, but I sat quietly where I was bidden until the officer whose business 
it was to do so, called out; — "Hear ye, hear ye", and court was opened. I 
sat as stillas I could, knowing that I must be calm and brave, however I 
might feel. After a while it was my turn to go to the witness stand. I had 
my fan along, and I do not know that it ever offered me better service, for 
it made me seem at ease, although my heart might be beating so that it 
almost choked me. 

After swearing to what I had been instructed, I stuck to my text. 
One thing to which I had to testify was, that defendent and I had not 
lived together for such a number of years. The question was then 
asked; — "How is it that you have such kind feelings toward the defen- 
dent?" I replied, "Because of his extreme kindness to me." I think this 
answer touched their finer feelings. I believe I had to relate about my 
first marriage. There was an inference drawn that I was not married 
to the defendent, but the statement was sustained; "that we were not 
THEN living together as man and wife. Another question was; — "Did 
you receive money from the defendent while you were in Provo?" I said, 
"I had money of my own which I used at my own discretion." Another 
question was, "How does the defendent pass his time with you?" (Now, 
my dignity was aroused) I answered, "Every other week, if it is any ben- 
efit to you." 

Sketch of the Life of Mary L. Morris 201 

The prosecution now drew in its horns and the council said; "Mrs. 
Morris, we did not intend to hurt your feelings." They then asked me 
to produce a letter I had received from defendent during my absence 
from home. 

The Court then adjourned until two o'clock. At that hour, our case 
was "to be, or not to be". 

When the Court resumed its operations, it decided that the charges 
against us had not been sustained, the defendent was discharged, and 
congratulations were in order. One of the first to offer congratulations 
was Governor [Eli Houston] Murray, himself. 

I received my witness fee, and went on my way rejoicing. Not, how- 
ever, without some unpleasant feelings. The thought of being dishonored 
as a wife, after a marriage of thirty years or more, was neither comforting 
or flattering. Your sister Addie was very angry about my position. 

When the account of the Court proceedings appeared in the 
Evening News, Mrs. Sarah Maria Cannin remarked; — "that it was most 
ladylike defense she had ever read." 

And so, I was free, at the expense of being separated from my hus- 

[The memoir continues after the portion included here and describes Mary Lois 's 
husband 's death and other details of her own and her children 's lives. The inclusion 
of only the first half of Mary Lois's memoir (from her birth until 1887) complements 
her diary account of the years 1879 to 1887. Beginning on page 534 below, an 
epilogue contains Mary Lois 's account in her memoir of accompanying her daughter 
Kate, a polygamous wife, on the underground in Mexico from 1902 to 1905.] 

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F* & 

Courtesy Oj I Jack and Mary Lois Whealley 

Mary Lois Morris in the 1880s, 
photographed by Fox & Symons. 

"Had a Host of Callers" 

First Day Book 

Of Mary Lois Morris 

Jan. 1st 1879. 
to Nov 21st--27tk 79 

January 1879 

1st Spent the day at home qiuetly. Cousin Wm. C. Morris called in the 
morning had a pleasnt chat. Albert Unger in the afternoon, the children 
went to a party held in the Court School house. In the evening Addie 
accompanied Mr. David [Joseph] Williams 1 to a party in the Ward Hall. 
Thursday 2nd attended fast meeting a.m. In the afternoon called on 
Grandmothers Williams; they blessed me and I them, then also called 
on Hannah and Nancy. Nancy being much pleased with the verces I had 
composed for her. 

F3rd Sister Electa [Mott] Barlow was found almost dead in bed this morn- 
ing at four o clock. I received a letter from my Brother 2 
Saturday 4th attended Stake conference in the Theater. 
Sunday 5th attended the furenal of Sister Electa Barlow in the morning 
Sister [Jane] Millers in the afternoon, who was poisined by inhaleing ars- 
nical fumes from coal sinders used to warm her room. 
Monday 6th washed and made some percheses for my daughter Effie. 3 
Tuesday 7th finished a vest and went up town. 

Marian Adelaide (Addie) Morris (1861-1933) was Mary Lois Walker and Elias Morris's 

second child. She was seventeen years old at this time. 

Mary Lois reportedly saw her older brother, Charles Lowell Walker (1832-1904), only 

five times after arriving in Utah because the latter lived in St. George from 1862 until 

his death. The two corresponded throughout their lives by letter and shared a love of 

reading and poetry. CWD, vii-xviii. 

Effie Walker Morris Ashton (1859-1929) was the oldest daughter of Mary Lois Walker 

and Elias Morris. She married Edward Treharne Ashton on April 4, 1878, at the age of 

nineteen. Effie and her husband, Edward Ashton, lived on the southeast corner of First 

South and Sixth West. 


1879 205 

Wensday 8th Addie in company with her Prest. Mrs. Lucy Russell and fel- 
low councilor Miss Cathrine [Catherine Hughes] Evans canvassed Six 
blocks in behalf of the Primary Accocation before organizing the same. 4 
Thursday attended to household duties; received a call from my Nephew 
Moroni W. Pratt who is in from Bare. Lake with a broken arm. Addie and 
Miss Evans canvased seven more blocks on the same errand came home 
much fatiged, but wrote down the names of all the children they had vis- 

Friday 10th assisted Addie in her preperations as committee on picnic — 
this being the anniversary of the Y.M.M.IA. in our Ward. 5 A year ago to 
day my Daughter Effie took an active and efficient part on a similar oca- 
tion. and this is her twentyth birthday, may heaven bless her footsteps, she 
is a faithful and loveing Wife and a dutyful child. 

Saturday 11th this afternoon my Husband arrived from Park Cty. Also E.T. 
Ashton my daughters Husband; 6 both in good health and spirits. This 
afternoon also the Primary A of our Ward was organisd with Mrs. Lucy 
Russell. Pres. And Miss Addie Morris first councilor Miss. Cathrine Evans 
second Coucilor 

Sunday 12th my daughter Effie gave birth to a fine son [Edward Morris 
Ashton] . is in much pain dureing the day has no desire for food. Her 
father called to see us in the evening 
Monday 13th Effie about the same. 
Tuesday 14th Effie no better. 
Wensday 15th Effie a litde better; the children called to see me. Had a 

The Primary Association, the children's organization of the Church of Jesus Christ of 
Latter-day Saints, was founded four and a half months earlier, on August 15, 1878, for 
"disciplining, educating and spiritually cultivating children." The Salt Lake Fifteenth 
Ward Primary was formed on January 4, 1879, with "190 members, 105 girls and 85 
boys." Mary Lois's daughter Addie was called as the first counselor in the fledgling 
Primary and canvassed the Fifteenth Ward throughout January 1879 trying to get 
children to join the organization. In the coming months, Primary Associations were 
organized in many wards throughout the church. Barraclough, 15th Ward Memories, 
180; Madsen and Oman, Sisters and Little Saints, 1-32; Derr, "Sisters and Little Saints: 
One Hundred Years of Mormon Primaries." 

The Young Men's Mutual Improvement Association (Y.M.M.IA.) was begun in 1875 
in the Salt Lake Thirteenth Ward as an organization for the young men of the LDS 
church. At around the same time, on April 15, 1875, an organization for young men 
in the Salt Lake Fifteenth Ward, the Fifteenth Ward Literary Institute, was organized. 
Meetings of the Fifteenth Ward Literary Institute were held until September 25, 1876, 
when the group was reorganized as the YM.M.I.A. Barraclough, 15th Ward Memories, 
154; Leon M. Strong, "A History of the Young Men's Mutual Improvement Association 

Edward Treharne Ashton (1855-1923), the son of Edward Ashton and Jane Treharne, 
married Effie Walker Morris on April 4, 1878. At this time, he worked as a mason for 
Elias Morris's company of Morris & Evans. 

206 Before the Manifesto 

pleasant call from Bro Ashton Sister Duncanson and my Husban 
Thursday 16th Effie sent for little Kate 7 
Friday 1 7th Effie better. 

Saturday 18th Nephi and George called 8 and Ad die after she had attended 
the PA. While they were away E.L.A. m mutelated and killed some chick- 

Sunday 19th Effie's health improveing, had a host of callers includeing 
Aunt Lavinia [Robins Morris], Aunt Aggie Miss Shenalds. Bp Pollard, and 
eight or ten S.S. children. Effie is eating next to nothing 
Monday 20th did a large washing against Edward's will. 
Tuesday 21st Effie still gaining, had a call from Nephi and george. 
Wensday Effie come out in the Kitchen to dine with us as she did yes- 
terday; Sister Ann and Elizabeth Duncanson called in the eve, and some 
other friends spent a pleasant time; also Aunt Lavinia called on her way to 
a surprise party to be held at the house of the late Wm. V. Morris. 
Thursday 23rd Aunt Lavinia called after staying all night at the place afore 
named, said the party did not transpire. Aunt Eliza and cousin Dinthia 
called. Did a large ironing in the afternoon. Rachel [Evans] Pratt called 
with her beautiful Baby. 

Friday 24th Effie still gaining Addie called said the children were well. Bro 
James [Shadrach] Lewis called as teacher chatted about old times, 9 and 
the date we left England; being January L9 18th 1850. Boarded the ship 
on the 1 1 th 

Saturday 25th engaged in houshold duties, in the eveing Sister Duncanson 
called and requested me to accompany her to see Sister (Jane Brock] 
Tibbs whome we found dying, returned with Sister D — and helped to 
make a pair of linen garments for Sister Tibbs. Bro. J. [James Henry] 
Moyle received news of the death of his Brothers Wife who had poisoned 
herself. 10 

7. Katherine Vaughan Morris (1876-1930), the third and youngest daughter of Mary Lois 
Walker and Elias Morris, was two years old at this time. 

8. Nephi Lowell Morris (1870-1943), the oldest living son of Mary Lois Walker and 
Elias Morris, was eight years old at this time. George Quayle Morris (1874-1962), the 
youngest surviving son of Mary Lois Walker and Elias Morris, was four years old. It 
seems that the young boys were calling on their mother because she was staying at her 
daughter Effie's home to assist in her daughter's recovery from childbirth. 

9. James Shadrach Lewis (1829-?) was a shoemaker and the husband of Elizabeth 
Williams Lewis. He seems to have come in the capacity of a block teacher. Such teachers 
were "assigned, in pairs, to visit the homes of each ward family living on a particular 
block. Home visits were supposed to be made monthly, except during the busy summer 
season, to carry requests and instructions from the bishop, to gather contributions, and 
to see to the spiritual and temporal welfare of the family." Arrington, Mormon Experience, 

10. James Henry Moyle (1835-1890), the son of Phillippa Beer and John Rowe Moyle, was 

1879 207 

Sunday twenty sixth, was called up after six to help Mrs. Duncanson lay out 
Sister Tibbs. Came back to Effie's ate breakfast and putt her bed room 
in order, then went over to Sister D.s helped make Sister Tibbs Temple 
robes. Went over to Effies bid her goodbye, and went home to stay leave- 
ing Effie well and baby two weeks old; found my children well accepting 
Nephi who had a cough and cold. Ernest had lung fever and John inflam- 
oraty ruhumatiss. 

Monday 27th washed dureing the day. In the eve went over to Sister Tibbs 
helped to put on her Temple Robes came back; went over to see Ernest 
and Jonnie who were no better. Had a pleasant chat with the folks and 
Sister [Sarah Morgan] Unger. retired at Midnight 

Tuesday 28th arose aboute six, went over to Sister Tibbs aboute nine, 
walked in procession after the Corpes; weather rather cold and snowing. 
Br [David Martin] Duncanson spoke highly of the decased was followed 
in a beautiful discourse by Bro. C.W. [Charles William] Penrose. Bro E. 
Morris also made some very timely remarks. The corpes looked beautiful 
and satisfied in her Temple Robes We followed her up to the grave yard; 
pretty cold and sleety comeing home. I felt great plasure in the disharge 
of my duties. 

Wensday 29 arose about six attended to houshold affairs, recived a call 
from Peter [Thompson] Tibbs who brougt some Exponants I had lent 
to his Mother; also an egg cup his she brought from Scotland, which he 
gave me as a rememberence of her, with many thanks for services I had 
rendred. 11 

Thursday 30th Called on Sister stry who is sick; also Sister Lewis had a 
pleasant chat intended to call on Effie but was prevented by the storm. 
Friday 31st Knitted nearly all day. 

February 1879 

Saturday Feb 1st do [ditto] . 

Sunday 2nd attended Br Dimick [B.] Huntingtons Fuernal held in the 
16th Ward assembly rooms. His request which was read by Bp [Frederick] 
Kesler stated that he wished his coffin to be made of red wood varnished 
and wished to be carried up to his lot in the graveyard in a good lumber 

a mason and builder. The wife of his brother, Stephen Moyle, was Mary Ann Kelly 
(1849-1879), who apparently poisoned herself. She died on January 24, 1879. 
11. Peter Thompson Tibbs (1853-1919) was the son of Jane Brock and Peter Tibbs. In 
April of this year he married Winifred Jane Morris, Elias Morris's daughter by his first 
wife Mary Parry. Tibbs's mother, Jane Brock (1815-1879), was born in Buldernock, 
Scotland, and died on January 25, 1879. 

208 Before the Manifesto 

waggon; and that those who might speak at his furneral would do so of his 
good deeds and not of his follies. And that his family would not mourn, 
or wear black and the Martial Band would play some lively air and if there 
were any Indians presant they might walk next to the Band, and the Band 
next the coffin. The speakers were Bp. [Leonard Wilford] Hardy, Jessee 
W. [Jesse Williams] Fox, Joseph E. Taylor, Thedore [Theodore] McKean, 
Prestjohn Taylor and Bp Keslor. There were hundreds that could not gain 
admitence. The reman looked beautiful, more like a person fresh washed 
and dressed and put to sleep, than a corpes. The speaking was pointed 
and excelent. my Husband was one of the Pall bearers, in connexion with 
his bretheren of the high Council of whome Bro Huntington was a mem- 
ber. While waiting in the crowd I saw my old friend Sister Joseph [Emma 
Green] Bull with whome I had crossed the plaines in the year 53. She told 
my Sister who was standing by that it was from me she took the first les- 
sons of a submissive Wife. This set me to thinking of many things in my 
past life. From there my Sister urged me to accompany her to her daugh- 
ters Mrs Ridges. Next Mrs Clara Loveridge spent a very pleasant hour or 
two promised to join in a surprise party next thursday o friday. 
Monday 3rd washed and performed other duties. Addie attended S.S. 
Union in the eve. 12 In the night litde Kate was in great distress for several 
hours; I administered a spoonfull of concecrated oil in the name of Jesus; 
she was instandy relived for which I thank and prais God. 
Tuesday 4th Addie attended a carpet bee in the 1 1 th Ward having received 
the invitation on friday preivous while attending the PA. of that Ward. At 
which meeting some litde boys and girls arose and said the spirit of God 
was burning in their hearts so that they could not sit still. This I know to 
be true as it was my own experence at the earley age of ten. 
Wensday 5th did a good deal of cleaning and visited My Block, called on 
Effie found all well. Bro [George] Chatfield called on us as a teacher. 
Thursday 6th attended fast Meeting in the morning; Commitee Meetting 
in the afternoon. Sister Lorenza Petit died to day. I gave Bro Varney some 
pamphelts and Exponants. 

12. An organization "similar to a Sunday School" was first organized in the Salt Lake 
Fifteenth Ward in 1856 but was discontinued in 1857. The first complete Sunday 
school in the Fifteenth Ward was organized in 1 865 and included Mary Lois Morris and 
her daughter Effie Morris as two of its earliest members. Two years later, in 1867, the 
General Sunday School Union was formed to coordinate the Sunday school program 
throughout the church. In 1879, when Mary Lois's diary begins, the Sunday school met 
in the two-story adobe "granary" building that was used as the Ward meetinghouse. 
After 1881, when the construction of a new ward meetinghouse was completed, the 
Sunday school met in the new chapel. Barraclough, 15th Ward Memories, 117-18; History 
of the Fifteenth Ward Sunday School, 5-11; Leonard J. Arrington and Davis Bitton, The 
Mormon Experience: A History of the Latter-day Saints, 214. 

1879 209 

Friday 7th attended a surprise party at Sister Lucy Russell; had a very pleas- 
ant time, received many thanks from the hostess for entertaining the 
company with Songs. 

Friday Saturday 8th did house work all day, Nephi read a chapter in the 
bible in my stead. 

Sunday 9th stayed at home all day. Addie attended Sister Petit's furenal vis- 
ited Alice [Cecilia] Penrose in the afternoon. Attended Ward Meeting in 
the evening heard Aposde J. [Joseph] F. Smith who delighted his hearers 
by the power and spirit of God. 
Monday 10th visited Mrs. Loveridge. 
Tuesday 11th attended to house work 
Wensday 12th Bro [David Richard] Gill called. 

Thursday 13th attended a surprise party at my Neice Mrs. Aggie Ridges 
had a very pleasant time. 
Friday 14thAAA\e attended a Valentine Ball. 

Saturday 15th Addie attended PA. and a meting in the 16 Ward. Heard 
Mrs. E. B. Wells who had lately arrived from Washington. 13 
Sunday 16th heard Apostle J. F. Smith in the 18th Ward 
Monday 1 7th washed, received a call from Sister Unger, heard of the death 
ofElderC. P. Liston 

Tuesday 18th visited My daughter Effie; Was invited by Sister Duncanson 
to go over and eat supper with them. Miss Lizzie [Elizabeth Ann] Ashton 
Miss Maggie [Margaret] Powell and Sister Attey were quilting, spent a 
very pleasant time. 

Wensday 19th Addie brought little Clara Bell [Clarabella] Ridges to visit 
us; she is a sweet child and a lady. 

Thursday 20th attended [Relief] Society meting, went up town had a pleas- 
ant chat with my Sister. Addie made a cake for george as he is five years 
old to day 

Friday 21st attended to household duties. 
Saturday 22nd do. [ditto] 

Sunday 23rd went to afternoon meting. After returning home Annie 
Ridges called to bring us some weding Cake her sister Addie being 
Married on thursday 20th inst. 

Monday 24th washed and invited Aunt Aggie, Aunt Mary [Wood] Pratt 
Mamie Young. Mothoni Pratt to come and suprise Addie Addie on her 

13. Emmeline Blanche Woodward Wells (1828-1921) was sent with Zina Young Williams 
on a mission to Washington in 1879 to present a memorial to President and Mrs. Hayes 
asking for the protection of their "religious rights" and to meet with leaders of the 
national suffrage movement. Emmeline Wells served as the editor of the Woman's 
Exponent, as a member of the General Relief Society Board (1880-1921), and as the 
general president of the Relief Society (1910-1921). Introduction to Madsen, Battle for 
the Ballot, 8. 

210 Before the Manifesto 

birthday which which they were glad to do 

Tuesday 25th Miss Lizzie Kimbal and Marey Saulsburry [Mary Eliza 

Salisbury] called to say that they would bring a party to surprise Addie on 

her birthday with my permition. 

Wensday 26th Addie is eighteen years old to day. in the afternoon our 

invited guests arrived. In the evening a large party came to surpris Addie 

consisting of the S.S. choir bringing picnic with them, stayed til after 

Midnight had an enjoyable time. Addi recived an album from her Mother 

and a five dollar gold peice from her father. 

Thursdy 27th did housework and sewing 

Friday 28th recived a call from Sister Unger and her father Bro [Evan] 

Morgan who has lately arrived from wales; he being 80 years old his 

intelect bright he being a temperate man had a pleasant chat with them 

for a few moments 

March 1879 

Saturday 1st attended to household duties; Addie attended PA. meeting, 
also the Sisters Meeting, in the 14th Ward 14 

Sunday 2nd attended Sacrement Meeting in the Ward dureing the services 
Effies and Barbaras Babies were blessed. My Husband being mouth in 
blessing Barbaras Baby 15 Bro Ash ton being mouth in blessing Effie's Baby. 
Bp Pollard called on both Grandpaa's to speak after. My Husband said he 
expected to live to see His Childrens Children Bro Ashton felt great plea- 
sure and honor in blessing his first Grandchild, hoped he would never do 
anything hoped he to disgrace Brother Ashton him or his parents. 
Monday 3rd washed and made some perchases. Addie attended S.S. 

Tuesday 4th visited the Block in the morning, attended Court in the after- 
noon, heard Judg Tilford for the defence; Juudg Van sile for the prosecu- 
tion in the case of General R.T. Burton. 16 Sister Uunger called on me in 

14. Addie was probably attending the Cooperative Retrenchment meeting in the Salt Lake 
Fourteenth Ward. This was an inter-ward meeting that provided leadership on issues of 
self-sufficiency and "retrenchment." EM, 1223-24; Derr, Cannon, and Beecher, Women 
of Covenant, 114—18. 

15. Barbara Elizabeth Morris Swan (1853-1937), the daughter of Elias Morris and his first 
wife Mary Parry, was the wife of William Thomson Kenneth Swan. Her baby, William 
(Willie) Swan, was born on December 28, 1878. 

16. Mary Lois attended one of the closing days of the trial of General Robert T. Burton 
in the case of People v. Robert T. Burton. General Burton, a prominent Mormon, was 
charged with the murder of Bella Bowman during the Morrisite battle in 1862. Mary 
Lois may have been particularly interested in this case because her father, William 
Gibson Walker, had been a member of the Morrisite sect. Burton's case came to trial 

1879 211 

great trouble; concluded to leave her Husband Mr. Lewis. 
Wensday 5th Addie attended Court in the morning; I attended to home 

Thursday 6th attended fast meeting a.m. Committe Meeting p.m. took fast 
offerings at eve — 

Friday 7th called on Effie and did some sewing. Addie attended Tabernacle 
Choir pratice with Mr. [Henry Evans] Giles and Mis Evans I spent a pleas- 
ant eve at home with the Children. 

Saturday 8th Addie attendd PA. m. I attended to house work 
Sunday 9th attended Sacrament meeting Addie attended evening meet- 
ing; Prest a.m. Cannon addressed the people. A number of the Grils and 
boys accompanied Addie home Sang and had a pleasant time. 
Monday 10th received a letter from my Brother bearing the sad news of 
the death of his litde Daughter Mary [Walker] by his Wife Sarah [Smith 
Walker] . wrote some vercies on the subject. Addie attended a sewing bee 
at the T- house of CW. Penrose. Received a call from Bro S.L. Evans. Made 
41 sacks. 17 

Tuesday 11th washed and went up town; Addie attended Y.L.M.IA. 18 they 
were honored by a visit from Prest Mrs. [Mary Ann Burnham] Freeze and 
her Councilors Mrs. [Clarentine Young] Conrad and [Mary Louise Pile] 
Felt, and others had a good time 
Wensday 12th attended to household affairs answered my brothers letter 

on February 20, 1879, in Salt Lake City. The prosecution, conducted by U.S. Attorney 
Philip T. Van Zile, claimed that the criminal act had taken place in 1862, when Burton 
was dispatched with the territorial militia to end the Morrisite uprising. Prosecutors 
claimed that after the conclusion of the fight, Mrs. Bowman, one of the Morrisite 
followers, was shot and killed for making a disrespectful remark. Burton maintained 
that Mrs. Bowman had been killed by accident during the conflict. The case was given 
to the jury of half Mormons, half non-Mormons on March 5. Two days later the jury 
presented a verdict of not guilty. Whitney, History of Utah, 3:35-44; Comp. History, 5:48- 

17. As a young girl in Manchester, England, Mary Lois remembered being called by her 
mother "little woman of forty bags" because of her habit of sewing tiny bags. She wrote, 
"this title was prophetic, as my children can all testify, for it always seemed to me to be 
a good way of keeping bedding and clothes neat and clean when not in use." The sacks 
mentioned in this entry most likely would have been made for this purpose. Memoir 
38; p. 75. 

18. An organization for the young women in the LDS church was organized in 1869 as 
part of the Cooperative Retrenchment Association and was renamed the Young Ladies' 
Retrenchment Association in 1871. It was later renamed the Young Ladies' National 
Mutual Improvement Association (YL.N.M.I.A.) in 1877. The organization was initiated 
by Brigham Young to improve the spiritual and intellectual development of young 
women in the church and help them be less concerned with worldly matters. A young 
ladies' organization was present in the Salt Lake Fifteenth Ward by 1870. Barraclough, 
15th Ward Memories, 167; EM, 1616-17. 

212 Before the Manifesto 

Thursday 13th visited my Sister in Company with Effie and baby Cousin 
Aggie and Lin; in the evening attended a concert in the Ward Gotten up 
by Bro J. R. [Joseph Rehoboam] Morgan to assist a family from England 
Friday 14th sewed and wrote a letter to my Husband who is at Park City 
Saturday 15th Addie and George attended RA. 

Sunday 16th spent the morning at home attended sacrement meeting. 
Stayed home in the evening read the Life of Joseph Smith. The 
Prophet. 19 

Monday 1 7th washed did some sewing and went up town. Talked to my 
little Boys on the evil of smoking. Addie attended a lecture byJ.F. Smith 
in our Ward Hall. 

Tuesday 18th did housework and sewing Addie attended Y.L.M.I.A. 
received a letter from my Husband. About midnight was waked by the 
wind blowing; Wensday 19th bethought myself that there were embers 
of a bonfire in the Lot; and that the wind might blow the sparks over 
to the Barn. I arose looked through the west window, saw it all aglow; 
saw a big fire in the distance dressed, came down stairs put our own 
fire out, then knelt down and asked God to protect me while I went 
and warned my neibours where the fire was blazing the weather hav- 
ing been very dry for some time. Had the wind been a little higher the 
whole neibourhood might have been in flames. I realized it was a great 
risk but felt in duty bound to go there being no man about the house. 
Found it to be in the rear of Bro [George] Bartons house inside an 
other mans fence. His child was dying but he helped put out the fire. 20 
I felt glad that I had the courage to brave the danger and save the nei- 

Wensday 19th Miss Jane Davis visited us we had a pleasant time; she accom- 
panied Addie to a lecture given by Bro Graves of Provo on Sericulture. 21 
Thursday 20 was engaged in sewing went up town; payed 2. oz. Eggs as 

19. Mary Lois was most likely reading Edward Tullidge's recently published Life, of Joseph the 
Prophet. Tullidge's book combines a history of the early LDS church, beginning with 
Joseph Smith's First Vision, with doctrinal exposition on the Book of Mormon and 
Bible. The text of several documents from early LDS church history are also inserted 
within the text. Mary Lois had a great interest in early LDS church history and noted in 
her diaries a number of incidents from the beginnings of the LDS church. 

20. Fires are mentioned a number of times in Mary Lois's diaries and seem to have been a 
particular concern for her after her son John Conway's death in a fire. 

21. At this time, sericulture, or silk production, was stressed by the Relief Society as an 
important way to become independent of Eastern merchants. In 1865, mulberry trees 
to feed the silkworms were distributed to Relief Societies throughout the territory, and 
women were encouraged to plant them on their home lots. Sericulture was never a 
great success because of difficulties with "reeling" and making the silk into cloth, but 
a limited quantity of silk was produced. Arrington, "The Economic Role of Mormon 
Women," 152-53. 

1879 213 

Tithing Miss Davis accompanied Addie to S.S. Choir practice. Spent the 
eve pleasandy at home with the Children. 

Friday 21st Bro. Morgan called on Addie on Ad to help sing at the furnarel 
of Bro Burtons Baby. Effie came up to see with Baby; had a pleasant chat 
she assisted me about my drss. I accompanied her part way home, spent 
one hour at the Stake Society Conference, heard some good instruction 
Bro Norman's trial came off in the evening. 

Saturday 22nd engaged in sewing. Addie gave a verbal report on the stand 
in Stake Conference Primary Asscation; when she reached the Stand 
Sisters Zina [Diantha Huntington] Young, E.R. Snow, S.M. Kimbal and 
others told her not to be afraid. When she had done they told her that 
she had done well." When coming out of meeting Sister Zinia said to her 
God bless you. Addie attended Con — in the afternoon also. Called on my 
Sister in the evening saw Nate and Lona and was made aquainted with 
Miss Mary [Elizabeth] Dunster. 

Sunday 23rd read in the morning, attended meeting in the afternoon Bro. 
Norman asked forgiveness and is to be baptised into fellowship. Annie 
Ridges spent the afternoon with Addie. I feel very weary from the effects 
of a cup of tea I drank yesterday by invitation, how foolish I am ever to 
taste it. I am not able to sit up. After a nap had a chat with David J. Williams 
about my father and Celestial Marrage quit about eleven oclock. 
Monday 24th washed three spreads four ticks two blankets and eighteen 
pounds of wool, went up town my Husband arrived from Park City, feel- 
ing very weary. 

Tuesday feel sore from yesterdays work engaged in sewing heard of the 
death of brother Bartons Sister who died at Lehi to day. 
Wensday 26th sewed all day wrote my Hs at night Aunty Hannah called to 
see My Husband about property affairs; the wind Blowing hard as we retire 
Thursday 27th arose at six the ground well soked with rain; cold and 
cloudy. Engaged in cuting and tacking a suit for Gorge. 
Friday 28th arose at six 10. wether fin had peasant visit from Effie and 
babe; received an invitation to visit her next Monday in connexion with 
Aunt Aggie and cousin Lin Musser; worked on georges suit. 
Saturday 29 arose at 5.30 finished Gs suit attended 14th Ward Meeting a 
good spirit prevailed was moved upon to speak and did so. Received a let- 
ter from my friend Jennie Coslet. In walkg home with my Husband had 
a chat with Pres. A.M. Cannon. Sister Bowlden took a notion to pick up 
and leave. 

Sunday 30th waited on Bp [William Hainey] Hickenlooper earley in the 
morning; sucseeded in geting a reccomend for my friend Jenni Coslet 
which I mailed in my own letter to her this evening; attended afternoon 
meting. Effie and Ed called this evening; There appeared an Epistle in 
last evenings news from the pen of Apostle W. [Wilford] Woodruff in my 

214 Before the Manifesto 

opinion the greatest ever issued in this Generation. 22 

Monday 31st had a very pleasant visit with Effie my Sister and Cousin Lin 

Musser at Effies house. Little Cousin Elias very sick. 

April 1879 

Tuesday 1st W. fine, called on Miss Russel in the morning, also Sister 
Hannah and Nancy; also Sister Ashton, lunched with Effie. Called on litde 
Elias found him better. Visited my block, attended a lecture in the 14th 
Ward by Bro Graves on Sericulture. Went over to see litde Elias about ten 
oclock but returned not being needed to watch. 

Wensday 2nd did some shoping and Millinary work. Accompanied my 
Husband to see little Elias found him better, also called on Hannah and 
Nancy about their property. 

Thursday 3rd attended fast Meeting in the morning. Committee Meeting 
in the afternoon. Sister Kimbal and Jones accompanied me to Sister 
Williamss had a pleasant chat; promised to call and take Nian Williams to 
Meeting two weeks from to day. My Husband's seccond Daughter Winnie. 
was Married this day to Peter Tibbs. Effie and Eward are invited. Diantha 
ran over to see me from the wedding. They hahave not so much as said 
wedding to me or Addie. These things cut and wound; but they cannot 
dim our crown if we are faithfull enough to gain one. 
Friday 4th one year ago to day my oldest daughter Effie was united in the 
Holy Bonds of Matrimony with Edward T Ashton. Their marrage was sol- 
omized at the Endowment House Apostle J.F. Smith officateing. Tiss a 
great gratifying to give a pure unspoted daughter to a youth of the same 
stamp. Eward was as bashful as a maiden could be; and Effies dress was 
seen to trmble as she knelt upon the Alter; a purer couple never graced 
its sacred shrine. My Sister. Sister Ashton. my Husband and his daughter 
Winnie saw them Married. We came home and Aunt Aggie assisted Effie 
to dress undress and dress as she had done in the Endowment House; her 

22. In this epistle, Wilford Woodruff ( 1 807-1 898) , an apostle of the LDS church, addressed 
the subject of obeying the laws of the land forbidding plural marriage. Woodruff wrote 
that God had said that the Saints would be "damned" if they did not obey the law of 
eternal and plural marriage and the government had said that they would be "damned" 
if they did obey it. To the question of whom to obey — God or man — Woodruff answered, 
"As an apostle of the Lord Jesus Christ, I will not desert my wives and my children and 
disobey the commandments of God, for the sake of accommodating the public clamor 
of a nation steeped in sin and ripened for the damnation of hell!" He then said that the 
government's attempts to deprive the Saints of their freedom of religion will "sap the 
very foundation of our government." "Epistle of Elder Wilford Woodruff: One of the 
Twelve Aposdes," Deseret Evening News, March 29, 1879. 

1879 215 

bridal gown being blue cashmere with white silk tie. Which contrasted 
prettiely with her fair skin and golden hair. Aunt Aggie brought her into 
the parlor and introduced her as Mrs. Ashton. We spent the remainder of 
the afternoon pleasantly chating amongst ourselves Sister Ashton being 
our only guest. At earley lamp light we partook of a repast prepared by 
my daughter Addie which did her credit, a little later Bro Ashton and 
their youngest son joined our happy circle. We spent the evening very 
pleasantly in quiet chat. There was no wine or intoxants is used on the 
ocation. about ten oclock Bro and Sister Ashton retired about an hour 
later my Husband kissed his daughter Effie and retired. About midnight 
the Bride and Bridegroom repaired to their new and beautiful home 
built and furnished by the Bridegroom. Two days later they received call- 
ers; entertaining thir guests with Bride cake and Lemon-ade, no wine on 
the programme. The young folks went down in droves to congralutas the 
happy pair; also bearring litde tokens of love and esteem with them. 
Saturday 5th attended Stake Con — in the morning; did some Millinary 
work in the afternoon. Took little George and Nephi to see the 
(Stractsbury Clock.) at night. 23 The moon shone out in all her Splendor, 
on my return home found Sister Williams of Cachse Vally had come to 
stay with us. 

Sunday 6th attended Con — all day. Sister W. call and took her things away. 
Monday 7th attended Con — all day; about dark it began to rain and con- 
tinued all night 

Tuesday 8th the ground well soked and a sprinkling of snow. Attended Con 
all day; the same adgjourned till the sixth of next October next. Addie 
attended Y.F.M.IA. held in the Theater 

Wensday 9th tore up and washed carpet and moved furniture. My old 
friend Elder Eliezer Ewards [Eleazar Edwards] called to see me; also 
Sister Morgan of brigham City and Aunt Eliza. Sister Bowld was taken 
very ill while staying in our house in the evening. 

Thursday 10th little Katie is three years old to day; house cleaning still 
goinng on. My dear friend Sister Annie Bowring called who is in from 
Brigham City to attend Con Addie. Nephi and george attended PA. 
george recited his peice well. 

Friday 11th still house cleaning. Desolveing views are in exhibition of the 
earley His of the Church in our Ward to night 24 This morning the twelve 

23. The Strasberg Clock was a replica of the original Strasberg Apostolic Clock, with many 
"Astronomical and Automatic Mechanisms, including the Processions of the Twelve 
Apostles." The visiting clock exhibition could be viewed at No. 68 Main Street in Salt 
Lake City for a charge of fifteen cents for adults and ten cents for children. Deseret 
Evening News, April 5, 1879. 

24. Most likely these views were the highly popular stereo views (or stereographs) . Each 
view consisted of "two almost identical photographs glued on a three-by-six-inch 

216 Before the Manifesto 

Apostles went to Manti to Lay the corner stones of the Temple. 
Saturday 12th Nephi and Jonnie went with their father fto work, each 
received 25 cts. housecleaning still in progress. 

Sunday 13th arose before five; the dineing rooms walls look beautifully 
white the men have done their work well. The carpet looks clean and 
bright; the ivy is growing fresh up the south window and along the east 
wall, the Mother of thousands 25 hangs the length of the window. The 
morn — sun is sending its golden rays over the vally. Stayed at home all 
day to read copied my Jornal from an old Book to a new one. addie went 
to meeting all day 

Monday 14th continued housecleang The Corner Stones of The Manti 
Temple Laid 26 

Tuesday 15th do — and worked in garden 
Wensday 16th bought some flowers and worked in the garden 
Thursday 7th called on Mrs Blizard according to promise, took her with 
me to bring Sister William to meeting as I had promised Mother William 
spoke in welsh and Mrs. Blizard interpreted had a pleasant time; helped 
her to talk welsh. Went up town called on my Sister, who was entertaining 
her daughter Mrs Eldredge and Miss Mary Dunster. 

Friday 18th worked in the garden in the morning, in the yard and oute 
houses in the afternoon. Had a pleasant call from Mises Kimbal, Price, 
and Penrose. Attended The Comic Opera H.M. Ship The Pinnfore." In 
company with my Husband and his other Wife had a splendid time. 27 
Saturday 1 9th did housework in the morning Millinery work in the after- 
noon. Addie attended the (Pinafore Mattinaee) In the evening Mr Albert 
Uunger presented litde Katie with a pretty ship or American Scooner) 
with her name on both sides in gold letters, the work of his own hands. 
Sunday 20th read in the morning; continued my copying, the rain pour- 
ing down all afternoon Mr. Chamberlin was buried this a.m. Mr. Williams 

mounting." When viewed through the stereoscope, the two photographic "images fused, 
creating the seemingly magical illusion of a three-dimensional picture." Schlereth, 
Victorian America, 196. 

25. Mother of Thousands (Kalanchoe daigremontiana) is a flowering succulent plant that 
blooms in late winter. The pinkish-orange flowers hang down to form a chandelier and 
look best in an elevated container. 

26. The cornerstones of the Manti, Utah, temple were laid on April 14, 1879. The temple 
was dedicated on May 21, 1888. It was the third temple to be completed in Utah. 
Lundwall, Temples of the Most High, 120-21. 

27. A popular comic opera entitled H.M.S. Pinafore; or, The Lass That Loved a Sailor, written 
by William Gilbert and Arthur Sullivan. It tells of "a young lady who is pursued by the 
head of the English navy but who loves an ordinary tar. Her loyalty is rewarded when 
it is discovered that the sailor is really entitled to be a captain." The first performance 
was in November 1878, and within months, "the Pinafore craze" spread throughout the 
United States. Bordman, Oxford Companion, 283. 

1879 217 

called and spent the eve 

Monday 21st raining hard yet. Recived a letter from my Brother, also a 

Book which I had lent him seven years ago and which was my Fathrs in my 

earley infancy, and which he gave me when he left the Territory fourteen 

years ago. whos wash and Also my Mothrs Phrenological Register. By Mr. 

William Bally. Washed and finished my coppying the rain seased about 

noon. Addie attended Y.L.M.IA. 

Tuesday 22nd did housework in the morning repairing in the afternoon; 

wrote a letter to my frien Jennie Coslet; Miss Hailstone and Saulsburry 

called on Addie 

Wensday 23rd fine weather continues Cut and made a pair of pantiloons, 

Miss Russell called with some millenary work for me to do 

Thursday 24th worked on a waist. My Dear Effie and Baby came to se us. 

Also Miss Russell and Mr Albert Unger. Addie and Nephi attended the 


Friday 25th did some Millenary work and attended to little Katie who is 

sick. Addie was very sick for a few hours at night. 

Saturday 26th attended to Katie and finished two hats. Katie is better 

recived an invitation to visit Cousin Belinda Musser. 

Sunday 27th tired from watching Katie stayed at home all day; read the 

account of the laying of the corner Stones of The Manti Temple. Also 

the Exponent which did me much good; the Children attended S.S. and 

Addie evening meting. Lu and Flora Musser called in person to invite us 

to visit them on wensday next. Katie still better 

Monday 29th went up town ailed at the Tea Wharehouse 28 chated with Br 

Marks. Went to The Tithing Office saw Mrs. Dale talked with Bp Hunter 

and Hardy and Br Godard also my brother R.V. Morris called on My Sister 

saw Bro Loveradg came home and worked up stairs. 

Tuesday 30th did housework and went around the Block took Mrs Blizzard 

to accompany me part way; Came home and saw Mrs. Gobbart a lady who 

knew my brother when he lived in St Louis; litde K much better rather 

pale and weak 

Wensday 31st visited Sister Musser as per apointment; had an enjoyable 

time. Called for Effie carried my litde grandson nearley all the way while 

Effie hlped litde Katie along, left before the visit closed 

May 1879 

Thursday 1 little Katie not so well attended Fast Meeting a.m. Committee 

28. The Tea Warehouse, located north of the Old Constitution building, was built by Morris 
& Evans. Owned by Arts D. Young and S. R. Marks, it was "a general grocery business, 
making a specialty, however, of the choicest qualities of tea." Deseret Evening News, March 
19, 1879. 

218 Before the Manifesto 

Meeting p.m. carried groceries to Grandma Williams. Addie attended 

Friday 2nd did housework in the morning worked in the garden in the 
afternoon litde Kate quite sick. 

Saturday 3rd weary from watching litde Kate, attended to things at home 
Bp Hardy sent a boy on horse back to ask me if I would take Mother 
Dale under my care. At night my Husband brought a sick young lady for 
me to take care of untill she recovers her use health, her name is Mary 
Gould she is aquainted with my Husband and he with her parents; she 
having emigrated from Wales alone last year. This day Councilor D.H. 
Wells is imprisoned in the Penitentionary bcause he would not betray the 
Covenants he had made in the Endowments House. The time of impris- 
onment is two days. The (fine) one hundred dollars 29 
Sun 4th The R.R. is to be throne open for the Priesthood of all the 
Setelments North and South as far as the R.R. extends to excort Bro Wells 
Sunday 4th Miss Gould almost well Feel weary from loseing my rest stayed 
home all day. George accompanied his father out of town to preach. 
Addie and Nephi attendd S.S. Addie attended eve Meeting Katie much 

Monday 5th spent the day at (Fullers Hill) very peasandy with the Ward 
sat table with Sisters Bockholt and Edington [Louise Sarah Barton 
Eddington]; Addie Joned us in the aftrnoon. 

Tuesday 6th the great popular demonstration of love and respect after his 
being imprisoned for Keeping His covenants Brother Wells true to His 
God. Tis the greatest Day Utah ever saw. 30 
Wensday 7th washed and did House work 
Thursday 8th did house work. Miss Lulu Musser visited us 
Friday 9th visited nine Blocks in behalf of the Silk assocation Had a pleasant 

29. Daniel Hanmer Wells (1814-1891) was the former mayor of Salt Lake City and the 
second counselor to Brigham Young from 1856 to 1877. He was questioned as part of 
the John H. Miles polygamy case, in which the prosecution attempted to prove that 
Miles had more than one wife. Wells was suspected of having performed Miles's second 
marriage in the Endowment House hut testified that he did not remember seeing Miles 
or his alleged second wife in the Endowment House on the day of the wedding. He 
was then asked about the endowment clothing worn at the wedding ceremony and 
refused to answer. The court held him in contempt of court for his refusal to describe 
the temple clothing and sentenced him to pay a fine of one hundred dollars and be 
imprisoned for two days. Comp. History, 5:543-46. 

30. After D. H. Wells's two-day imprisonment for refusing to describe the particulars of LDS 
endowment clothing in court, a public demonstration was held to honor him. Church 
leaders from surrounding settlements came in by train for the occasion and, together 
with many citizens of Salt Lake City, formed a procession to meet Wells on his release 
from prison. According to a newspaper account, "ten thousand persons took part in the 
procession and fully fifteen thousand more were spectators." Comp. History, 5:546-50. 

1879 219 

chat with Effi and Sister Ashton; and many others whom I visited. 
Saturday 10th did some repairing in the morning attended 14th Ward 
meeting in the afternoon gave a written report of the Blocks I had visited 
to asertain the number of mulbry Trees on the same. I funded 
Sunday 11th attended Tabernacle in the afternoon; was much anoyed with 
litde Kate. Addie made a weding call on Mrs. M. [Mary Ann Ferguson 
Price] Griggs) 

Monday 12th washed and went up town, my Neice Mrs. Aggie Ridges sent 
for my Daughter Addie. she went to see her and agreed to nurse her dure- 
ing her expetant sickness. 

Tuesday 12th attended to housework, received a call from Mr. Albert 
Unger who presented us with som oranges 

Wensday 14th arose between five and six the day is calm and bautiful; and 
it is my forty fourth birth day. I can look back on the past year and find 
I have overcome a few" failings; may God help me to gain more power 
over myself in future that I may be found worthy to be with him eventu- 
ally About noon a party of my dear friends came to surprise me. My Sister 
Mrs. AA. Pratt My Neices Mrs. A Ridges " Lona Eldredge " L. Russel " E. 
Russel Miss S. Russel Mrs. Musser Miss L. Musser Mrs. M. Nebecer Mrs. M. 
[Mary Elizabeth Russell] Gray Mrs. V. Pratt Mrs. L. [Anna Alida Dehaan] 
Bockholt, Mr. G Nebeker, Bros Hall and [Dirk] Bockholt called as teach- 
ers. This day also a partial organisation was efected of (Zions Musiciul 
Accoation) 31 was This day also a pertition was gotten up by Prest Taylor 
for the L.D.S. to sign asking Prest Hayes to pardon our esteemed Bro. 
George Renolds [Reynolds] 32 After retireing Addie was taken very sick, 
was up and down with her all night. 

31. Mary Lois seems to be referring to Zion's Musical Union, which was formed in 1879 
when David Calder visited a rehearsal of the Union Glee Club, a small male chorus, 
and announced that the First Presidency "wished the group to become the core of a 
comprehensive musical society that would unite all Mormon musicians in a common 
bond." They consented and formed what became known as Zion's Musical Union. For 
its first production, the group performed Gilbert and Sullivan's The Sorcerer, which 
Mary Lois mentions seeing later in 1879. Deseret Evening News, April 24, 1880; Hicks, 
Mormonism and Music, 99-100. 

32. George Reynolds (1842-1909), a polygamist and the private secretary of Brigham 
Young, was voluntarily tried in 1875 in order to test the constitutionality of the Anti- 
Bigamy Law of 1862. He was found guilty by the territorial court, but the decision was 
reversed by the Utah Supreme Court. He was again tried under a new indictment and 
found guilty by both the territorial court and the Utah Supreme Court. He was fined 
five hundred dollars and sentenced to two years of hard prison labor. The decision was 
upheld in 1879 by the United States Supreme Court in the decision of Reynolds v. United 
States, which concluded that polygamy was "defined as both conduct and a social evil" 
and therefore beyond the religious protections of the First Amendment. Gordon, The 
Mormon Question, 114—32; Firmage and Mangrum, Zion in the Courts, 151-56. 

220 Before the Manifesto 

Thursday 15th did housework and milenary, Addie better but weak, 
attended P.A. 

Friday 16th did milenary work. 

Saturday 1 7th do. took some work in. Gustave Price is dead, 
Sunday 18th attended to home affa in the morning Tabernacal in the 
afternoon, Ward meeting in the eve Bro J.F. Smith addressed us on the 
subject of Marrage most Solomnly 

Monday 19th washed, worked on a hat and in the garden; and went up to 
my Sisters. 

Tuesday 20th did millinary work; Addie attended Y.L.M.I. 
Wensday 21stwent up town and did some millinary work. 
Thursday 22nd EfHe visited us with Baby worked on some hats. 
Friday 23rd went to see my Sister; worked on some hats while there. Called 
on Sister [Eliza Emma Harrison] Foster as I went; talked with Sister Kimbal 
about her, promised to watch with her that night as she was dying; did so 
in company with my friend Sister Mcalaster. Returnd home at five 30. 
24th went to work and continued till 2.30 then went to the 16th Ward 
meeting much of the Spirit of God was poured out among the Sisters. 
Sister McClain and Sister Martha B. [Bowker] Young spoke in Tounges. 
went to Bp Hunters office interviewed Bp. Tardy and Bro. Goddard con- 
cerning Sster Dale, concluded to do the best I could for her, wether I was 
paid for it or not. Sster Foster still aliv 

Sunday 25th Siter Foster still lives Attended Tabernacle in the afternoon 
litde George and Nephi accompanied me. called on on Sister Macasaster, 
who made me aquainted with Sister Proctor. Sister Foster died at 2.30 o 
clock to day. 

Monday 26th washed Sister Dales clothing and bedding. 
Tuesday 27th attended Siter fosters Feurnal, Bp Hardy, Bro Goddard Job 
Smith and Bp Pollard addressed us Bp Hardy spoke excelently. 
Wensday 28th did housework all day 

Thursday 29th did milinary and housework, went up town; Effie and Baby 
came to see us. 

Friday 30 did milinary work all day. called on my Sister the eve; found 
that Sister Phelps had arrived from her long visit to her Daughter Nellie 
in California, my Husband spent the day with Prest. a.m. Cannon at the 
point of the Mountain. 33 
Saturday 31st worked on a hat and went up town 

33. The Point of the Mountain is "a gigantic spit" that marks the boundary between the Salt 
Lake and Utah Valleys. Van Cott, Utah Place, Names, 299. 

1879 221 

June 1879 

Sunday 1 spent the day at home Addie attended S.S. Tabernacle and eve- 
ning meitinss. The great S.S. excertion to the Yosamite are in town. 
News of the death of J.TD. Mcalister [John Daniel Thomas McAllister] , 
Prest of St. George Stake has arrived 34 Little George recited his piece at 
the S.S. exibition in a pleasing manner. 

Monday 2nd washed and did some errands. A Telegraphic dispatch states 
that Prest Mcalaster is alive and well 

Tuesday 3rd did housework and visited my Block in company with Miss 
E Beers; saw Mrs. M.L. Culler whos feet were cut off by the engine of 
the U.C.R.R. 35 Bro Barlow's son arrived with a Minsnel Troup; they had 
not met for thirty two years, Called on Bro Griggs, paid two dollars as an 
offering to the new Tabernacle Fund 3 '' 

Wedsday 4th arose at four cleaned the dooryard and celler and sewed two hats 
Thursday 5th attended fast Meeting sent offerings to the poor attended 
Committee Meeting carried comforts to the poor on my Block. 
Friday 6th transacted busness up town. Paid 1.00 to the Teachers who vis- 
ited us as a donation to the Temple fund for May and June also paid 1.00 
cash as tithing. Received a letter from my Brother. The Utah W.R.R. cars 
were blown over, and the Brakesman killed; none of the excurtio nists 
hurt. 37 a buatiful showr of rain is falling. 

Saturday 7th still raining did some sewing and buisness up town 
Sunday 8th fine but cold accompanied my Husband in takeing Aunty 
Hannah in the carrage to her Sister in the 20 Ward attended Tabernacle 

Monday 9th arose before 4. washed and finished makeing a shirt. Effie 
sent me a beautiful red rose, which I know bespeaks the language of her 
heart. 38 

34. This was a false alarm. John Daniel Thomas McAllister (1827-1910) did not die until 
January 1910. 

35. The Utah Central Railroad (U.C.R.R.) , the first railroad constructed and funded largely 
by the Latter-day Saints, ran from Ogden to Salt Lake City, a distance of thirty-seven 
miles. Arrington, Great Basin Kingdom, 270-75. 

36. The first Salt Lake Tabernacle, known as the "Old Tabernacle," was dedicated in 1852 
and seated twenty-five hundred people. It was located on the southwest corner of 
Temple Square. It soon became inadequate and the "new" Tabernacle, which seated 
eight thousand, was built. The new Tabernacle had a dome roof and was 150 feet wide 
and 250 feet long. Completed in 1867, it still stands on Temple Square. EM, 1433. 

37. According to a notice in the Deseret Evening News, "Three cars on the Utah Western train 
were blown off the track this afternoon, killing a brakesman named Newt. Crockett." 
Deseret Evening News, June 6, 1879. 

38. This sentence is typical of the sentimental language of the antebellum period. During 
this time, sensibility, the "responsiveness of a delicate heart to the slightest emotional 
stimulus," was highly valued. This extreme sensitivity to emotions was strongly 

222 Before the Manifesto 

Tuesday 10th engaged in sewing Aunt Nancy called to enquire about Aunt 
Hannah was very uneasy about her. 

Wensday 11th made 33 sacks and a shirt. Called on my Sister it being her 
fiftieth birth-day. Willie Burton was also married this day to Miss Ella 
Crisman [Eloise Crismon]. Pease and prosperity be to them. Gronway 
Parry arrived from St Gorge. Soon after I had reached home from visit- 
ing my Sister; my Husband brought two young Laides, who had arrived in 
the imigrant Train of Saints from Europe. Miss Lizzie and Rachel Jenkins 
from the North of England 

Thursday 12th sewed dureing the day; in the evening attended a socaible 
in the Ward Hall, gotten up for the benefit of Elder Charles Bliss who has 
been called on a mission to the Southern States. Had a very plasant time 
an exelent spirit prevailed, chatted pleasantly with Sister Net Griggs. 
Friday 13th spent the day in repairring, and secureing clothing from the 

Saturday 14th did housework and went up town. 

Sunday 15th attended meeting in the Tabernacle; a fierce wind arose and 
broke the skylights causeing great exciment for a little while. Addie with 
others oth of the family accompanied her Father to a Conference held in 
Mill Creeke Ward. Sister Hayes made us a visit. Addie received a note of 
invitation from Prest Taylor to Join Z.M.A. [Zion's Musical Association] 
Monday 16th in conection with Miss Lizzie Jenkins washed all day went 
shopping in the eve; Sister Charlotte [Hume] Clive died this evening. 
There appeared a statement in the Evening News that Prest Young's 
Children wish to put to thire own use property that rightfully belongs to 
the Church and accuse the Bretheren left in charge of squandering there 
means which is cruelly false and unjust. 39 

associated with women. Scholar Karen Halttunen explains, "Woman was defined as a 
creature of the heart, who acted largely from her affections; man as a creature of the 
mind, who was moved primarily by his reason." Karen Halttunen, Confidence Men and 
Painted Women: A Study of Middle-Class Culture in America, 1830-1870, 57. 
39. As a result of the 1862 antibigamy law that made it illegal for the LDS Church to own 
property worth more than $50,000, Brigham Young and other church leaders put a 
large part of church property in their own names. Although Brigham Young was only 
holding this property for the church, after his death seven of his heirs sued in order 
to inherit a portion of the property claimed by the church. George Quayle Cannon 
(1827-1901) was the principle executor of Brigham Young's estate; and Brigham 
Young Jr. (1836-1903) and Albert Carrington (1813-1899) were the coexecutors. 
The executors were placed under $300,000 bonds as a result of the case. When the 
judge attempted to put the executors under additional bonds, they refused and were 
held guilty of contempt. They were imprisoned for contempt on August 4, 1879, and 
remained in the penitentiary for about three weeks, when they were released by the 
chief justice of the territory. The suit was settled out of court by the church giving the 
heirs an additional $75,000. Deseret Evening News, June 16, 1879; Allen and Leonard, The 
Story of the Latter-day Saints, 385. 

1879 223 

Tuesday 1 7th did housework and Millinary work; my Husband Started for 
Park City 

Wensday 18th did millinary work all day; Sister Clive was buried to day. 
Thursday 1 9th did millinary work all day. Sister [Emma Creak] Brown and 
her Daughter Emma called. 

Thursday Friday 20th do. Receved calls from Effie and Baby. Sister Ashton 
and roberts also Sister Hughes and Miss Evans. 

Saturday 21st arose before five, cleaned garrets and celler and other 
things; attended Society Conference morning and afteroon had a very 
good time; ate lunch with my Sister and Sister Neal. Did some shopping 
called at Bp Hunters Office on buisness of the old folks Excurtion. My 
Husband returned from Park Cty 

Sunday 22nd spent the day in reading Juvenile Instructor. Addie attended 
both meetings 

Monday 23rd did millenary work all day. The grand Jenings and Eldredge 
Weding 40 came off; the grandest ever celebrated in U.T. the whole hous 
and gardens decorated and a Band stationed on the Lawn. Carrages com- 
ing and going till near midnight, the Birdal pair went to thier home on a 
special Car about 12 o clock 

Tuesday 24th accompanied Siter Dale as nurse on the Old Folks Excurtion; 
reached home all safe. 41 

wensday 25th interviewed Bp. Hardy concerning Sister Dale; also called on 
my Sister. Went up town twice did some millinary work. My Husband left 
of for Park Cty. 

Tursday 26th sent a note to Bp. Hardy asking him to remove Sster Dale 
Bro. Wilcox came to see Sister Dale he concluded not to take her under 
his care. Was employed in cutting a dress and doing millinary work and 
entertaing company. 

Friday 27th did millinary work all day; thirty five years this day our beloved 
Prophet and Patrach were myrtred. 42 
Saturday 28th did Millinary work all day, went up town at eve, saw Willie 

40. The marriage of Jane Jennings (1856-1926) and James Alanson Eldredge (1857-1940) 
was undoubtedly a grand event because of the wealth and prominence of the bride's 
father, William Jennings (1823-1886), who was one of the leading merchants in Utah 
and was said to have been Utah's first millionaire. 

41. On this day, an "Old Folks Excursion" took place, in which six hundred elderly people 
in Salt Lake County were taken on an excursion to American Fork, Utah. Four hundred 
and five of the participants were over seventy years old. The idea of a summer excursion 
for the elderly was originated by Charles Roscoe Savage and George Goddard in 1875 
and became a popular annual event. Andrew Jenson, Church Chronology: A Record of 
Important Events Pertaining to the History of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 104 
(hereinafter cited as Chronology) . 

42. The founding prophet and first president of the LDS church, Joseph Smith Jr., died on 
June 27, 1844, in Carthage Jail, as a result of gun shots by a mob. 

224 Before the Manifesto 

Burton for the first time since his retrn home from his mission and his 
Wife for the first time at all it made tears of Joy moistun my eyes as I 
greeted him. 

Sunday 29th spent the morning and evening at home attended Tabernacle 
meeting in the after noon. Bros. H.P. Richards returned missionary and 
Elder C.W. Penrose made very good remarks. My Husband is fifty five 
years old this day and he is in Park City. Mr. H.E. Giles and Miss Cathrine 
Evans wer Married this day in the Endowment House by Apostie J.F. Smith 
at seven a.m. 

Monday 30th washed all day visited the Block in the evening in company 
with Miss E. Beers whom I called for. Sister Dale was moved to day by 
Bro Alen [Allen] Hilton and young [Joseph William] McMurrin of the 
General Tithing Office. After visiting my Block I called on Sister McAlaster 
which Addie attended Z.M.A. Talked with Cousin Tom [Thomas Conway 
Morris] as they come home 

July 1879 

Tuesday 1st worked in the garden; made soap, put some hats in the bleach 
and irigated at night Mr. H.E. Giles called on Addie and pressed her to 
visit them. 

Wensday 2nd my Husband's other Wife and youngest and oldest sons 
[Ernest Edwin Morris and Elias Parry Morris] started for Park City this 
a.m. I engaged in millinary work all day. Addie paid her wedding call to 
her friend and companion Mrs. H.E. Giles; accompanied by her Sister 
Effie and Brrotherinlaw Mr. E.T Ashton. Sister Rose [Anatta C] Rhodes 
asked permition to occupy the room vacatied by Sister Dale; granted. 
Thursday 3rd attended fast meting a.m. Committee meeting p.m. called at 
Sister Kings with othrs after meting; rode up town with Bro Jessee West. 
Transacted business, retired about nine oclock 

Friday 4th arose at five did some sewing a.m. at noon my Sister and our 
firend Sster Loverag called and ate dinner with us; spent the rest of the 
afternoon in reading addie went to see effie and Rachel went to fliers Hill. 
Saturday 5th attended quarterley Con — a.m. and p.m. the Bretheren 
spoke well. Chatted with Sister Pishop dined with my Sister transated 
some busisness up town 

Sunday 6th attended Conference at ten a.m. took george and Nephi with 
me Bro. J. Morgan and T.B. Lewis spoke excelenty. Stayed at home dure- 
ing p.m. and evening Addie being called away to her Cousn Mrs Ridges 
Monday 7th arose at four, washed all day suprentended irigating the lot. 
Tuesday 8th arose at four 30 o clock ironed and did some repairing the 
children went up to see Addie 

1879 225 

Wensday 9th arose at four worked in the garden till seven did millinary 
work all day; went up town in the eve called on Addie 
Thursday 10th arose at four; did Millinary work all day worked in the gar- 
den in the eve 

Friday 11th arose at four, did some cutting and sewing. Sister Rose Rhodes 
brought her furniture to day. litde Naomi [King] Pierpont died at one 30 

Saturday 12th attended to housework and busness up town. Prest Taylor 
Apostles George Q Cannon Albert Carington and Brigham Young [Jr.] 
were arrested by [blank] under a wicked and fals pretence 
Sunday 13th attended the furnal of little Naomi Pierpont; the speakers 
were Bp. Taylor and George [Gwillym] Bywater the singing was most 

Monday 14th washed all day and helped Nephi to irrigat. Effie and baby 
and Lizzie Ashton called Ed and Effie and Baby had sat for thir pictures it 
being Edward Birthday 
Tuseday 15th did the ironing. 
Wensday 16th did housework and cooking. 

Thursday 1 7th Effie and Baby. Kate Nephi George and I and Fancy accom- 
panied their Father 14 miles on his way to Park City. The scenery throug 
Parley's Canyon was grand and and the stream of water continues 43 we 
camped for noon under some oak brush, ate a preasant lunchon whil sitting 
there Fancy found a a gold chain to all appearence soon after Nephi found a 
beautiful Watch belonging to it. we arrived at home all safe about five p.m. 
Friday 18th attended to home affairs and did some cutting. Addie and 
Clarebell called 

Saturday 1 9th did housework all day and some millinary work 
Sunday 20th stayed at home all day to take care of the Children addie and 
florance called in the eve. 

Monday 21st washed and irrigated the garden. This day Joseph Standing 
was shot and killed by a masked Mob of ten or twelve men headed or 
instagated by so called Christian Minsters of the Gospel; he was a young 
Elder bearing an excellent name and unblemished Caracter 44 

43. Parley's Canyon extends from southeast Salt Lake City to a meadow named Parley's 
Park at the mountain's summit. Canyon Creek, or Parley's Creek, is a mountain stream 
that flows through Parley's Canyon in a southeast direction, emerging into the Salt 
Lake Valley. Van Cott, Utah Place Names, 288. 

44. In July 1879, Joseph Standing (1854—1879), an LDS missionary proselyting in the state 
of Ceorgia, was shot by a mob of hostile men. Standing had gone with fellow missionary 
Rudger Clawson to Varnells Station. On July 21, 1879, while walking along the public 
road, the two missionaries were suddenly surprised by an armed mob of twelve men. 
When Standing made some resistance, he was shot and mortally wounded. Clawson 
survived and brought Standing's body back to Salt Lake City. Standing's funeral was 

226 Before the Manifesto 

Tuesday 22nd attended to hosehold duties includeing ironing. My 
Husband arrived from Park city. Nephi come in from play quite feverish 
and weak he was too weary to be doctored. I adminstered some holy oil 
to him in the name of Jesus which which the Lord saw fit to bless to his 

Wensday 23rd attended to Nephi did housework and some millinary. 
Thursday 24th stayed at home all day in the eve accompanied my Husband 
and family to Lake Shore with a bathing party little Kate and Addie went 
too. 45 

Friday 25th mad a dress for Kate; took her and George and Nephi to see 
the Pinafore which was very finely executed the house was crowded to 

Saturday 26th attended to home affairs, notified Addie that she would go 
with her Father to the Park to cook for his workmen. 
Sunday 27th spent the day at home Kate bing to little to take to meeting; 
in the evening Addie left her Cousin Aggie to accompany her Father out 
to the Park to cook for his men. 

Monday 28th attended to domestic duties; Addie began her preperations 
for her Journey. Called to see Mr. Hiskey in company with Sister Parker 
whom they say is dieing but we foud better. 

Tuesday 29th took charge of house-work; Addie continued her prepera- 
tions; Effie and Baby called we had a pleasant meal together. In the eve 
Addie was taken very ill of a bilious attac; 46 we called in the Elders who 
administered the ordainance of the House of God to her and promised 
that she should recover and go on her Jorney next morning. 
Wensday 30th arose about four helped to get Addie off though she was 
very feibel haveing been very ill all night. After she had gone went to rest, 
then did some washing. 

Thursday 31st finished washing and attended to household affairs. In 
the eve went to the depo to meet the remains of Elder Standing; which 
was met by a Committee and convayed to the Sextons office to await 

held in the Salt Lake Tabernacle on August 3, 1879, and was attended by about ten 
thousand people. AJ, 3:719-21. 

45. Lake Shore was a small agricultural community on the eastern shore of Utah Lake. It 
was first settled about 1860. Van Cott, Utah Place Names, 221. 

46. During the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, biliousness was generally associated 
with bad digestion, stomach pains, constipation, and flatulence. This condition was 
believed to be caused by "high living," and the cure was thought to be moderation 
and frequent visits to the doctor. The 1888 Salt Lake Sanitarian recommended treating 
biliousness with a "plain diet, of bread, milk, oatmeal, vegetables, and fruits, with lean 
meat or fresh fish in moderation, and abstinence from alcoholic stimulants" and by 
exercising regularly. M. Bard Shipp, Ellis Reynolds Shipp, and Maggie C. Shipp, eds., 
"The Treatment of Biliousness," 89-90. 

1879 227 

interment. They say our beloved Prest Taylor and his brethren George 
Q Abert [Albert] Carrington and Brigham Young are to be imprisoned 
to morrow at ten o'clock if they do not deliver over to our enemies" 47 
Church property; which makes us feel very sad. 

August 1879 

Friday 1st was very busy about the house still feeling very sad about Bro 

Taylor the case postponed till tomorrow at ten 

Saturday 2nd did housework and some millinery Nephi started for Park 

City with Jonnie) 

Sunday 3rd attended the funeral of Elder Standing which was very impose- 

ing Prest Taylor spoke Gloryiously God bless him 

Monday 4th worked in the garden, two Laides called and took Sister [Mary] 

Rowe away to nurse her and give her rest. Bros GQ. Cannon Carrington 

and B. Young were taken to the Penitentiary because they would not give 

up Church property to our enemies 

Tuesday 5th washed; recived a letter from Addie. 

Wensday 6th irond, recived a call from Effie and Baby; Effie gave me an 

excelent Pothr of herself and Husband 

Thursday 7th attended Fast meeting did some millinary work. 

Friday 8th did millinary work and housework recived a call from and had a 

satisfactory chat with Aunty Hannah. Wrote a letter to Addie 

Saturday 9th did some millinary and housework; received a very peasant 

letter from my Husband. 

Sunday 10th spent the day at home; wrote to my Husband called on Effie 

in the eve. Saw Bro Nephi Pratt. 

Monday 11th Worked in the garden and did some sewing; recived a call 

from Albert Unger also from Sister Rowe. 

Tuesday 12th washed did some cutting out and went up town; the Union Glee 

Club go out to the Penitentary to seranade Apostle George Q. Cannon 

Wensday 13th worked in the Kitchen in the morning; cleaned six rooms 

in the afternoon Aunt Eliza and Baby called; my Husband's other family 

expect to start for the Park in the morning 

Thursday 14th feel very tired and half sick from over exertion yesterday 

the folks started this morning for the Park, did housework and sewing 

47. Mary Lois seems to be defining enemies as the governmental and judicial officials 
associated with this case. The status of Utah as a territory, which made it subject to 
federal law in many areas, allowed non-Mormons to take control of the governorship 
and federal courts in Utah despite their fewer numbers. As evidenced by Mary Lois's 
comment, anger often characterized the relationship between the Mormon majority 
and federal officials during this period. 

228 Before the Manifesto 

I'holo by author 

Mary Lois's diary entries from August 1879 describing the arrest 

of IDS leaders in an 1879 court case regarding the estate 

ofBrigham Young. 

Effie and Baby called 

Saturday Friday 15th did housework ironing and sewing 

Saturday 16th did a good deal of cleaning in the morning did waterng and 

wrote to Addie and did sewing in the afternoon. 

Sunday 1 7th had a good time at the Tabernacle; in the afternoon Effie 

and Baby spent the eve with us Aunty Hannah and Edward called. 

Monday 18th washed and did some sewing The Executers of the B.Y. Will 

Command the Court to acknowledge their errors in prosecuting inocent 

inncent men. 

Tuesday 19th did housework and a good deal of writeing had a long chat 

with Winnie [Winifred Jane Morris Tibbs]. 

Wensday 20th did housework and ironing went up town. My little son 

Nephi returned from the Park in good health. Whote to Addie 

Thursday 21st did housework and sewing and went up town 

Friday 22nd did housework and sewing Mr. Mcenze called. 

Saturday 23rd did housework and sewing and attended to business up 

1879 229 

town, received a letter from Addie 

Sunday 24th attended Tabernacle took little George. Aunty Hannah, Effie, 

and Baby and Eward called Efne not well 

Monday 25th washed; in the eve my Husband and his other Wife came from 

the Park all unexpeted. Aposdes Cannon Carrington and Young set free 48 

Tuesday 26th did ironing and attended to general work. Bro G Goddard 

was falsely imprsoned 49 

Wensday 27 worked hard all day up stairs and down; the wind and dust are 

blowing fearfully; there is a huge fire in the Mountains at the mouth of 

Parleys Canyon, increasing every moment, at midnight the thunder began 

to Roar , and the lightening flash the rain came down in angry splashes then 

blew off again there has been very little rain scince the 11th of June last. 

Thursday 28 morning clear and cool and breezey attended to the general 

routene, made twelve sacks did some cutting out and other sewing, my 

Husba left home for Park City 

Friday 29 arose before five morning calm and beatiful did house work and 

sewing. Siter Rowe called and said that her son had run away from his 

empoyer. Wrote to Addie in the eve. 

Saturday 30th did housework put down fruit and some sewing. 

Sunday 31st attended Tabernacle meeting the speakers were J. W. [James 

Willard] Cummings J.F. Smith. My Nephew and Wife Wm C. and Diantha 

Morris called also Effie and Baby & Aunt Sarah & lizzy Ashton baby quite 

sick teething 

September 1879 

September 1st arose before six washed and went up town bought ten B 
Tuesday 2nd did house work ironing and made twelve sacks. Wether beau- 
tiful arose at 5 20 Sister Unger called said her daughter Lydia [Unger] 
was prepareing for marrage. Nephi not well. 

Wensday 3rd arose about five did housework and caned fruit . Miss E. Beers 
called. Received a letter from Addie. Effie, Baby and Aunt Sarah Ashton 

48. The prisoners were actually released on August 28, when the Supreme Court of Utah 
reversed Judge Boreham's order imprisoning George Q. Cannon, Brigham Young, and 
Albert Carrington for contempt of court. Chronology, 104. 

49. George Goddard (1815-1899) was one of the defendants in the case brought against 
the LDS church by the dissatisfied heirs of Brigham Young. He refused to hand over the 
possession of a house and grounds that had been part of the Brigham Young estate to 
the U.S. marshal, who desired to rent the property to E. H. Murphy, a liquor dealer. As 
a result, Goddard, a "staunch temperance" advocate, was arrested and imprisoned on 
August 25, 1879. Soon after, the marshal secured possession of the house and grounds 
in dispute, and the case against Goddard was dismissed. At this time, Goddard was the 
clerk to Presiding Bishop Edward Hunter and the assistant general superintendent of 
the LDS Sunday schools. Whitney, History of Utah, 3:85-86. 

230 Before the Manifesto 

spent the eve with us; Nephi not so well 

Thursday 4th did house work and sewing Nephi better arose at five 
Friday 5th arose before five, morning fine went out to Lake Shore with the day 
and S.S. had a plasant time; took Nephi George and Kate and Siter Rowe. 
Saturday 6th arose about five W. fine did some millinary work and house- 
work, wrote to Addie called on Effie. Sister Rhodes very sick was called to 
adminster to her in connexion with S. Mcalister retired about one oclok 
Sunday 7th arose about six W. sultery attended to many things stayed at 
home to rest attended Ward meeting in the eve Aposde J.F. Smith spoak 
on Church History Sister Rhodes better 

Monday 8th washed; Albert Unger Called. My Husband arrived from Park 
City and all the Children 

Tuesday 9th went up town, did house work and Tuesday 9th arose at five 
morning calm and sultery, did some preserveing; cleaned five rooms 
and a great deal of other work. With Nephi's help moved four hundred 
pounds of W. retired at 10. 

Wensday 10th arose about five W. fine. Went up town did housework pre- 
serveing and ironing in the eve. Effie and Eward Baby and Aunt Sarah 
Ashton called; brought some grapes and letter for Addie. Wrote to Addie 
after they had gone retired about eleven. 

Thursday 12th arose at five to five W. fine Packed up things for Addie, did 
housework, ironing preserveing bathed the children and made thirty two 
sacks my Husband left for Park City 

Friday 12th arose at five 20 W. fine did housework and sewing, feel opressed 
but trust in God for deliverence in his own way he knows what is for the 
best I do not. Retired at nine 30. 

Saturday 13th arose at five 40 W. fine. Cleaned two rooms and eight win- 
dows a good deal of other work and went up town 

Sunday 14th attendd Tabernacle meeting the speakers were Rudger 
[Judd] Clawson and G.Q. Cnnon. Effie, Ed and Baby called in the eve 
recived a letter from Addie 

Monday 15th arose before five W. fine, did the weeks washing and attended 
to household affairs. 

Tuesday 16th did cleaning and ironing, arose at five 20 oclock wrote to my 
Brother and my Daughter Addie at night retired after midnight. 
Wensday 1 7th arose at five 35 oclock W. fine, did housework, canned fruit 
and some repairing. Bro King and P. Prise called as teachers paid them 
1 .50. cash as donation for July, August and September. Fancy taken very ill 
this eve but better now. retired at ten. 

Thursday 18th arose at five wether hazy attended to housework and sewing 
and buisness up town. Fancy better 

Thursday 19th Morning fresh and fine, arose at six attended to home afars 
house work repairing and sew other sewing. 

1879 231 

Saturday 20th arose at five 15 morn fine did housework and swing and 

went up town 

Sunday 21st arose at six forty five Nephi and George attended S.S. took 

George with me to Tabernacle Aposde Orson Pratt delivered an address 

long to be remembered 

Monday 22nd W. fine, arose at five 1 5. did the weeks washing and household 

rotene. Fifty two years ago to day the Prophet Joseph Smith received the 

ancient Record from the hands of the Angel Moroni from which he Joseph 

translated the Book of Mormon by the aid of the ureum and thumum. 50 

Tuesday 23rd W. fine arose about six spent the day mosdy in cleaning; 

about three oclock My Husband and my dear Daughter Addie arrived 

with her sister Nellie and Bro Elias from Park City all looking well which 

made our hearts glad. 

Wensday 24th arose about six W. fine attended to home affairs Effie and 

Baby called to see us, Pa distributed the things they brought with them 

from the Park. 

Thursday 25th arose about six W. fine, spent the day in striping trees, and 

canning fruit; 

Friday 26th arose at five 30 W. still fine, did Housework and sewing addie 

attended T.R.S. [Retrenchment Society] at the 14th Ward assembly room. 

She and I went up town after she came home. 

Saturday 27th spent the day in sewing and went up town. 

Sunday 28th attended Tabernacle meeting the seakers were [illegible letter} . 

P. Pratt C.C. [Charles Coulson] Rich a.m. Cannon. 

Monday 29weather cold, spent the day in sewing. 

Tuesday 30th spent the day in washing weather still chilley. 

October 1879 

Wensday 1st did housework and went around the Block. 

Thursday 2nd did housework in the morning attended Committe Meeting 

p.m. went up town. Took comforts to the poor. Bro and Sister Streets of 

Parleys Park came to see us with their children and Mother spent the 

afternoon with us. Nephi is nine years old to day he was baptized a year 

ago to day as fast day came on the third last year. 

Friday 3rd arose about six W. still fine very warm dureing the day. Sister 

Bowden of Brigham City and her daughter called on us and brought 

some candy for the Children. Effie and Baby also called in the eve at 

50. Joseph Smith recorded that he obtained the golden plates and Urim and Thummim on 
September 22, 1827. Joseph Smith, History of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 
1:18 (hereinafter cited as History of Church). 

232 Before the Manifesto 

noon I recived a letter from my Brother, my Husband asked me concern- 
ing Sister Rowe's wellfare. 

Saturday 6th arose about six W. F. [ine] did housework, attended the Fair 
in the afternoon. Bought some a chest of beautiful tools for Nephi with 
money the Gentleman gave him who claimed the watch which Nephi 
found in Parleys canyon. 

Sunday 5th attended Stake Con. all day, Prest Cannon spoke in the morn, 
Apostles C.C. Rich and G.Q.. Cannon in the afternoon. Clouds of dust 
blowing all day a slight shower as we came out of meeting p.m. the wind 
continued all night 

Monday 6th W. cloudy and cool wind still Blowing, attended General Con 
in the morning Aposdes O. Pratt and L. [Lorenzo] Snow addressed the 
Con it was good to be there , in the afternoon attended the funeral of 
the Baby of Sister Clar Loveridge. From there went to see my Sister who 
is quite sick; as I neared home was called by Bro S. [Samuel Lorenzo] 
Adams of St George to stop in and see his wife whome I had not met for 
more than twenty years. On reaching home fond Lizzie [Elizabeth] Ann 
Morris Sister to Isaac Morris whom I had not seen scince she was an infant 
but is now grown. Wind blowing freriously as we retire at Midnight. 
Tuesday 7th arose about seven wind seased. W. cloudy and cold, attended 
to home affairs; Addie attended Con. the Speakers were Apostle J.F 
Smith and Joseph Young prest of Seventies p.m. Prest Taylor addressed 
the Con — Mrs. Fout stayed over night 

Wednsday 8th attended Con — a.m. adjorned at twelve m. Ernest I. [Irving] 
Young died to day, went up town this p.m. in the eve my Sister came to 
visit us; Effie and Edward called had a pleasant time. Raining in good 

Thursday 9th W. cold and wet attended to home affairs; Siter Boden and 
Daughter ailed, also Bro Geo Hiner and little Daughter and lunched with 
us, Lizze Morris went home. 

Thursday Fri 10th W. still cold did housework; Bro Elderidge called; my 
Sister still with us haveing a pleasant visit. 

Saturday 11th arose about six W. cloudy, made 33 sacks and went up town, 
and did some knitting, my Sister returned home. Phinas [Phineas] H. 
Young died to day. also David Lewis [illegible word] 

Sunday 12th spent the day at home Addie attending three meetings Phinas 
H. Young is buried to day 

Monday 13th W. fine air balmey, arose at five 30 did the weeks wash and 
other work Aunty Hannah called to see us my husband not well. 
Tuesday 14th aroose about six W. fine sunshine and cloud; did housework 
and repairing. Terable wind dureing the night. 

Wensday 15th arose about six. W. cold and wet; visited my Daughter Effie 
and Sister Ashton found Effie and Baby improveing. returned home at 

1879 233 

five sun set bright. 

Thursday 16th arose at six. W. fine. Joined in a surprise to Aunt Nancy 
Morris; we took pick nick and clothing and worked all day, my Husband 
dined and ate supper with us. The party consisted of Diantha Morris, 
Sister Balser, Sister De-grey Sister Owen Roberts, Sister Atty, Miss M. 
Hailstone, Mrs. Worthen Mrs. E.W. Ashton Miss Addie Morris M.L. 
Morris Elias Morris Aunty Hannah Morris and Cousin Tom and a host 
of litde cousins. Aunt Nancy was presented with a dress a Balmoral four 
aprons 11 yds of factory two dresess of Annie some some fanel for Eli and 
Jeanes and $5.00 in cash. The affair was gotten up by Aunty Hannah and 
responded to cheerfully by all who took part in it; we spent a pleasant day 
and all felt well in haveing helped the Widow and Fatherless. 
Friday 1 7th arose at five 40 W. fine assisted in makeing a dress for Addie. 
Saterday 18th arose at five 5. W. fine and frosty. At seven my Husband and 
his son Elias boarded the Southern Train for Tintic." 51 Spent the day in 

Sunday 19th arose at six W. fine attended Tabernacle Meeting, Apostle 
Orson Pratt gave an excellent discourse; from there called on Aunt Hattie 
[Harriet Cecelia Jones] Morris found her Baby failing, from there went to 
Lavinia Morris found her son Orvin very low of a fever from ther called 
on Effie fond she had gone to Ward Meeting. Went home and there to 
Ward M. which was addressed by Bro. CW. Penrose in an exelent man- 

Monday 20th arose at five W. fine left home at eleven, called on Mrs. E. 
[Emma Marilla Empey] Clark and Miss S.E. Russell spent the afternoon 
in transacting busness up town; Addie and Kate attended PA. Addie 
attended Z.MA. [Zion's Musical Association] in the eve. 
Tuesday 21st arose at five washed sewed and did oht other work Addie 
attended Y.L.M.I. 

Wensday 22nd arose at five 35 W fine spent the day in sewing; Addie visited 
litde Orvin found him some bett 

Thursday 23rd arose at five 30 W still beautiful, visited Mother Williams took 
some niceites spent the afternoon in sewing Effie and Baby called. Addie 
attends a party this eve for the benefit of Gronway Parry who is going on a 

51. The Tintic Mining District, located about seventy-five miles south of Salt Lake City in 
Juab County, Utah, contained silver, gold, lead, and copper ore. Founded in 1869, the 
Tintic Mining District "became the leading mining center in the state with its output of 
$5,000,000 by 1899." Mining in this area led to the development of many boom towns, 
including Eureka, Mammoth, and Silver City. Elias Morris was involved in building the 
infrastructure of the Tintic Mammoth mines. Don Maguire, Outline History of Utah's 
Great Mining Districts: Their Past, Present and Future as Producers of the Precious Metals 1 3, 
17; Philip F. Notarianni, Faith, Hope, and Prosperity: The Tintic Mining District, 3, 13; Ege, 
Selected Mining Districts of Utah, 16-17. 

234 Before the Manifesto 

mission My Husband's other Wife gave birth to a little daughter [Josephine 
Edna Morris] to day about two (2) am oclock, both doing well. 
Friday 24th arose about seven W. fine spent the afternoon morning in sew- 
ing in the afternoon attended the Ward school review was much pleased 
with the efforts of the children" 2 Bro's Griggs and Moyle made excelent 
remarks, called on Effie and Sister Ashton also Sister's Beussell. 
Saturday 25th arose at five 30 W. fine spent the day in sewing; went to see 
the seven Wonders of the World in the eve. 

Sunday 26th arose about six Wether still beautiful attended Tabernacle 
accompanied by Litde Nephi and George. The audence was delighted 
and instructed by a disours from Aposde Orson Pratt. This day Gronway 
Parry started on a mission to the Southern States, thence to Europe in 
the spring. Aunt Hannah Aunt Eliza and Uncle Hugh called; I also had 
the peasure of entertaing one of of our old friends J.L.Jones of Cedar 
City who is called on a Mission to Europe. 

Monday 27th arose at five W. still delightful, began house cleaning; Cousin 
Lizzie Morris of Weber called. 

Tuesday 28th arose at five 30 W. fine continued house cleaning Elder J. L. 
Jones left us this morning for Europe and left his blessing with us which 
we felt as he bade us good bye, and and dureing the day. 
Wensday 29th arose at three 20 read till six continued H. Clg [House 

Thursday 30th arose at five 30 W. fine receved a visit from my Neice Mrs. A. 
Ridges and my Neice Mrs. Eva [Evelyn Pratt] Woods of Malad whome we 
had not met for more than three years They and their Children and Effie 
and Babe spent a very plasant time with us. This day a death occured in 
our Family in the person of a litde son of Bro R.V. and Lavinia Morris. 
Friday 31st arose at six 30 W. lovely, Attended the funeral of my little 
Nephew Frank Conway [Morris] . Son of R.V. and Lavinia Morris from 
thence went to spend the afternoon with Effie in connexition with my 
neice Mrs. Eva Woods and children and my Daughter Addie. Kate George 
and Nephi had a pleasant time. 

52. Mary Lois's children primarily attended the Fifteenth District school, which was 
composed of LDS children from the Salt Lake Fifteenth Ward. The school was located 
in classrooms on First South, between Third and Fourth West, about a block from 
Mary Lois's house. Children of other faiths in the neighborhood generally went to 
the Presbyterian School on Fourth West between First and Second South. The Salt 
Lake City ward schools were financed through a combination of property taxes and 
private tuition. Generally having only one teacher each, the ward schools often "taught 
Mormon doctrine in addition to secular subjects" (Alexander and Allen, 111). See 
Barraclough, 15th Ward Memories, 10; Alexander and Allen, Mormons and Gentiles, HI- 

1879 235 

November 1879 

Saturday 1st arose about six W. fine; did some sewing in the morning and 
afternoon went up town in the eve Aunt Hannah called. 
Sunday 2nd arose at six. W fine. Addie Nephi uand & George attended 
S.S. a.m. We all attended Tabernacle Meeting p.m. From their we called 
on Cousin Lin Musser to see her ver her lovely Baby. Bro Geo [George] 
Teasdale delivered an excelent discourse at the Tabernacle. 
Monday 3rd arose at five W. fine washed a great deal of beding & some 
carpet and wool; went up Town p.m. did housework besides 
Tuesday 4th arose at six 15 W. still fine; did sewing and housework; Addie 
received her first lesson in Music 

Wensday 5th arose at four 20 read from 5 till six, spent the day in sew- 
ing and housework. At 4 p.m. visited my Block with Miss Beers. The last 
company of Emigrants arrived Elder T.F. Howells of our Ward came with 

Thursday 6th arose about six Wether cold and cloudy attended Fast 
Meeting a.m. Bro T.F. Howells who returned from a European Mission 
spoak & Bro Giles sang (Prais to the Man) by inspireation. 53 Attended 
Committee Meeting p.m. called on Aunt Hattie in company with Aunt 
Hannah found Baby some better. Took comforts to Mother Williams on 
my Block. 

Friday 7th arose at five 30 W. cloudy comenced snowing at six 30. spent 
the day in fiting up window blinds putting boxes in order and other work; 
Miss Lizzie Jenkins called spent a pleasant evening reading and talking to 
the Children. 

Saturday 8th arose about six W. coudy and cold snowed some spent the a.m. 
in doing house work attended 14th Ward Meeting. Bro Evans spoke of 
the touching note I had sent him. Chatted with Bro [Thomas] Tuckfield. 
In the eve my Husband returnd from Tintic bringing with him our old 
friend Bro John Mcfarlan formerlly of Cedar City; now of St George, chat- 
ted with him till midnight 

Sunday 9th arose before six W. still cloudy and cold, my friend started 
for the North— Nephi & George attended S.S. p.m. they and I attended 
Tabernacle Meeting p.m. the speakers were Elders Jos Ball Sen. Wm V. 
Williams. T.F. Howells. Walter J. [Joseph] Lewis and Joseph H. Parry. I 
never heard more powerfull testimony or more better speaking than 
from these young Missionarys. Addie and Nephi attended eveing Meeting 

53. The hymn "Praise to the Man" was written by William W. Phelps (1792-1872) to honor 
LDS prophet Joseph Smith. The hymn's chorus commemorates Smith's martyrdom in 
Carthage Jail on June 27, 1844. Cracroft and Lambert, A Believing People: Literature of the 
Latter-day Saints, 256-57. 

236 Before the Manifesto 

Aunt Hattie and Uncle Richard called in the afternoon. 
Monday 10th arose at six W. cloudy and cold washed all day sewed in the 
eve. Aunt Eliza & Uncle Hugh called also Misses Ashton and Powell. Sister 
Bird in the morning to say Thatt she wished addie to come and an apren- 
tice to her in the dress making business. 

Tuesday 11th arose at six W. windy and Mild, did some sewing then went to 
help wash and anoint a sick person, came home and did a large ironing 
Wensday 12th arose at six. snow on the ground did housework and sewing 
Thursday 13th arose at five W. clear and frosty; did housework and mil- 
linary work 

Friday 14th arose at4 before six did housework and millinary work. Addie 
attended a Missionary reception in the 16th Ward in company with her 
Father and Nellie 

Saturday 15th arose at five forty five W. cold and cloudy; did house-work 
and millinary work attended the annual Grain Meeting held in the 
Council House. Attended to other buisness in town. Nephi and Kate not 
well Nephi troublesom dureing the night, snow on the ground. 
Sunday 16th after a wearisome night arose at seven Kate and Nephi better 
spent the day at home. Effie & Edward ate supper with us. C. Beers called 
in the eve. Mr. John Mackenzs visited my Husband 

Monday 1 7th arose at five W. very cold did the weeks wash and housework. 
Effie called. Addie attended Z.M.A 

Tuesday 18th arose at five fifty W. sill very cold; did housework some sew- 
ing and ironing. My Husband left for Spanish Fork Canyon, to be gone 
some weeks, felt disconted all day suppose all trials are for our good, but 
we cannot allways view it so. 

Wensday 1 9th arose before six W. cold and clear; did housework and iron- 
ing Sister Renolds called 

Thursday 20th arose before six W. cold & chi did housework and repairing. 
Friday 21st arose at six ten W. still cold and fine did housework and mil- 
linary work. 

Second day book of Mary L. Morris 
From November 22nd 1879 to January 24th 1881 

In the latter part of this book are written some intresting facts about 
Governor Eli H. Murry 

November 1879 

Saturday 22 arose at six 30. W. cold and cloudy, did housework and mil- 
linary work; Addie attended Z.M. Socety 

1879 237 

Sunday 23rd arose at six W. cold and foggy. Read till seven. At noon heard 
of the death of Mrs. Elizabeth Sansom who made her home with us three 
years ago; her complaint was lung fever she died this a.m. at five 15. 
Monday 24th arose at four W. cold and foggy; Did the weeks washing; at 
ten forty five went to the funeral of Sister Sansom waited three hours for 
the coffin; assisted to put her in it; my friend Brother Loveridge brought 
it; had a little chat with him felt that he would be blessed for the course 
he had taken and the trials he had passed through. The speakers were 
Elders Walter Lewis and F.F. Howels they spoke in a very pleasing man- 
ner. Went up town in the eve transacted considerable busness in a very 
satisfactory manner. Julia Clark Taylor also buried her lovely Baby to day. 
Addie attended Z.M.S. 

Tuesday 25th arose at six 30 W. very cold and cloudy; felt weary from the 
prievious days luboo did a great deal of housework and ironing my Sister 
and little son called. My Husband and his Son Elias arrived home from 

Wensday 26th arose at five forty did sewing and housework and went up 
town, retired very late. 

Thursday 27th arose at seven did housework and sewing David Williams 
called on my Husband. Addie and George attended the P A. Party. 
Addie attended one last night with Cousin Tom and Miss Hailstone. Bro 
King called as teacher paid him 1.00 as seccond donation to the New 
Tabernacle, also fifty cents as monthly donation to the Temple. 
Friday 28th arose at six 30 W. once more clear, sewed most of the day. My 
Husband and his son Elias started for Park City earley this morning. 
Saturday 29th arose at six 50 W. cloudy and mild, did cleaning all day, 
Addie attended Z.M.S. 

Sunday 30th arose at seven W. very mild spent the day at home Addie went 
to meeting three times, wrote to J. P. 

December 1879 

Monday December 1st 79 arose at six W. wet. did the weeks washing and 

Tuesday 2nd arose at 5.45 W. cloudy and mild; attended to general house- 

Wensday 3rd arose at 5:45 W. wet. did housework ironing and went around 
the Block, also called on Ole Chamberlain who has both little legs bro- 
ken; also called on Sister Conrad and my Daughter Effie found Baby 
better. Called on Aunty Hannah had a pleasant chat with her. 
Thursday 4th arose before seven attended Fast meeting the funeral of 
Sister Willsons Baby convened at the same time. From there went up town 

238 Before the Manifesto 

and attended to buisness in the Ward. Did some cutting out and house 
work. To day at 20 minutes to one Elder William Claton [Clayton] died 
while curing his dinner; haveing been ill of dropsy for several months. 
Friday 5th arose at seven still raining spent most of the day in cleaning 
made a shirt in the eve all but the fastenings raining all day. 
Saturday 6th arose at seven W. very mild and clear spent most of the day in 
cleaning did some swing Addie attended Z.M.S. St 

Sunday 7th arose at seven snow on the ground. Attended Brother Claytons 
funeral at 10 a.m. in the 17th Ward Hall, which was very crowded. Apostle 
J.F. Smith read a very intresring account which Bro. Clayton had written 
of his writeing the Revelation on Celestial Marriage from the Lips of the 
Prophet Joseph and the circumstances connected with it. Then followed 
in a verry grand discourse. Then Elder Elias Smith. Prest. D.H. Wells and 
lastly Prest Taylor. On my way home had a pleasant chat with Sister Tingy. 
after reaching home heard of the death of little Annie Lizzie [Elizabeth 
Ellen] Parry of our Ward, who was a member of the PA. attended Ward 
meeting p.m. therr met with my old friend Sister Annie Bowring who 
was in sore trouble over the death of her Mother. The speakers were P. 
Price, S. [Sylvester] Reeves, RH. Smith H. E. Giles Dan Thomas and Bp. 
Polla[rd]. After returning home; called on Bro. Griggs family, also called 
on Effie for a few moments. Addie attended eve meeting also S.S. with 
Nephi & George Q. Bro Willard [Cushing] Burton ailed on us. 
Monday 8th arose at 5.5 did the weeks wash and the housework. W. cold 
and snowing. 

Brother Edward Parry father of little Annie [Elizabeth Parry] who died 
yesterday died to day while his Wife was gone to bury their little Daughter 
poor poor Sister [Ellen Roberts] Parry how will she stand it. 54 
Tuesday 9th arose at seven after a disturbed night snow on the ground, the 
deepest yet, did the general housework and the weeks ironing recived a 
letter from my Husband and answered it. Little Kate quite sick this eve 
Bro Parry buried to day. 

Wensday 10th arose about seven, still snowing, did housework and cut out 
a suit for little Kate who was healed by the blessing of God on my imper- 
fect administeration for which I feel to bless his Holy Name. 
Thursday 11th arose at five 30 W. very cold attended to home affairs, put 
up a sack full of clothing for the Indians took it to Society Hall and after 
repareing its contence saw it packed for the Indians 55 took little Kate with 

54. Edward Parry (1840-1879) and Ellen Roberts (1839-?) married about 1859. Ellen 
Roberts's situation was similar to that of Mary Lois Morris in 1853, when her young 
husband and infant died within two months of each other. 

55. There were five different groups of Native Americans in Utah: the Utes in the eastern 
Great Basin, the Shoshone in the Great Basin Desert in northern Utah, the Goshutes 

1879 239 

me the out did her good sewed on Kates suit till midnight. 
Friday 12th arose before seven, fresh snow on the ground, little Kate still 
better, did housework and sewing. Registered my name as an American 
Citisen. Addie attended a select party with Willard Burton. She also per- 
chased presants for the members of the PA. Read and sewed dureing the 
evening: after Addie returned home wrote in my jornal and retired at a 
quarter to two Saturday morning 

Saturday 13th arose soon after seven W. very mild thawing all day spent the 
day in cleaning; my Husbands youngest child [Josephine Edna Morris] 
very ill. My Husband telgraphed for this a.m. and arrived this eve I recived 
a note from Mr. Rowe. 

Sunday 14th arose at six 40 W. mild still thawing spent the day at home, 
Addie Nephi and Georg attended S.S. Addie visited Effie in the afternoon 
Kate accompanied Sister Rowe to meeting I started but was disapointed. 
Called on Bro. Griggs family in the eve. Read for the children in the eve, 
Williard Burton called on us. Baby better. 

Monday 15th arose at six 30 W. mild Baby still better. Spent the day in 
house work and sewing. 

Tuesday 16th arose at 5:35 read and wrote till seven; did housework in the 
morning sewing in the afternoon. At noon my Neice Mrs. Eva Woods with 
her little children came and stayed over night. 

Wensday 1 7th arose before five W. still mild spent the morning in clean- 
ing the afternoon in sewing, my Neice left with the morning Train for 

Thursday 18th arose at six W. blowing hard did housework and sewing and 
a good deal of cutting out. 

Friday 19th arose about seven Wind very high; did a good deal of house- 
work and almost mad a shirt. Addie and Catheren bought presents for 
the RA. 

Saturday 20th arose before seven attended to home affairs a.m. attended 
Stake Con — p.m. was introduced to a Miss Bowenan of Philadelphia vis- 
iting this Citys. After transacting Busness in town returned home about 
dark retired late. 

Sunday 21st arose before seven nearley a foot of snow on the ground keen 
air; George Nephi and Addie attended S.S. G. and K. and I attend Ward 
Meeting; Addie attended the Funeral of Sister Sophia Freeze who died 

in the desert southwest of the Great Salt Lake, and the Navajos and Paiutes in southern 
Utah. The coming of the Mormons to Utah changed their traditional lifestyles 
significantly. As settlers entered native lands, they often took the best and most arable 
lands. By the end of the nineteenth century, many of the Utah Indians would be living 
on reservations instead of their ancestral lands. See Forrest S. Cuch, A History of Utah's 
American Indians; David Rich Lewis, Neither Wolf nor Dog: American Indians, Environment, 
and Agrarian Change, John Alton Peterson, Utah's Black Hawk War. 

240 Before the Manifesto 

on the 19th inst. From meeting we went to see Effie spent an hour or two 
pleasantly Mr. W. Burton visited us in the eve. 

Monday 22nd arose at six did two weeks washing and other work. Weather 
very cold and snowing. 

Tuesday 23rd arose at seven W. very cold did cooking in the morning 
cleaning in the afternoon ironing in the evening retired at midnight litde 
Kate not well. 

Wensday 24th arose at seven W. very very cold little Kate no better; attended 
to home affairs in the morning also gave provisions to the Bretheren 
who came to gather for the poor was very happy in so doing am thankful 
that we have wherewith to minister to the poor. Went up town to make 
purchases for Christmas the weather is intencely cold. At night Addie 
accompanied Mr. Willard Burton to a seclect Party. Freddie [Fredrick] 
Rowe came home sick at 11 oclock p.m. sat down to dress a doll for litde 
Kate who wakes up every litde while with pain finally has to come down 
stairs. The night is freezeing : freezeing cold, at half past two a.m. 25th got 
through Miss dollie's wardrobe and at three retired. 

Thursday 25th arose at seven haveing had more cold than sleep." Addie 
and I prepared dinner for two oclock. Effie and Edward dined with us also 
Sister Rowe and Freddie we had a very pleasant time; Addie went sleigh 
rideing with her Father makeing several calls Nephi and George had all 
the Sleighing that was good for them towards eve the weather moderated 
Friday 26th arose at seven W. not quite so cold spent the morning clean- 
ing in the afternoon Addie assisted in distributeing presants to the RA. 
the Children were much pleased. 

Saturday 27th arose at seven W. as yesterday, went to see Mother William 
about her haveing some shoes; spent the a.m. in cleaning and cooking 
went up town in the eve. 

Sunday 28th Arose at seven 30 after a disturbed night with little Kate. 
Addie, Nephi & George attended S.S. I and George attended afternoon 
meeting Addie attended evening meeting Nephi also. Litde Annie [Ann] 
Parry whos Sister Lizzie died on the 7th and her Father 8th inst died at 
two a.m. this day [ illegible letter] eeR spent the evening with us. 
Monday 29th arose at seven 30 after another disturbed night W. mild but 
still snowing, did the weeks washing and other work the funeral of Annie 
Parry was held at ten a.m. Addie attended Z.M.S. 

Tuesday 30th arose at seven W. cold and clear, did housework dureing 
the day, recived a call from Mother Emma Williams. Addie attended the 
funeral of Emmot Mously [Emmett Desoto Mousley] held in the 16th 
Ward. Spent the eve very pleasandy reading for the children and singing 
with Addie. ens 

Wednesday 31st arose about seven W. still cold, attended to home affairs 
retired at 11. o'clock 


'I Can Earn a Triful" 

January 1880 

Thursday 1st arose at seven W. mild sun shineing brightly. Attended Fast 
Meeting at ten a.m. a spirit of peace seemed to prevail through the day 
having remembered the Poor liberaly as a Ward. Spent the p.m. in read- 
ing, spent the evening very pleasantly reading for the Children. After 
they had retired conversed with Willard Burton and Addie on the history 
of the Church and the manifestations of the spirit of God. Retired earley 
feeling very happy. 

Friday 2nd arose soon after seven W. mild spent the day in cutting out and 
sewing retired at midnight. Addie had a sleigh ride with Willard Burton 
and family to his Fathers farm; 

Saturday 3rd arose soon after seven W. bright and mild spent the day in 
cleaning. Addie attended Stake Con — morning noon and night. 
Sunday 4th arose about seven W. still mild and beautiful attended Stake 
Con — took little George with me; the first speaker was Apostle Orson 
Pratt who spoke on union and the Word of Wisdom, the next was my 
Husband who continued the same subject, remarking that he intended 
to keep it all his life; and that he had two familys that one kept the Word 
of Wisdom no hot drinks allowed the consequence was there was no sick- 
ness, the next speaker was Bp Kesler — who spoke in the same strain; had 
not employed a doctor dureing forty years, and the result was satisfac- 
tory 1 Bro Vancott was the last speaker. At two p.m. the house was crowded 
hundreds could not gain admittence. Pres. Taylor occupied the after- 
noon said that we would obey the commandments of God and leave our 
enemies in his hands; Apostle J. F Smith made a few remarkes regreted 
that our new Hall was not larger. There was a Priesthood meeting in the 
evening Addie attended, the Children and I spent the eve pleasantly 
reading and converceing. Williard Burton and Sister Rowe called. 
Monday 5th arose at six W. very mild and cloudy wrote till seven did 

It is unclear which of his two families Elias Morris was referring to when he said one 
kept the Word of Wisdom and one did not. The Deseret Evening News account of his 
address says that Elias Morris and Bishop Frederick Kesler "hore powerful testimonies 
of the truths of the promises made to those who obeyed the counsels contained in the 
'Word of Wisdom.'" Deseret Evening News, January 5, 1880. 


242 Before the Manifesto 

housework and sewing retired very late Addie accompanied Mr & Mrs 
Henry Giles to the Theatre. 

Tuesday 6th arose at seven W. clear and fine sewed some and did house- 

Wensday 7th arose before six W. do — [ditto] work do — 
Thursday 8th arose at sven did general housework in the morning coking 
in the afternoon W. rough and snowing 

Friday 9th arose before seven W. mild and thawing; dhouswork did house- 
work and seweing Addie and the litde ones attended PA. W. very Windy 
to night read from the Bible for the Children. The wind continued very 
wild all night. 

Saturday 10th arose at five read till six, at seven snow began to fall. Did 
housework in the morning, sewing in the afternoon saw a financial 
account of the past year at night; Addie attended Z.M.S. (this is Effies 
birthday she is well propering and happy) 

Sunday 11th arose at six 15 W. clear and Cold eclips of the Sun in the p.m. 
Nephi & George attended S.S. Addie Kate & George and I attended Ward 
meeting p.m. Bro H.W. Nesbit spoke very beautifully on comemeration 
of the Lords Supper. Attended evening meeting also Bp. Wm. D. [William 
Derby] Johnson [Jr.] addressed us gave a very intresting account of the 
Indians of the far South and the labours of our Elders amongts them 2 his 
discourse was accompanied with the spirit of God. 

Monday 12th arose at 5:30 W. cold clear, washed till noon: at one o'clock 
attended the funeral of Samuel infant Son of Angus M. Cannon, the 
speakers were Apostle B. Young Bp Taylor and from there went home and 
from home up town; after reaching home again found a sleigh wating to 
take Addie out the parties were Willie and Ella [Eloise Crismon Burton] 
and Willard Burton. We road out to the factory returned at eight. 3 had a 
pleasant time. 

Tuesday 13th arose at seven 30. W. cold and clear, did housework in the 
morning and a large ironing in the afternoon; in the evening attended a 
lecture given by Bro C.R. Savage, which was a real treat. 4 retired late. 

Outpost missions were established among the Indians in Utah, "each of which was 

manned by thirty to forty men, who were 'called' to preach the Mormon vision of 

Christianity and demonstrate desirable agricultural practices to potentially hostile 

tribes on the fringe of Mormon country. Mormon missionary agriculturists lived among 

the Indians, spoke their language and occasionally intermarried." Arrington, Mormon 

Experience, 153. 

Mary Lois may be referring to the soap factory or the Utah Sugar Factory, both of which 

her husband Elias Morris helped establish. Whitney, History of Utah, 4:488. 

Charles Roscoe Savage (1832-1909) , the son of John and Ann Savage, was an early Utah 

photographer. For many years, he "delivered a number of interesting lectures on Utah 

and its scenic beauties, illustrated by many photographic views." AJ, 3:708-11. 

1880 243 

Wensday 14th arose at seven, fresh snow on the ground did housework 
in the morning, entertained my friend Sister Lucy A. [Annie Salisbury] 
Johnson of Canab her Husband Bp W.D.Johnson Jr. joined us at supper. 
Addie went Sleigh rideing again With the Burtons. 

Thursday 15th arose at six. W. fine did housework with some colouring 
as made twenty sacks called at Sisters Clark Russell Price and Parry and 

Friday 16th arose at six W. mild did housework and millinary work; ran 
down down to Effie 's on business in the evening. Willard Burton called 
had a pleasant chat; Addie accompanied him to a celect party. 
Saturday 1 7th arose at six W. very pleasant Nephi sick did work as yesterday 
Miss Clara Barton called also Miss Bell [Isabella] Foster. Addie attended 

Sunday 18th arose at six 30 W. very Mild Nephi and George attended S.S. 
Effie and Baby spent the afternoon with us Edward joined us after meet- 
ing. Addie and Edward went to meeting Willard returned with them; had 
a lively chat on womans Rights; Bro JW. Cummings had spoken pretty 
rough at the evening meeting on that subject. 

Monday 1 9th arose at six W. mild did the weeks washing; Addie and Kate 
[Catherine] Barlow got up a party in honor of Father Birds' [Edmond F. 
Bird] birthday at Sister Birds request. Addie attended Z.M.S. Miss Emma 
Williams called in the afternoon, also in the eve accompanied by her Bro 
David, we had a very pleasant chat with them while they waited Sister 
Rowe. we retired late. 

Tuesday 20th arose at six 25. did housework all day Sister Hughes called. 
Brothers Chatfield and Reeves called as teachers, had a very pleasant chat 
with them. Paid fifty cents to Bro Chatfield as donation to the Temple 
which made six dollars payed to the Temple fund dureing the year 1879. 5 
Also three dollars to the new Tabernacle fund. Both sums of my own earn- 
ing. I am happy that I can earn a triful that I can thro in my might to help 
build up the Kingdom of God. 

Wensday 21st arose at six 30 W. mild and cloudy sunshine in the afternoon, 
did housework and ironing. Nephi George and Kate attended the S.S. 
party for the Children this afternoon, had a pleasant time. Aunt Nancy 
called this eve had a pleasant chat. Addie and Willard Burton went with 
the intention of calling on Cousin Tom and Martha who were married on 
the eighth inst. but changed their minds and spent the evening with Effie 
and Ed very pleasantly. 

5. The site for the Salt Lake Temple was dedicated in 1853. Almost forty years later, in 
1892, the capstone was laid, and in 1893, the Salt Lake Temple was dedicated. The total 
cost of building the temple was about $4 million. Arrington, Great Basin Kingdom, 214; 
Lundwall, Temples of the Most High, 136-41. 

244 Before the Manifesto 

Thursday 22nd arose about six 30 fresh snow on the ground afternoon 
clear and sunny; attended to general housework Addie accompanied 
Williard to a necktie party of the adults of the Sunday school. 
Friday 23rd arose about seven; more fresh snow on the ground cleared up 
about ten o'clock attended to things general in the morning spent the 
afternoon in cleaning Addie attended Z.M.S. at night. 
Saturday 24th arose before five more fresh snow on the ground; did repair- 
ing till about seven, did general housework all day. Albert sick. A wind 
arose in the eve blowing hard all night. 

Sunday 25th arose about six 30 W. frosty and wind blowing; Addie Nephi 
and George attended S.S. spent the a.m. in doing housework and reading; 
at one o'clock snow began to fall. At 12.20 p.m. my Husband's Daughter 
Mrs. Winnie J. Tibbs presanted her Husband with a fine Daughter At 
two o'clock p.m. litde Charlie Son of Bro. Charles and Sister Jane Halley 
died of dyptheria. a few minutes before 9' o'clock in the eve I went to 
watch Winnie she haveing a critical time Drs. [Romania Bunnell] Pratt 
and [Margaret Curtis] Shipp being in attendence. Returned at eight next 

Monday 26th after returning home had an hour or two of sleep attended to 
home affairs; Addie accompanied Willard to a birthday party at Farmers 
Ward at the house of Bro Gibby whoes two Daughters Birth the party was 
gotten in honor of. Miss [blank] and Annie The supper was magnificent 
and the affair very enjoyable the moon shone out in all her splendor 
which made the ride delightful they returned at midnight little Charlie 
Hally was buried to day. Albert is better. 

Tuesday 27th arose at seven 15 W. cold and clear, did the weeks washing 
and other work. Addie attended Z.M.S. 

Wensday 28th arose at six 30 W. cold and cloudy; did housework in the 
morning; was called sudenly to my Daughter Effie's to visit with my dear 
Neice Mrs. Aggie Ridges. While there had a pleasant chat with my friend 
Sister Duncanson recived an invitation to visit her next friday in con- 
nection with Sister L.A.Johnson and her Husband Bp W.D.Johnson Jr. 
Weather cloudy and cold this eve, clear in the afternoon after returning 
home and attending to different things spent an hour in reading and 
writeing Mr. W. Burton took Addie to the 16th Ward Young Folks fast 
meeting had a very enjoyable time the spirit of God actuating the the 
speakers who were Prest Mrs Freeze Conciler Mrs Louie [Sarah Louise 
Bouton] Felt Mrs Dr. Shipp and othrs. Retired about nine 30 o'clock 
Thursday 29th arose at 5.55. W. cold and cloudy cleared up abot ten 
o'clock. Did housework and cooking in the morning; housework and 
ironing in the afternoon and eveing little George made some gruel and 
Nephi ironed some towels both litde chores were well done as well as 
I could have done them. Nephi read several pretty stories while I was 

1880 245 

ironing, little Kate stood with her little arm his neck and her pretty mouth 
ready to kiss hs his cheek. At eight 30 sat down to darn stocking. Between 
five and six o'clock snow began to fall. Addie called on her Sisters Winnie 
and Effie and her friend Mrs. Catherine Giles, all well Winnie doing 
nicely. She attended S.S. Choir pratice and returned home about nine 

Friday 30th arose about seven W. sill very cold very thin coating of snow 
on the ground; did housework in the morning paid a visit to Sister 
Duncanson as per apointment had a pleasant time, returned before 
eight. Addie attended a seelect party With Williard Burton returned at 
midnight the Children and I retired at 11 o'clock 

Saturday 31st arose before seven W. clear and cold, spent the morning in 
cleaning; in the afternoon Addie, Kate, and I attended 14th Ward Society 
Meeting the speakers were Sisters Home, Townsend, Kimbal, Dr. Shipp 
E. Howard Councilor Taylor and Sister Bowlden. All spoke with a good 
spirit. From thier there transacted busness in town reached home about 
dark spent the eve in writeing repairing singing and reading hymns that 
Prest Taylor used to sing thirty odd year ago some of them he composed 
in reference to our Myrtered Prophet which are very Grand" causeing the 
tears to dim my eyes and tricle down my face, when I realize the deep and 
fervant love that existed between them, retired at 11.30. 

February 1880 

Sunday Feb 1. 1880. arose at seven attended to home affairss Addie Nephi 
and George attended S.S. At eleven o clock sat down to read the Deseret 
Evening News; b at two attended Ward meeting the speakers were Elias 
Morris and R.T Burton who spoke in a very instructive manner. Spent 
the eve at home reading for the Children; Addie attended Ward Meeting 
Miss M.E. Saulsburry Mr. J.W. Qedediah William] Ashton and Mr. W.C. 
Burton accompanied her home. I retired before nine o'clock. 
Monday 2nd arose at 4.55 W. clear and cold, did the weeks washing and 
other work. Addie attended S.S. Union Z.M.S. accompanied by Mr. 
Burton and her Sisters Nellie and Rosa, at a late hour in the eve Sister 
Rowe brought the letters she had recived from her Husband to read to 
us. the night very cold. 

6. The Deseret Evening News reported both national and local news. All of its editors were 
Mormon, and it "generally supported the decisions and opposed the critics of the 
prominent Mormons who governed Salt Lake City." Alexander and Allen, Mormons and 
Gentiles, 114. 

246 Before the Manifesto 

Tuesday 3rd arose at six 45. W. cold and cloudy, clear and bright toards 
noon, did the weeks ironning. at three p.m. Sisters Norman and 
[Hannah] Foster called as teachers gave them a packet of tea as donation 
for the poor. 7 at 3.45 visited my Block returned about dark. Read for the 
Children in the Juvenile. 

Wensday 4th arose at six 45. snow falling continued most of the day, spent 
the day in riping and colouring a french merino dress. Read for the litde 
boys in the Juvnile before putting them to bed. Retired at 11.30 
Thursday 5th arose at seven six 45. W. cloudy and cold; at ten attended 
fast meeting Mr. and Mrs. McKean were confirmed, had a good meting. 
At 2 p.m. went to Committee Meeting, spoke in favour of Bp. Pollard. 
From their ailed on my Nephew and Neice Mr. & Mrs. Thomas C. Morris 
[Martha Ann Hailstone Morris] . Also on Aunty Hannah and Nancy Morris 
found all well. Called on Grandmother Williams took her some comforts. 
Reached home at dark, read for the little Boys in the same Book as last 
night, retired towards midnight 

Friday 6th arose at 7 W. cold and clear. Scoured and pressed a dress pat- 
tern; and did other work. At 4 p.m. my Sister called for a few moments. 
Spent the eve in reading the evening News and did a good deal of repair- 
ing, retired between 11 & 12. 

Saturday 7th arose at 7.30 o'clock W. still cold and clear, spent the day in 
cleaning; retired at 9.30 much fatagued. 

Sunday 8th arose at 5.55 W. clear and cold, spent the morning in housework 
and reading the Juvinile and Dersret News. Addie and George attended 
S.S. Nephi accompanied his Father to fouth Cottonwood who went their 
to preach as home Missionars. Addie Kate and I attended Ward Meeting 
at 2 p.m. the peaker was elder Wm. [William] Fotheringham of Beaver 
County who is representing that County in the Legislative Assembly. After 
returning home read m (Travils in India) written by that Gentleman at 
the request of the Editor for The Juvenile Instructor. 8 Miss Jane Davis 
and Miss Jane W. Davis called to see Addie who had gone to see Effie 
with some other young folks. At six Nephi George and I attended Ward 
Meeting Bro Penrose spoke beautyfully Mr. W. Burton spent the evening 
with Addie at home. 
Monday 9th arose before six. W. cold and clear, did the weeks washing and 

At this time, visiting teachers solicited contributions for charitable causes during their 
visits. But according to LDS Relief Society president Eliza R. Snow, their most important 
purpose was spiritual in nature. Derr, Cannon, and Beecher, Women of Covenant, 91- 

"Travels in India" by William Fotheringham was a series of essays published in the 
fuvenile Instructor in 1879 and 1880 about Fotheringham's experiences as a missionary 
in India. Fotheringham recounts the local customs and culture, people he met, and 
their experiences. Juvenite Instructor 15 (1880), 28-29, 99-100, 112. 

1880 247 

other work. At 4.30 went to the Polls voted the People Ticket; 9 from their 
went up Town, rode home with my Husband. From their called on Miss 
Foster; then called on my Daughter Efne. ate supper and spent the eve- 
ning with her Sister Ashton Joined us; litde Eddie is rosey and fat. Came 
home about ten retired between ten and eleven o'clock. 
Tuesday 10th arose at seven still feeling tired W. cloudy and mild tur cold 
and tried to snow all day. did housework in the morning cutting out 
in the afternoon, in the evening read for the little Boys in the Juvenile 
Instructor. Nephi read some stories for George and I. Addie attended 
Z.M.S. retired at ten 15. 

Wensday 11th arose at 6.30. fresh snow on the ground; did general house- 
work in the morning ironing in the afternoon and eve also read and did 
some repairing in the eve, cold and windy as we retire at ten. 30. 
Thursday 12th arose at 7.30 W. clear and cold fresh snow on the ground 
did housework and cooking in the morning; at noon little George came 
home from school sick of what seemes to be bilious fever, on that account 
I am prevented from attending a surprise party to my friend Mrs. E. 
Duncanson who is 61. years old to day. Our Prest. Mrs. S.M. Kimbal is the 
projector of the affair, we the visiting Committee very cheerfully respond. 
Addie attended Carles's Grand Concert this eve. 10 My Husband and his 
Son Elias started for Park City this morning. Little George still feverish 
but sleeps pretty comfortably laid down by his side at 12.30 midnight. 
Friday 13th arose about 7.30 W. very clear and cold; discover that little 
George has the Diptherria, 11 wash and anoint him myself send for Father 
Lewis to administer to him he recives instant benefit arose and dressed 
wanted to go out. His throat presented rather an alarming appearence, 

9. In the early years of Mormon settlement in Utah, the church-sponsored People's Party 
was completely dominant in state politics. The Liberal Party, the alternative political 
party, never gained a majority in general state elections but was occasionally successful 
in local elections. The People's Party was disbanded in 1891, most likely as part of an 
effort to gain statehood, and members of the party were encouraged to join either the 
Republican or Democratic national parties. Edward Leo Lyman, Political Deliverance: 
The Mormon Quest for Utah Statehood; Gustive O. Larson, The "Americanization" of Utah for 

10. The third of a series of "Grand Orchestral Concerts" held in the Salt Lake Theatre 
and conducted by George Careless. In this concert, the orchestra performed pieces by 
Rossini, Handel, and Schubert. Deseret Evening News, February 12, 1880. 

11. Diphtheria is a contagious infection that typically strikes the upper respiratory tract 
including the throat. Symptoms include a sore throat and mild fever; and as the disease 
progresses, it becomes difficult to breathe and swallow. It is spread by direct contact 
and can cause death within four days. Diphtheria was the second highest cause of 
death in Salt Lake in the second half of the nineteenth century. The worst years of 
the diphtheria epidemic in Salt Lake City were 1878, 1879, and 1880. There were 178 
deaths from diphtheria in Salt Lake City in 1879 and 119 deaths from diphtheria in 
1880. Ralph T. Richards, Of Medicine, Hospitals, and Doctors, 150-52. 

248 Before the Manifesto 

but our trust is in God. my Soninlaw E.T. Ashton called to see us. Father 
Lewis called again to administer to him promised him long life and health 
to do a work in the Kingdom of God. Watched him all night layed down 
at 4.30. a.m. Saturday morning. 

Saturday 14th arose about 8. o'clock W. cold. George better. Addie 
attended 14th Ward Society meeting. Yesterday attended P.A. also a 
seelect Valantine Ball in company with Mr. W.C. Burton and Miss Lizzie 
Kimbal. George still better rested all night 

Sunday 15th arose about 4 o'clock W. mild and cloudy Georgie still better 
for which I thank God and prais his holy name, we all stayed at home to 
day deeming it best so to do. This a.m. at 7 o'clock little Burtie Morgan 
died of croup Addie went over to help them, this eve Ed and Willard 
called. Addie attended evening meeting from their went with a number 
of young folks to Bro Price's 

Monday 16th arose about six fresh snow on the ground snowed a litde all 
day. I was aroused from my bed this morning by the glad news that my 
Daughter Effie had given birth to another very fine Son [Elias Conway 
Ashton]. Mother and Child doing well spent the day with them; Aunty 
Hannah is nurseing them. Returned home at dark, little George about 
the same. Wrote to my Husband; retired about eleven lay awake till one 
feeling very uneasy about George. 

Tuesday 1 7th arose about seven W. very cold and clear, little George about 
the same. Did some washing some housework and attended to George, at 
ten am Addie attended little Burtie Morgan's furnal at 11.30 Aunt Eliza 
called and gave me encouragement about Georgie. At 7. went down to 
see Effie returned at 9.45 retired about eleven 

Wensday 18th arose at 7. W. cold and windy spent most of the day in clean- 
ing. Sister Unger called, little Gorge almost well 

Thursday 19th arose at 6.45 W. mild, little George well enough to go 
out. Did housework and ironing in the morning, at two 30 o'clock went 
to Society Meeting. From their went up town; next went to see Effie; 
returned home about 9.30 retired aout 11. 

Friday 20th arose at six 30. W. very mild and sunny, at nine went over to 
Effie. ironed most of the day, returned home abot 4.30. feeling very tired. 
Read for the little Boys in the J.I. about Moses, questioned them about 
what had been read they answered well. Addie went to a leap year Ball 
with Mr. W.C. Burton George is six years old to day 

Saturday 21st arose at six 30. W. very mild did housework all day. An acce- 
dent occured on the Utah Southern RR. at 4 a.m. thre men hurt, also on 
the Utah N. at 5 p.m. one man hurt. Saturday 

Sunday 22 arose at 6.30 W. very mild fresh snow on the ground, spent the 
morning in doing housework and reading. Spent the afternoon and eve with 
Effie recived a good many callers, returned home at nine retired at ten 30. 

1880 249 

Monday 23rd arose at six W. very mild and cloudy snowed in the afternoon 
blowed in the eve. Did housework and sewing Addie attended Z.M.S. 
Read for the children in the J. Instructor. 

Tuesday 26th arose at 5.10 W. mild fresh snow on the ground, did the 
weeks washing and other hard work. Sent Addie over to see litde Cousin 
Annie Conway, whois very ill of diptheria. Aunt Eliza being very glad of 
her help. At 8.30 took Nephi with me to see Effie quite a fall of snow 
on the ground and more coming down. Found her increasing in health, 
retired about 1 1 . very tired 

Wensday 25th arose at seven W. mild and cloudy did ironing and 
housework About 3. p.m. Sister Rowe came over and asked if I would 
watch little Annie to night and said that a little Maggie Allen next door 
to Aunt Eliza was dead. Soon after six Addie went over to see cousin 
Annie. At seven Sister Bird called with the intention of going with me 
to the leap year Ball. But I was obliged to relinquish the peasure as duty 
lead me amongts the sick and dying the Children and I spent the eve 
pleasantly together. Soon After ten Addie came home accompanied by 
Mr. D. Williams; I went back with him to Aunt Eliza's found little Annie 
very restless little hands very cold a very ofencive smell from her poor 
throat; about 1 1 . oclock her father arrived from Park City in answer to a 
telegraphic dispatch at half past twelve midnight she breathed her last. 
Assisted by her Aunt Jan ey I layed her out after which she looked very 
sweet and smileing. After clearing everything away pertainigs to her we 
sat in our colours till 6 a.m. 

Thursday 26th then went home, returned about 9. About ten Martha 
Morris came to see little Annie. Finding that she was dead proffered her 
help; about ten Martha and I went to Sister William's who had kindely 
offered her machine and hospatality to us to make little May Allen's 
burial suit about 3 p.m. we got through and dressed her and stayed to the 
furnal. About 5 p.m. began little Annie's clothes Sister Althera [Althea] 
Brown kindly proffered her help we sent both shroudes; finished Annies 
clothes about midnight Went to Sister Williams's to sleep. 
Friday 27th arose at 8. W. very cold snow on the ground pierceing wind 
went over to Aunt Eliza' at 9r nine assisted dressed little Annie, the funeral 
convined between ten and eleven. Bp. Pollard spoke after the furnal had 
gone we found Jonnie & Elias had diptheria. Stayed till the folks returned 
from the funeral came home in the eve found Sister Rowe sick Willard 
called. Retired about 1 1 . 

Saturday 28th arose at 8. W. still very cold. Sister Rowe better. Did clean- 
ing in the morning attended 14th Ward meeting p.m. from their went up 
town returned after dusk, did some repairing in the eve. 
Sunday 29th arose at six W. very cold did housework and reading in the 
morning. Nephi and gerrge attended S.S. Addie and Kate attended p.m. 

250 Before the Manifesto 

meeting. I called on Effie returned at 4.30 Bro Tuckfield ate supper with 
us Willard took Addie to meeting the children and I spent the eve at 
home pleasandy after meeting W. Burton G. Price Misses E. Beers L. Bers 
and Nellie [Mary Ella] Morris spent the eve with Addie returned at 9.30 

March 1880 

Monday 1st arose at 5.30 W. very mild helped with the weeks washing and 
housework, read for the children in the eve. retired about ten 
Tuesday 2nd arose at 5.330. W. very mild spent most of the day in sewing 
Misses Beers and Stanford called Addie wrote to her Father. The Children 
and I read in the Testment in the eve; retired at 9:40 
Wensday 3rd arose at seven. W. mild and cloudy. Did not feel very well; 
sewed most of the day visited my Block in the eve. Had an hour and a half 
conversation with Bro [Henry] Rudy before nine oclock Sister Roc came 
in and on medicine and Religon. reached home before 9. o'clock. Sister 
Rowe came in and chated pleasandy 

Thursday 4th arose at a few minutes after seven. W. cold fresh snow on 
the ground, at ten attended Fast Meeting; from there called on Effie. 
talked with Bro James [Roberts] Hall on the way concerning my Father 
he being aquainted with us in earley days of the church. Found Effie and 
baby's well. From there went to Committee Meeting. From there went to 
Town, returned home before dark, dureing the eve looked over a bundle 
of old letters received from my Husband while on his mission to Europe 
which caused many emotions to arise in our hearts especially where little 
Conway's name was mentioned who was burnt to death while his Father 
was on that mission Just the mention of his mo name caused Addie and I 
to weep bitterly. We retired about midnight. 

Friday 5th arose at seven ten W. clear and cold, did housework and color- 
ing; Miss Emma Williams called in the eve. Addie recived a letter from 
her Father. Nephi cut the palm of his right hand. Addie attended a party 
with Mr W.C. Burton came home at at 12.30 we retired at 1. o'clock 
Saturday 6th arose at 7 W. clear and cold, did cleaning in the morning; 
at two p.m. Addie Nephi George and Kate and I attended the Theater to 
witness the Sorcerer Mattenee 12 Snow began to fall fast at 5.30 trasacted 
busness in town reached home before dark Mr W. C. Burton called in the 
eve. retired at nine, we retired at ten. 

Sunday 7th aros 6.20. W. clear and bright did housework and reading 
Addie Nephi and George attended S.S. George and I attended Ward 

12. The Sorcerer was performed by Zion's Musical Union, an LDS musical society. Hicks, 
Mormonism and Music, 99-100. 

1880 251 

Meeting at 2. p.m. Miss Lizzie Kimbal spent the afternoon with Addie. 
Addie and Nephi attended Ward Meeting in the eve Mr. W. C. Burton 
called. We retired between nine and ten. 

Monday 8th arose at 5.20. W. mild and cloudy helped with the weeks wash 
and other work. Sister Bowlden called in the afternoon. Spent the eve- 
ning very pleasandy reading for the Children from the J. Instructor and 
looking over more old letters retired at nine 30. Addie has gone to see 
the Sorcerer again with her Sister Nellie. 

Tuesday 9th arose at 5.50 Weather clear and cold fresh snow on the 
ground. Spent most of the day in repareing. In the eve read a very pleas- 
ant peice for the Children from the J. Instructor; after they had retired 
continued my task of looking over old letters. Addie attended Y.L.M.I. 
retired at nine 30. 

Wensday 10th arose about six W. clear and mild spent the day in cutting 
and sewing blocks for a woollen quilt. In the eve read for Nephi in the J. 
Instructor. Then continued and finished my long job of looking over and 
assorting old letters; feel paid for my trouble. Retired at 11.30. 
Thursday 11th arose before seven W. mild and sunny continued cutting 
blocks. At 2. p.m. attended the funeral of Bro. B.T. Mitchel. who died on 
the 9. inst. The speakers were Prest. D.H. Wells, Bps. Hunter and Hardy, 
and Apostle J.F. Smith, their speaking was very good. Snow began to fall 
at 6.30. Called on Effie found her and Babes progressing fairley; spent 
an hour or so very pleasantly returned at 8.30 Addie recived a note from 
her Father. Five years ago to day my Father closed his eyes in death being 
about 77. years of age. 

Thursursday Friday 12th arose between 5 & 6. W. clear and verry cold 
worked on and finished the upper side of a quilt to my entire satisfaction. 
At seven 30 took Nephi George & Kate to see the Mormon Panarama 
exhibited at the 14th Ward assembely Rooms to a full house the views 
were very fine 13 and the audenc very attentive the Children were deeply 
impressed, returned before ten retired at 11. night bitter cold. 
Saturday 13th arose before 7. W. clear and very cold, spent the day in 
cleaning Addie attended 14th Ward meeting, spent the eve in attention 
to the Children reading and etc. retired at ten. 

Sunday 14th arose at 6.15. W. sill very cold as much so as January or decem- 
ber spent the morning in reading and housework. Nephi and George 

13. The "Church Panorama" exhibit was painted by Mr. Christiansen of Sanpete, Utah. 
It was exhibited in the Fourteenth Ward Assembly Rooms in December 1879 and 
illustrated "scenes in the early history of the Church . . . the subjects extending through 
the period from the first vision of Joseph Smith to his martyrdom in Carthage Jail." 
The Panorama was created "agreeable to the wish and according to the instructions of 
President Taylor." Deseret Evening News, December 8, 1879; December 9, 1879. 

252 Before the Manifesto 

attended S.S. At 2 p.m. George Kate and I attended Sacrement meeting 
in the Ward Hall, a good spirit prevailed. Addie and Nephi attended eve 
meeting retired at 9.30 

Monday 15th arose at 5.15. W. clear and pierceing cold, at 6.30 sat down 
to rip woolen clothes, at 3. o'clock p.m. went with Sister Rowe to call on 
Sister Lewis and on Sister Tollen on busness reached home at 5. Read for 
the little Boys in the eve from the J. Instructor; retired at ten; this evening 
John [William Evan] Avery accedently shot himself. 

Tuesday 16th arose at 5.45 W. cold and clear did housework dureing the 
day, ironing in the evening; Sister Foster called in the afternoon. Freddie 
Rowe was brought home drunk . Addie wrote to her Father; we retired at 
ten 30 

Wensday 1 7th arose at 5.45. W. mild and cloudy at six went up town to mail 
a letter to Park City; did housework in the morning at 1 . p.m. attended the 
funeral of John Avery Son of Evan Avery the speakers were Bp. Pollard & 
Apostle J.F Smith, the House was packed from there went to call on Effie 
found her and Babes well but she is not able to walk yet though babe is 
more than a month old. Came home before five tended to home affairs 
recived a letter from my Brother. Read for the Children in (Afar In the 
Forest.) 14 retired at 9.30. 

Thursday 18th arose at 6.5. W. cloud and mild, fresh snow on the ground, 
attended to home affairs in the morning. At 2.30 p.m. went to Society 
Meeting. On my way home called on Mother and Grand-Mother Williams 
to invite them to spend the day with Sister Kimbal next wnsday. Returned 
home between five and six. Read for the children in (Afar In the Forest) . 
To day Miss Sarah E. [Ellen] Olsen of our Ward was married by Apostle 
J.F. Smith to Mr. J. E. [Jeremiah Euchlet] Langford. Sucess to the sweet 
Songstress and her Husband. 

Friday 19th arose at 5.30. W. mild and cloudy sprinkling of fresh snow on 
the ground did a good deal of housework and at 10 a.m. attended Society 
Conference in the 14th Ward assembly Rooms. Brought my friend Sister 
Ridges home to dine with us returned at 2 p.m. to Con— returned at five. 
Her Daughter Miss Annie Ridges was married on the 22nd of January to 
Mr. David Williams an employe of Morris & Evans. Read for the children 
in (Afar In the Forest) retired at 9.30. 

Saturday 20th arose at 6.15. W. clear and less over, spent the day in clean- 
ing; Mr. David Williams called. Addie recived Wedding cards and cake 
from Mrs. J.E. Langford the bearer was Miss Emma Williams. Addie 

14. Catharine Parr Traill's Afar in the Forest; or, Pictures of Life and Scenery in the Wilds of 
Canada. Traill (1802-1899) was an English woman who immigrated to Upper Canada 
in the 1830s. She wrote several hooks addressing pioneer life in Upper Canada, hotany 
and nature, and the effects of pioneer settlement on the natural landscape. 

1880 253 

attended P.A. Conference, read for the Children in the eve from (Afar In 
the Forest) after attending to numrous duties retired at 1 1 . 
Sunday 21st arose at 5.20. W. fine. Nephi and George attended S.S. Spent 
the a.m. in reading and attending to home affairs at 2 p.m. attended 
Ward Meeting but came away again on account of Nephi. Addie attended 
evening Meeting. Retired at 9. 

Monday 22nd arose at 5.15. W. very fine; did the weeks washing and a good 
deal of other other work. Miss Williams, Miss Price and Mrs Waarwood 
[Ellen Ann Taylor Warwood] called. 

Tuesday 23rd arose between 5. and 6. W. still fair did housework and the 
weeks ironing. Spent an hour with Effie in the eve saw Sister Ashton and 
the Girls. 

Wensday 24th arose at six. W. clear andfine; atlO. o'clock called for Mother 
and Grandmother Williams, took them to visit Sister S.M. Kimbal as per 
apointment. Spent the day very happily with her and her aged guests. 
Her kindness and liberality I shall never forget. From there went up town, 
then went down to Effie to bring the Children home. 
Thursday 25 aros at 5.30 W. cloudy dusty and windy; turned cold and 
snowed in the eve. Did housework and millinary work Sister Warwood 
called. Bro Reves called as teacher. 

Friday 26th arose at 5.10. thre inches of snow on the ground the air quite 
cold; did housework and millinary work. Read for the children in (Afar 
In the Forest) in the evening. 

Saturday 27th arose at 5.15 worked on a hat till 9. o'clock. Then com- 
menced cleaning, continued till seven; performed other duties and 
retired at ten much fatagued. My Neice Mrs. Eldredge called on me 
at 1. o'clock with a message from my sister Mrs. Pratt Mrs. Warwood 
called also. 

Sunday 28th arose at 7.30. W. windy as yesterday all the snow gone, worked 
about the house in the morning attended Ward Meeting p.m. From their 
went to see Aunt Hannah & Nancy, also Cousin Tom and Mattie. reached 
home about six. Read for the Children in the Juvenile Instructor and 
(Afar In the Forest) retired at ten. 

Monday 29th arose aboute six. W. mild and clear; turned cloudy and chill, 
wahshed all day did other work in the eve; also read for the litde Boys 
finished our instructive and entertaining litde book of 204 pages. Afar In 
the Forest) 

Tuesday 30th arose between 6. &7. feeling very tired from over exertion 
yesterday. Wether cold little fresh snow on the ground, spent the day in 
sewing and coloring; at 4.15. went around the Block in company with 
Miss Beers. Called on Aunty Hannah, Tom and Mattie. Also Effie she is at 
last gaining strength, returned home before dark. This morning Freddie 
Rowe, Jim Smith, John Smith, Tom Mccan and Walter Bowering ran away 

254 Before the Manifesto 

from home no tideings yet. 

Wensday 31st arose at 5.15 W. cold and cloudy rain sprinkling at dark, did 
housework and millinary work. Sister Smith called the Mother of the run- 
away Boys. They all returned at 11 a.m. to day. My Nephew Willford O. 
[Wilford Owen] Ridges also called. Read in (My First Mission) 15 for the 
Children in the evening; we commenced it last night by Nephi reading 
the first chapter. Miss Annie [Clarinda] Heath is to be married this eve to 
Mr. J. [James T.] Beers of Park City, retired at 11.30. [In left margin: Wrote 
a letter to my Brother April March 31 1880] 

April 1880 

Thurday 1st arose at six 40. W. Mild; rain gentiy falling. At 10 a.m. attended 
fast meeting, at 2. p.m. went to Committee Meeting, from there called 
with Sister Duncanson to see Mrs Cora [blank] from there called on my 
Daughter Effie found her and Babies well and growing fast. Called also 
on Aunty Hannah & Nancy Tom and Mattie. Took comforts to Sisters 
Williams and Rhodes returned home aboute dark. Read a chapter for 
Nephi in (My First Mission) retired at 10. o clock. 

Friday 2nd arose at six W. cloudy and windy bgan to rain in the eve; 
did housework all day, recived a letter from my Husband. Read for the 
Children in (My First Mission) Received a letter from from my Husband 
this a.m. answered it this eve retired at 12. midnight. 
Saturday 3rd arose about six W. mild and very windy rained in the 
afternoon and night spent the morning in cleaning at 2 p.m. attended 
the Grand Dutchess 16 Mattin at the Theater took George and Kate, Addie 
took Nephi we reached home about six p.m. went down to Effie's after 
dark; from there up town in showful rain to the RO. took Nephi with me. 
Returned about ten; retired at 1 1 . 

Sunday 4th arose between six and and 7. at ten attended Stake Con — in 
the beautiful New assembly Hall accompanied by Nephi and George the 
speakers were Prest Taylor, Aposdes Woodruff and Thacther. there remarks 
were very good, spent the p.m. at home to take care of the Children Addie 
attended Meeting. Wrote another letter to my Husband sending him 
Con — news read for the Children in the eve in (My First Mission) 
Monday 5th arose at 5.10. W. mild and raining. Washed till after 9. attended 

15. George Q. Cannon, My First Mission. This is the first book in the Faith Promoting Series 
and is about George Q. Cannon's mission in Hawaii. 

16. The Grand Duchess w&s an Offenbach operetta first performed in the U.S. in 1867. It tells 
of "a duchess who hopes to win the love of a common soldier by promoting him, but 
finds he remains loyal to his simple sweetheart." Bordman, Oxford Companion, 273. 

1880 255 

morning meeting the speakers were Apostles B. Young J.F. Smith, and 
D.H. Wells, spent the a.m. at home attending to home affairs Addie 
attended p.m. meeting; also Y.F.M.I. at the 14th Ward. I read for the litde 
Boys in (My First Mission) 

Tuesday 6th arose at 6.40. W. mild and fine at ten o'clock attended the 
General Conferance; 50 years ago this day and this day of the week the 
Church of Jesus Christ was organized with six members viz Joseph Smith 
the Prophet, Hyrum and Samuel H. Smith his brothers, David and Peter 
Whitmer and Oliver Cowdery. In a private house, the residence of Mr. 
Peter Whitmer. Sen. Fayette, Seneca Co New York, on tuesday the 6th day 
of April 1830. 17 The speaker was Apostle FD. [Franklin Dewey] Richards 
then the statistacial report of the whole church was read By Bro. L.J. Nuttal 
[Leonard John Nuttall]. My Sister accompanied me home; Addie accom- 
panied her to afternoon meeting. I atten to matters at home. Read for the 
litde Boys in (My First Mission.) Addie attended a meeting of Y.PM.IA. 
held in the Assembly Hall. She recived a letter from her Brother Elias. I 
recived some money from my Husband. We retired about 1 1 . 
Wensday 7th arose between 6. and 7. W. mild and fine; at ten o'clock 
attended Con — Bro Levi W. [Ward] Hancock was called upon to speak; 
a great deal of important business was transacted and missionary names 
were read. Meeting p.m. the Authorities were sustained Prest Taylor 
spoke on many important things. Addie and I transacted busness in town; 
retturned about six Addie went home, I went down to Effie's for the 
Children rettrned about dark. Read a chap, for the Children in (My First 
Mission) retired about 11. o'clock. 

Thursday 8th arose about six W. bright and glourious. Bro. Parry of Ogden 
called who had lost three little Children scince we saw him last. At ten 
a.m. went to Con — . the speakers were the whole Quorum of Apostles, 
their speaking was Grand and glorious 18 And Bro Taylor at thir head 

17. Mary Lois may have found her information in Edward W. Tullidge's Life of Joseph the 
Prophet, which she mentioned reading earlier in her diaries. Tullidge says of this event, 
"[Joseph] made known to the brethren that he had received a commandment to 
organize the Church. Accordingly they met (six in number) at the house of Mr. Peter 
Whitmer, in Fayette, Seneca Co., N.Y. on Tuesday the 6th day of April, 1830." Edward 
W. Tullidge, Life of Joseph the Prophet, 74-75. 

18. This was the fiftieth conference of the LDS church and was declared a "jubilee," as 
celebrated by the Jews in the Old Testament. In the spirit of the jubilee, half of the 
community's debt to the Perpetual Emigration Fund, $802,000, was "stricken from 
the account, and forgiven." In addition, the lack of rain in the previous year, 1879, 
had caused the crops and stock of many church members to suffer. As a result, it was 
proposed that one thousand cows be distributed to the poor and that the Relief Society, 
which had been storing grain, should loan 34,761 bushels without interest for use as 
seed. Finally individuals were "urged to be lenient towards those indebted to them 
individually." Comp. History, 5:589-94. 

256 Before the Manifesto 

spoak Grand and God-like. Of all the thirty six years I have been in the 
Church and of all the Conferences I have attended thir has been none so 
Great and Grand as this. We have agreed to forgive the poor their debts 
and to happify and build up each other the morning Meeting was held 
till half past one p.m. Then ajorned till October next. Reached home 
about 3. o'clok spent what was left of the afternoon in doing house work. 
Mrs Jennie Browning called also Sister Williams of the 19th Ward also Mr 
David Williams of the 15th Ward, read another delightful chapt for the 
Children in (My First Mission) retired at 9.30. 

Friday 9th arose soon after 5. did housework most of the day; at noon 
Sister Foust called, stayed till 4. p.m. Miss Bowring called on business. 
Sewed some after they had gone. Addie and Kate attended P.A. meeting. I 
read for the Children in (My First Mission) retired between 10 and 11. 
Saturday 10th arose at 5.5. W. mild and sunny sewed nearley all day on 
litde Kate's clothes; this is her birth day. She was born at 15. minutes to 
4. oclock a.m. April 10. 1876 which makes her four years old today. Addie 
has bought her a doll and some dishes and she is very happy to day. Read 
another pleasant chap in (My First Mission) for the Children retired 
about ten 

Sunday 11th arose at 5.45. W. sill clear and warm, spent the a.m. in read- 
ing and housework. Nephi & George attended S.S. Spent a.m. at home, 
Addie and Nephi attended afternoon meeting in the Assembly Hall. 
Brother Penrose spoke exelently. Addie and Nephi attended evening 
meeting Bro T.F Howlls accompanied Addie home, we retired about ten. 
Bro James Moyle and his Wife Maggie [Margaret Anna Cannell Moyle] 
have lost their little Nelson [Moyle] to day. he died before noon and was 
buried after p.m. Meeting 

Monday 12th arose at six W. warm and Windy, did the weeks washing and 
other work Uncle Richard came to enquire about Becca Addie accom- 
panied Mr T.F. Howells to a party gotten up for the benefit of Bro King 
who started on a mission to Europe this a.m. Bro Griggs went yesterday. 
Addie returned after midnight converced with Bro Howells on several 
subject mostly religious retired about 1. o' clock lay awake most of the 
night thinking of what we had talked 

Tuesday 13th arose at six 30. W. cloudy and cold; snow began to fall 
about 11. a.m. Called on Aunty Hannah and Mattie. Mattie sick in bed. 
Came home before noon; worked in the garden again in the cold and 
snow; worked on a wollen quilt in the p.m. read for the little Boys in the 
(Juvenile Instructor) 

Wensday 14th arose at 5.30. W. clear fine and frosty, snow on the ground; 
continued working on the quilt. Recived a letter from My Husband. Called 
on Effie chatted with Sister Allcock on the way she has buried a little child 
to day also one last Tuesday the sixth inst both of Diptheria called on 

1880 257 

Aunt Nancy reached home at eight; Aunt Hannah waiting me. Told the 
Children a story called (Under The Snow) Answered my Husband's letter 
retired at 12. Midnight 

Thursday 15th arose about 6. W. changeable soon after 9. called on Effie; 
an hour later went with Addie and Kate up town to have the latter's like- 
ness taken. Came home and worked among the carpet rags, read for the 
Children in the eve in (My First Mission) retired at 11. wind blowing very 

Friday 16th arose at 5.30. W. still windy, rain began about 1. did some 
repairing; called on Aunt Nancy and Hannah about 9 a.m. prepared a 
heap of white rags for couloring also coulored a pair of pants. Read for 
the Child in (My First) Mission) This am. at 2 o'clock Bro James and Sister 
Maggie Moyle lost another little one [Seth Moyle] which makes two in 5 
days both of Diptheria. At 12 .m. to day Mr Armstrong buried another 
son both of Dipthria 

Saturday 1 7th arose about six W. cloudy and cold, half a foot of snow on 
the ground snowed at intervals all day. preared and colored carpet rags. 
read for the Children in the eve in the (Juvenile Instructor. 
Sunday 18th arose at 4.40 W. cold and changeable; at six sat down to 
read at half past began the morning duties, at ten 30 sat down to read 
again between 12. and 1. Auty Hannah called accompanied her to the 
(Assembly Hall) Apostle Orson Pratt addressed us, In the eve Miss J. Davis 
and Miss Sarah Evans called. Addie accompanied them to meeting. Miss 
Lizzie Kimbal and Mr D. Williams brought her home. Addie Nephi and 
George attended S.S. we retired be tween 9 and 10. 

Monday 19th arose at 4.55. W. cold and frosty did the weeks washing and 
cut carpet rags. Miss Williams called. Addie attended Z.M.S. retired about 
9. o'clock, recived a letter from my Brother. Tucsd 

Tuesday 20th arose before 5. W. cold cloudy and windy cut carpet rags all 
day. Called on Effie took the letter which Uncle Charles had sent also 
a song which he had composed for the (St George Choir) 19 and sent a 
coppy to my Sister and my self. Called on Aunt Eliza who was grieveing 
sadly for little Annie Conway returned between nine and ten. 
Wensday 21st arose at 4.35. W. still cloudy and windy but not so cold, cut 
carpet rags all day went up town at 5.30. cousin Becca called and accom- 
panied me. road home with Bro Bockholt. read for the Children in the 
eve in the (Juvenile Instructor) and conversed with Nephi about the 
plates of the Book of Mormon and Geography, retired about ten 1 1 was 
much disturbed during the night terrific wind prevailed 

19. The song referred to by Mary Lois seems to be a "Jubilee song" sung by the St. George 
choir, which Charles Walker composed for the fiftieth anniversary of the LDS Church. 
CWD, 491-93. 

258 Before the Manifesto 

Thursday 22nd arose between 7. and 8. snow on the ground. W. cold and 
thawing; cut carpet all day. Bro Reeves called as teacher paid him $2.00 as 
Temple donation for Jan. Feb. March, and April. Read for the children in 
(The Juvenile Ins) 

Friday 23rd arose at 6.30 W. cold and Thawing cut carpet rags all day. 
Addie Nephi and Kate attended Primary Meeting Read for the Children 
in the eve in the (Juvenile Instructor) 

Saturday 24th arose at 5.45. W. cold; more fresh snow on the ground, 
spent the morning in coloring; the afternoon in cleaning did some sew- 
ing in the eve, Nephi read a chapter in the Testament. Retired at mid- 
night. Recived a letter from my Husband. 

Sunday 25th arose between 7. & 8 feeling tired spent the a.m. in doing 
housework attended meeting in (The Assembly Hall) p.m. Bro. C.C. Rich 
and C.W. Penrose were the speakers. Addie attended evening meeting 
Retired abot 11. To day Sister Elizabeth [Foster Lindsay Thomas] Wife 
of Professor C.J. Thomas was buried. Aposde J.F Smith spoke in highest 
terms of the departed; a very large funeral gathered to pay their respects 
to the esteemed dead 

Monday 26th arose at 4.45. W. mild and fine did the weeks washing. Cousin 
Becca came in the p.m. Aunty Hannah called in the eve. Retired at 11. 
Addie and Becca attended Z.M.S. 

Tuesday 27th arose at 7. W. rather cold and cloudy; cut carpet rags all day 
Cousin Becca went home before noon I read for the Children in the eve 
from (The Juvenile Instructor) 

Wensday 28th about 5.30. W. mild and clear; spent the day in cutting car- 
pet rags, read for the Children from (The Juvenile Instructor) in the eve 
Thursday 29th arose at 5.15. W mild and beautiful, did housework all day 
some millinery work in the eve. Bro Evans called in the a.m. Cousin Becca 
and Rosa Jones Riter in the p.m. had a pleasant chat in the eve (with Mr 
Wm Williams) retired at 10.40 

Friday 30th arose at 5. W. still lovely; did housework and millinary work. 
Addie Kate and George attended PA. read for the litde Boys this eve in 
the (Juvenile Instructor) My Husband's oldest Son Elias arrived from 
Park City this p.m. in good health. A Company of immigrants arrived this 
eve from Europe being the first of the season 

May 1880 

Saturday 1st arose at 6. W. mild and bright spent most of the day in clean- 
ing; did some millinary work in the eve. at 7 a.m. my Husband's other Wife 
and litde Children went out to meet Him. at 3.30 they returned he is in 
good health My Soninlaw and my Husban's Brother Hugh also returned 

1880 259 

home. Albert Unger called twice, presented us with some oranges. Addie 
went to see the two headed Lady. 20 

Sunday 2nd arose at 5. W. fine and mild, read from 6. till 7 then read 
for the litde Boys till breakfast Nephi Georg and Addie attended S.S. I 
attended Tabernacle meeting p.m. four returned Missionaries spoke. J. L. 
Bunting Bro Blyth Geo. Emery and Bro Wolch and Apostie O. Pratt all 
spoke by the powr of God. 

Monday 3rd arose at six W delightful Litde Kate restless all night with a 
cough, btter this a.m. helped with the weeks washing and a good deal of 
other work 

Tuesday 4th arose at 6.15 W. still beautiful did housework and visited my 
block. Sister Kimbal called about Sister Reowe aiding her in careing for 
the baby, she had taken to rais Sister Foster and Willson [Jane Elizabeth 
Priday Wilson] called as teachers gave them 25 cts for the poor. 
Wensday 5th arose about 6. W. sultery a.m. rained and cold p.m. did house- 
work and went shoping in the eve. Took a sever cold. 
Thursday 6th arose at 5.35. W. very cold but clear. Did housework and went 
to Fast meeting had a good time my Husband warmly in favour of gather- 
ing the poor. p.m. went to Commttee meeting had another good time. 
Went up town again shoping acompaned by Addie and Katie; returned 
and transacted more busniness called on Sister Kimbal. my Sister called 
in my abcnce. Reached home about eight, retired at nine much fatuged. 
Addie and Nephi attended S.S. Singing class. 

Thursday Friday 7th arose at 5.30. W. cold tried to rest myself Aunty 
Hannah called Shed stayed several hours had a pleasant visit; did some 
housework in the eve, went out at seven 30 accompanied by Nephi did 
some more shopping called on Sister Parker. Called on Mrs Mollie Griggs 
presented her with a beautiful hanging basket of (Mother of Thousands) 
which I had raised, called on my Daughter Effie. Called on Aunt Hannah 
and Aunt Nancy. Sister Balser was there we talked about Conway being 
burnt to death; and She talked about her litde Eddie being drowned ; and 
of her being lef a widow at nineteen and Nauvoo troubles and sickness. 
Come home betwen ten and even evelen. 

Saturday 8th arose at 5.30. W. cloudy and rather cold, spent the day in 
cleaning retired at nine. Bro James Moyle lost another Son today; Walter 
[Wood Moyle] by name aged four years 21 

20. Millie Christine, "the Famous Two Headed Nightingale," performed at the Salt Lake 
Theatre in 1880. According to an advertisement, she had two heads and "speaks all 
languages, is able to converse with two persons at one time on different topics and 
in different languages, she can walk dance and skate." Deseret Evening News, April 29, 

21. Walter Wood Moyle (1876-1880), the son of Elizabeth Wood and James Henry Moyle, 
died on May 8, 1880. Two of James Moyle's sons by his second wife, Margaret Anna 

260 Before the Manifesto 

Sunday 9th arose at 5.30 W. cloudy and cold rained dureing the night 
Nephi and George attended S.S. Addie Kate George and I attended 
Tabernacle in the p.m. Bro Naisbet spoke Addie attended eve meeting 
Monday 10th arose at 5.45. W. mild and cloudy, did some housework, 
went up town a.m. and p.m. did not feel well after, re Nephi read in the 
Juvenile in the eve, Addie attended Z.M.S. 

Tuesday 11th arose at 5.15. W clear and mild windy dureing the day; con- 
tinued housecleaning; read for the Children in the eve from the (Juvenile 
Instructor) Mr. Thomas [Foster] Heath and Miss Sarah Brown were mar- 
ried day By Justice Pyper. 

Wensday 12th arose about 5.30. still windy. Cleaned the west bedroom, was very 
tired, bathed the Children and read for them in the (Juvenile Instructor) 
Thursday 13th arose about 5.15. W. cloudy and cold, worked in the gar- 
den a.m. sewed some in the p.m. and finished the west bedroom Nephi 
attended Singing School Mr. T.F. Howells spent the eve with us; Addie 
sang and played by ergent request. 

Friday 14th arose about six rain had falen during the night, snow began 
to fall at 7 7. this a.m. began to clear up about midday. Did sewing house- 
work and coloring Addie attended the theater in company with Mr. T.F. 
Howells. And this is my fortyfifth birth-day may God help me to keep 
faithful in his Kingdom to the end of my days Amen. 
Saturday 15th arose at 4.50 W. cold, clear and pleasant p.m. did millinary 
work and some house-work attended a funeral at 3 p.m. at the house of 
Bro James Moyle; he has lost four little Sons in less than three weeks of the 
dread schurge diptheria. The little one we have buried to day [Mahonri 
Moyle] ws died this a.m. 

Sunday 16th arose at 5. worked till ten read till 11:30. Nephi and George 
attended S.S. Addie and George attended Tabernacle meetings; Nephi 
Kate and I spent the afternoon at home; and the evening with Effie. thir- 
teen years ago today my little John Monday Conway was burnt to death . 
He would be 17 years old 22nd of august next if he had been living. 
Monday 1 7th arose at 5.5. helped with the weeks washing, did some sew- 
ing and housework and sewing. Sister Kimball called this a.m. Took the 
Children with me down to Aunt Nancy's this eve, returned direcdy. Addie 
attended Z.M.S. We retired about 11 oclock. 
Thursday 18th arose at 4.40. W. fine and warm, cut carpet till 8. at 9. went 

Cannell, died a month earlier, in April 1880: six-year-old Seth Moyle (1874-1880) 
died on April 16, 1880; and one-year-old Nelson Moyle died on April 10, 1880. Three 
more of James Moyle and Elizabeth Wood's children died later in May 1880: Mahonri 
Moyle (1878-1880), Ellen Moyle (born and died May 28, 1880), and Deseret Blanche 
Moyle (1872-1880). Thus, in the period of two months, James Moyle lost a total of six 
children. According to Mary Lois's later entry, all the children but Deseret Moyle died 
of diphtheria. 

1880 261 

over to Aunt Nancy on buisness; returned at 1 . made 35 sacks Mrs. [Cecelia 
Ward] Hall and her Mother Mrs. [Sarah Arthur] Ward called on business. 
Took the Children and went down to Effie's. retired betwen 9. and 10. 
Wensday 19th arose at 5. W. still beautiful cut carpet rags eight did mil- 
linery work most of the day Miss E. and L. Beers called. Bathed the 
Children and read for the Children 

Thursday 20th arose at 5. did millinary work a.m. attended Society Meeting 
p.m. Read for the Children in the (Juvenile Instructor) in the eve. 
Friday 21st arose at 6. W. cloudy rained a litde clear most of the day. did 
millinery work and went up town. Miss Lu Musser called to invite us to 
partisapate in a surprise party to my Neice Mrs Aggie Ridges next thurs- 
day. Read for the Children in the eve in the J.I. 

Saturday 22nd arose at 5.15. W. lovely did millinery work most of the 
day; some housework. Addie attended 14th Ward meeting the spirit of 
God was poured out upon the Sisters, they rejoiced greatly together. We 
retired about 1 1 . 

Sunday 23rd arose about 5.15. W cloudy soon clared up worked till 10.5. 
read and rested at 2. took the Children to Tabernacle spent the eve at 
home; read for the Children in (The Juvenile Instructor) 
Monday 24th arose at 5. W. rather cold and cloudy helped to make a sack 
of clothes for a little Boy who died yesterday morning of lung dease. 
Charles Fritz Schaerer — Son of Jearjean Schaerer and Bar Anna Barbara 
Schaerer then took the clothes and helped to dress him stayed to the 
funeral which was conducted by Bro H.C. Riser the german Bretheren 
sang O. My Father in german to the same tune theat we sing it. also Sweet 
rest in Heaven (in german) to the same tune as we sing it; in very good 
style , called of Sister Powell and Effie's. 

Tuesday 25 arose about 5 W lovely all the vegetation beautifully fresh 
and green sun bright and chilly. Did housework and Millinary work. Bro 
Reeves called as teacher retired about 1 1 . read for the Children 
Wensday 26 arose about 5.15 W. still very fine a little chilly and change- 
able did housework and Millinery work a.m. spent most of p.m. in look- 
ing over old volumes of (Juvenile Instructors) according to promise. In 
the eve bathed the Children and comenced to read a new story for them 
from the (Juvenile) called (Under the Snow) Retired about 11. 
Thursday 27th arose about 4.55. W. good surprise party postponed Did 
housework and Millinary work a.m. p.m. attended quilting at Society 
Hall. Called on Sister Rowe, who read her Husbands letter to me. reached 
home about six read for the little Boys in the eve. (Under the Snow) 
retired about 1 1 . 

Friday 28th arose at 4.40. W. fine, called at the office of the Juvenile also 
at Aunt Hanna and Nancy's and Mattie. little Eli sick. Did housework and 
coloring in the p.m. Bro William Nuttal of Round Vally called, read for 

262 Before the Manifesto 

the Children in the eve (Under the Snow) retired late 
Saturday 29th arose at five 15 W. fine Did house and millinary work a.m. 
at 3. p.m. my Husband took myself and Children Effie and babies out 
to see my Sister Found all well had a short but pleasant visit; returned 
before dark. Sister Hall called, to day Bro. James Moyle lost two more 
Children; little Dezzie [Deseret Blanche Moyle] aged eight and another 
litde Daughter of premature birth [Ellen Moyle]; makeing six in about 
five weeks all of the Diptheria but the last named , read for the Children 
finished (Under the Snow.) retired about 10. This eve at eight o'clock 
Sister Parker lost her Son Willie a youth about twenty of that dreadful 
plague diptheria. 

Sunday 30th arose at 4.30 W. cold and therating. At ten Bro Moyle's fiends 
attended the funeral of his little girls both wer laid in one coffin Prest 
A.M. Cannon preached out on the porch where the people assembled. 
At three 30 p.m. the people gathered around Sister Parker's gate; the 
remains of her Son were brought out in a coffin and placed on chairs for 
the friends to take a last look twentyfour veacles followed him; the ser- 
vices were conducted at the grave, the peakers were Bp. Pollard and Elias 
Morris. Addie attended both funerals I stayed at home all day 
Monday 31st arose at 5.15. W clear and chilly helped with the weeks 
washing and housework. Addie called on Aunt Nancy found little Eli very 
sick of h[blank] fever. Read for the littl boys in the J.I. 

June 1880 

Tuesday 1st arose at 5.40. W. sunny and warm. About nine a.m. called on 
Sister Parker chated with her about the death of her Sons; returned home 
and did housework and repairing till 3.30. Sisters Foster and Willson 
called as teacher gave them 25 cts for the poor. At four p.m. went around 
the Block with Miss E. Beers. Came home at 6.30. Called on Sister Price 
and Effie proffered to sit up with litde Eli came at 10 retired at 11. 
Wensday 2nd was waked about 4. o'clock by Aunty Hannah requesting me 
and my Husband to come quickly litde Eli is very ill. stayed with them all 
day and night, tried to sooth and comfort them; had the satifaction of 
doing so; Eli rested nicely. 

Thursday 3rd came home at 7. found litde Kate had been sick in the night. 
Did housework a.m. rested an hour or two attended Committee meet- 
ing Bp. presant had a good time. Took money and other things to Sister 
Willimas. Called on Eli came home at 5.30. sent provisions to the poor; 
read for the Children in the eve (A Mircalious Case of Healing) 22 retired 

22. G. W. Hill, "Cases of Miraculous Healing," Juvenile Instructor, February 15, 1880, 45. In 
this essay, Hill recounts the healings of a number of Native Americans upon baptism. 

1880 263 

about ten very weary. 

Friday 4th arose about six W. quite warm; did housework a.m. did repairing 
and millinary work. Addie, Nephi and George Joined the Ward and P.A. 
in a picnic up City Creek. Addie read for the Children (The Stolen Gold 
Piece) At eight 30. went to watch litde Eli called on Efne; Eli suffers much. 
Saturday 5th came home between seven and eight, spent the day in clean- 
ing did some millinry work. Read for the Children (A Faithful Sentinal) 
retired about ten feeling very tired. 

Sunday 6th arose at 5.30. W. beatiful; worked till evelen; read and rested at 
1.45. went with Addie Nephi George and Kate to the Tabernacl; Aposdes 
W.W. Woodruff and Orson Pratt spoke beutifully on the principles of the 
Gospel. Nephi and George attended S.S. Addie attended eve meeting I 
read for the Children (A Life Skecth) from the (Juvenile) 23 
Monday 7th arose at 5. worked till 10. p.m. retired at 11. Sister Warwood 
called on business. 

Tuesday 8th arose about 5. W warm then cold and cloudy, spent the day at 
Calders Farm. 24 

Wensday 9th arose at 4.30 W. fine and chilly; continued house cleaning. 
Miss Kate [O'Keefe] Bowring Called. Called on [Ellen] Gay Balser who 
is dying. 

Thursday 10th W. fine and chilly did millinary work, some housework; 
sat up with littl Eli Gay Balser died this a.m. Miss Mary Friday Clark was 
married this p.m. to Mr Willard Clawson had a grand weding 
Friday 11th little Eli no better had a bad night; from there called on Sister 
Ashton ate brakefast with her. Called on Effie Sister Duncanson Sister 
Parry & Sister Balses. Little Gay is a beautiful corpes. Came home at 12. 
m. rested half an hour; did housework p.m. Called on Aunt Nancy Eli was 
very ill came home about midnight 

Saturday 12. arose at six did housework till 10 or 11. attended the funeral 
of Elen Gay Balser Daughter [blank] and [blank] Balser aged 15. years and 
six months Prest A.M. Cannon spoke in a very ernest manner his subjects 
wer grand from there called on Sister Clark whos Daughter was married 
on thursday was recived very cordially. Called on little Eli found him no 
better came home about 2. p.m. At 9.30. went to sit up with little Eli 

23. B., "A Life Sketch: Containing a Few Moral Lessons," Juvenile Instructor, February 
15, 1880, 44. This essay describes two faith-promoting experiences of the author. In 
the first, he is tempted to steal grain but refrains and finds that when he goes to sow 
the grain that he lawfully purchased, his grain has multiplied to be far more than he 
originally bought. In the second essay, the author prays to find some stolen horses, and 
the horses are recovered. 

24. Calder's Park was a popular resort in the southeast region of Salt Lake City (west of 
Seventh East and south of Thirteenth South) that contained a small lake for boating. It 
was later renamed Wandamere. Fohlin, Salt Lake City Past and Present, 123. 

264 Before the Manifesto 

Sunday 13 Eli no better; from there went to Effie's; went back to Aunt 
Nancy stayed till one, called on Sister Balser. At 2. p.m. attended 
Tabernacle accompanied by Addie Nephi Kate and George the peakers 
were Apostles C.C. Rich and O. Pratt. Misses Jane Lill and Kate Barlow 
called also Miss Lizzie Kimball. Addie and Nephi attended eve meeting 
the speakers were Apostle W.W. Woodruff and John Morgan Prest of 
Southern Mission Addie sat up with litde Eli we retired at ten. 
Monday 14th arose at six W clear and Bright washed beding and wool read 
for the Children in the eve (Delta The Faithful) 23 retired soon after ten. 
Tuesday 15th arose at 5.30. W. fine air chilly, did housework and millinery 
work; read for the Children finished (Delta The Faithful) Nephi read a 
chapter from the Bible. Misses Price and Parker called on busness. 
Wensday 16th arose at 4. W. warm; did housework and millinary work; 
Sisters Warood and Russell called also Sister Emery, retired about ten 
Thursday 1 7th arose at 5. W. warm did housework and millinery work. Cousin 
Annie called little Eli better. About dusk called on Sisters Russell and Price 
also also Aunt Nancy littl Eli better. Called on Sister Parker retired about 1 1 . 
Friday 18th arose at 4.10 W. warm and very windy attended Stake Society 
Conference in the (Assembly Hall) Wind and dust dreadful. Spent the 
afternoon at home rested some read some sewed Misses Price and Parker 
called on busness Addie spent the afternoon at Calders Farm in company 
with Mr David Mr [blank] Rolands and Miss E Beers had an excelent time 
returned about 9. p.m. Between 1 1 and 12 Anty Hannah came and waked 
us up stateing that little Eli was worse, stayed all night with them, came 
home about eight o'clock; hard of the death of another little son of Sister 
Schearer of diptheria; was notified to make his clothes but it did not tran- 
spire so did housework a.m. rested one hour p.m. did sewing and house- 
work. Addie attended PA. and Y.L.M.IA. retired about 1 1 . 
Sunday 20th arose before six W. beautiful, worked till 11. Addie Nephi 
George and Kate attended S.S. all but Nephi attended Tabernacle meet- 
ing Apostle Orson Pratt addressed us Addie attended evening meeting 
Nephi and I read a chaper in the Bible I read in the Juvenile for them Mr 
David Williams spent the eve with Addie 

Monday 21st arose before 5. W. still charming; did kitchen a.m. continued 
housecleaning p.m. Sister Ridges called in the eve. Addie attended a straw- 
berry supper at Bro George [Washington] Price's had a pleasant time. 
Tuesday 22nd arose about six 30. W. fine, did housework prm in the a.m. 
attended a lecture at 2. p.m. at the theatre by Dr. Pratt Did sewing in the 

25. "Delta the Faithful" is set in the ancient city of Herculaneum at the foot of Mount 
Vesuvius. In the story, Mount Vesuvius erupted and buried both cities, but many 
years later the skeleton of a faithful dog trying to guard a young boy from harm was 
unearthed, fuvenile Instructor, August 21, 1875, 200-201. 

1880 265 

eve. Bros Reeves and Johnson called as teachers this eve had a long chat. 
My Husband left for Park City at 7. a.m. to day I retired about midnight 
Wensday 23rd arose before 5. W. fine; did housework and millinary work, 
my Husband came from Park City. 

Thursday 24th arose at 5. W. warm, worked as yesterday. The seccond com- 
pany of imigrants arrived this eve two little Boys that came in with them 
ate supper with us name respectfully Gardner and N. Thomas 2 '' Effie and 
Baby paid us a visit pleased to see see her able to be out again. Mr. G. 
Roberts was married also Bro Howlls 

Friday 25th arose at 5. W. hot did housework and millinary work. Misses O 
and J. Parker called on business also Aunt Nancy. Addie attended PA. 
Saturday 26th arose at 5 W. warm did housework and millinary work; Bro 
Jones of Provo returning Missionary with the company who came in yes- 
terday ate supper with us. I retired between 12 and 1. 
Sunday 27th arose at 6. W. warm. Addie Nephi and George attended 
S.S. George and I attended Tabernacle Meeting, the speakers were B.F. 
Cummings GQ. Cannon, and Pres Taylor, we retired about ten Mr. D 
Williams accompanied Addie home. 

Monday 28th arose at 5.15 W. warm did a large washing and other work 
Aunt Hannah called also Mr Willard Burton, retired about 11. 
Tuesday 29th arose about 5. weather increasing in heat. Did housework a.m. 
ironing p.m. Sisters Foster and Willson called as teachers gave them soap 
and money for the poor. Miss Beers also called; and Aunt Hannah came 
to say that her litde Nephew of Salt Creek had been killed that day by a 
horse. We called on Aunt Nancy at night My Husband and our Daughters 
Addie and Nellie and our son Nephi started this a.m. for Park city 
Wensday 30th 4.45. W. clear and warm; did housework and millinary work 
and visited my Block in behalf of the poor. Bro Evans presented me with a 
beautiful picture (The Lords Prayer) illustrated retired at eleven. 

July 1880 

Thursday July 1st arose at 5.20 did housework sent provisions to the poor. 
Took George & Kate to fast meting at ten a.m. spent noon hours with Effie 
and her dear one. At 2 p.m. started for Committee Meeting; called on 
little Eli fond him gaining, talked with Sister Brown on business. While at 
Committee meeting was appointed to visit the newcomers of the Ward as 
they shall arrive in connexion with Sister Pollard and Ballser. Took com- 
forts to Grandmother Williams. On reaching home found a letter waiting 

26. This company of 332 immigrants left England on June 5, 1880, on the steamship 
Wisconsin and arrived in Salt Lake City on June 25, 1880. Chronology, 106. 

266 Before the Manifesto 

for me from Addie. Did some millinary work. Sister Kimbal called. Took 
the letter to Effie returned at 10 and retired. 

Friday 2nd arose at 5.10 W. warm and dry wrote to Addie, did housework 
the rest of the day retired at 9.30. 

Saturday 3rd arose at 3.30. cleaned thre rooms stairs and upper and 
lower hall and windows went to Stake Conference at ten Prest Taylor 
AM. Cannon andJ.E. Taylor Spoke. Attended p.m. meeting Apostle W. 
Woodruff and Elias Smith spoke, did shopping in town and returned at 
seven retired at ten 

Sunday 4th arose at 5.5. W. very warm; took Kate and George and attended 
meeting at ten 30. the speakers wer S.H. Eldrige G. Romney and Miller 
Alwood 2. p.m. the speakers were Apostles J. F. Smith and Georg Q. Cannon 
the discourses wer beautiful and grand ." came home at 5. retired at 9. 
Monday 5th arose before between 9. and 10 went to see the procession 
with little Kate. George went with his father. Uncle Richard took us up to 
the Coop window we had a good sight; returned home at 11.30 thinking 
there was no place its rested and read in the afternoon Rachel Jenkens 
called. Retired about 1 1 . 

Tuesday 6th arose at 5.15 W warm and cloudy rain sprinkled for a moment 
or two Did the weeks washing and housework Aunt Hannah called we 
retired about ten. 

Wensday 7th arose about 5. W. warm and dry; did housework all day retired 
at 9. 

Thursday 8th arose at 4.40 W. as useual; did housework and ironing retired 
at 11. Sister Margret [Margaret Morgan] Powell Wife of Reece Powell 
died this a.m. between eight and nine oclock. Recived a letter from Ad. 
Friday 9th arose at 5. W very hot. Did housework and sewing. At 3. p.m. 
attended the furnarel of Sister Powell the peakers were Elders Thos 
Jereme and Elias Morris. This eve my Husband recived a telegram state- 
ing that His Brotherinlaw Edward Parry of Cedar City was not expected to 
live. Answered Addie's letter also sent a note to Nephi; retired at 11. 
Saturday 10th arose at 5:30. worked in the garden did sewing and house- 
work and went up town, retired at 1 1 . 

Sunday 11th arose at 5.15 W. cold and cloudy. At 2 p took George and Kate 
and attended Tabernacle meeting Bros George Teasdale and W. Woodruff 
spoke exelently. Called on Bro and Sister Pollard on Committee Business, 
supped with Effie came home at seven, read for George in the Juvenile 
(The Eagle and the Baby) 27 retired at 10 

27. Set in Scotland, the story tells of a large eagle that swooped down and snatched a baby 
and brought it to its nest in the cliffs. A young boy then scaled the cliffs and rescued the 
baby from the eagle's nest. "The Eagle and the Baby," fuvenile Instructor, May 10, 1873, 


1880 267 

Monday 12th arose at 4.40 W. cold but clear winter clothing pleasan Did 
the weeks washing and housework, my Neice Mrs. Aggie Ridges called 
read for litde Georg (Paul Hampton's Good Luck) 28 retire soon after 9. 
Tuesday 13th arose at 5.30 W. chilley did housework a.m. sewing p.m. 
recived a letter from Addie and Nephi answered both. Read for little 
George (Gideons Fleece) 29 retired at 11. 

Wensday 14th arose at 4.50 W. cool a.m. hot p.m. Did housework sewing 
and ironing. Mr and Mrs Jameson of Park City called, retired at 11 
Thursday 15th arose at six 15. W. fine. Visited some new comers in connec- 
tion with Sister Pollard returned at 12.15 did some sewing before starting 
at 9.20. At two p.m. attended sewing meeting. At 5. p.m. visited the poor 
family again accompanied by Sister Foster who could speak their lan- 
guage; took them some cloth. Returned at six did some housework and 
millinery work went down to Effie's for the Children Mr Jameson and his 
friend stayed with us again we retired at 1 1 we called on Aunt Hannah 
and Nancy heard of the death of Sister Kimballs baby. Also of a little Boy 
of Mrs Elsworth. presented Effie and Sister Ashton with a card written to 
the memory of little Jessee who died about two years ago 30 Frid 
Friday 16th arose at 5.40. did housework and millinary work. Bro and 
Sister Jameson left for Ogden. My neibour Sister [Mary Margaret] Jane 
Morgan is very sick; 

Saturday 17th arose at 5.10 did millinary work and housework. Called on 
Sister Morgan who is still very sick. Went up town; returned and met Sister 
Duncanson helped her wash and anoint Sister Morgan, Sister Janet Griggs 
assisting us. She recived instant relief, kissed and embraced us fervently, 
arose and dressed herself but in the eve grew worse. We retired at ten 30. 
Sunday 18th arose at 6.15 W. hot and sultery; worked till twelve, read and 
rested, at two took George and Kate to the Tabernacle Bro Orson Pratt spoke 
on marrage. In the eve, Edward and little sweet Eddie called then Effie and 
Baby folloed, called on Sister Morgan after they retired. We retired at ten. 

28. This story tells of a young man named Paul Hampton, who found a pocketbook filled 
with money on the ground. He returned it to its owner and received a large reward. 
"Paul Hampton's Good Fortune," Juvenile Instructor, March 15, 1873, 47-48; Juvenile 
Instructor, March 29, 1873, 51. 

29. This is the biblical story of Gideon, who according to the story was chosen by the Lord 
to help deliver Israel from the Midianites. At first Gideon did not believe the angel 
sent to him to tell him of his mission, but after the Lord fulfilled his request to find 
a wet fleece on dry ground and a dry fleece on wet ground, he accepted the mission. 
"Gideon's Fleece," Juvenile Instructor, August 30, 1873, 137-38. 

30. Jessie Pearl Morris, the daughter of Elias Morris and his first wife Mary Parry, died at 
age two on August 16, 1878. The card Mary Lois spoke of probably contained a poem 
titled "A Tribute to the Memory of Little Jessie Pearl Daughter of Elias and Mary P. 
Morris," which Mary Lois wrote about Jessie at the time of her death. Morris, A Few 
Thoughts of Mary L. Morris: Dedicated to Her Children, 23-24. 

268 Before the Manifesto 

Monday 19th arose at 4.40. W. very hot; did housework caned fruit did 
sewing; Sister [Anna Maria Biehl] Rudy called om on business. I called on 
Sister Price on business; called on little Eli found him sitting up. I recived 
a very pleasant call from Sister Rowe, pleased to see her happy and pros- 
perious. Retired about ten. 

Tuesday 20th arose at 5.40. W. very hot; did housework repairing and wash- 
ing. My Husband's other Wife taken sick of fever. Retired at ten 
Wensday 21st arose at 3.30 W. very hot; did housework finished washing 
made seven sacks and twelve sacks called on Sister Morgan who is still 
very sick. Retired about 1 1 . 

Thursday 22nd arose about six. W. intencely hot. Did housework and a 
good deal of millinary work; Aunt Hannah called yester day, little Eli 
quite sick yet. 

Friday 23rd arose at 4.40. W very hot. did housework and millinery work 
and went up town my Daughter Addie and Son Nephi arrived from Park 
City in good health. I worked late on a hat retired at 2 p.m. 
Saturday 24th arose at 5.5 at 8.45 went to see the Prosesion which was the 
grandest I ever saw in my life, supposed to be two miles and a long, from 
their went to eat ice cream with Uncle Hugh and His Wife and Children. 
Saw the Prosesion pass again. Went to the Tabernacle the entertainment 
there was grand yea sublimely Grand." 31 dismised just before three Effie 
and Husband and Babies called Father took us and them out riding 
retired about 1 1 . 

Sunday 25th arose at six 20 W. very hot. Worked till after twelve at 2. p.m. 
attended Tabernacle meeting which is still beautifully decorated. Aposde 
E. Snow continued the subject of yesterday, in an intencely intresting man- 
ner, returne about 5. p.m. called on Sister morgan in the eve, who seemes 
some better. Mr. D. Williams called in the eve; brought Addie home stayed 
the eve I retired between 1 1 . and 1 2. A horrible death occurred today about 
noon today in the 16th Ward, a man his wife and children were burned by 
an oil can explodeing one child is dead the others ly very low low 
Monday 26th arose at 4.10 to wake my Husband to take the early train for 
Frisco retired for an hour or two then did some repairing. At 8.30 my 
Daughter Addie and Son Nephi and my Husbands other family started for 
Park City. Spent most of the day in sewing did some housework, retired 
about ten. 

31. Utah's Pioneer Day is celebrated annually on July 24. In 1880, the parade for this 
occasion was three miles in length. The surviving Pioneers of 1847 rode at the front of 
the parade, followed by wagons featuring the historical events of the LDS church and 
the church's present activities. During the services held in the Salt Lake Tabernacle 
after the parade, Orson Pratt, the church historian, listed the twenty-five countries in 
which the church had missionaries, and representatives of these countries displayed 
their national flags. Comp. History, 5:617-19. 

1880 269 

Tuesday 27th arose about 5. W chilly rained dureing the night did the 

weeks washing, and housework. W. raining some and cloudy windy and 

thundering. Miss Lizzie Kimball called. My Husband returned from 

Frisco, also Fancy [Rosa Frances Morris] Ernest and Albert [Conway 

Morris] from Park City retired about ten. 

Wensday 28th arose 5.20 W. sill chilley rained some did a good deal of 

cleaning some sewing assisted in washing and anointing Sister Morgan. 

left her quite comfortable. Sisters P. Kimball and Mary Grey did the prin- 

capal part Sister Bowlden moved into the room formaly occupied by 

Sister Rowe retired between nine and ten 

Thursday 29th arose at 4.10. W. cold did some repairing, and the weeks 

ironing, prepare food for the immigrants who came in to day. retired at 9. 

Friday 30th arose at 4.20. W. warmer, did housework and dress makeing 

retired at 9.30 Aunty Hannah called litde Eli still sick retired betweent 9. 

and 10. 

Saturday 31st arose before 5. W. very hot continued dressmakeing. Sister 

Janet Griggs called had quite a chat with her. Went up town in the eve 

retured at dusk; retireded at 9.30. 


August 1880 

Sunday 1st arose at 5. W. still very hot; worked till 11.30. read and rested, 
attended Tabernacle Meeting Orson Pratt spoke grandly came home 
and read feeling very very tired took little Kate and George with me, we 
retired at 9. 

Monday 2nd arose at 4:15 W. hot did the weeks washing and a good deal of 
cleaning retired about ten. 

Tuesday 3rd arose before 5. W. very hot. Ironed and cleaned the celler; did 
some coloring, wrote a letter to Addie and Nephi retired at 1 1 . 
Wensday 4th arose at 5.10 did housework, worked among fruit made Jelly, 
did sewing; Aunt Hannah called retired at 11. My Husband started for 
Park City accompanied by Miss Lizzie Kimball. Sisters Foster & Willson 
called as teachers gave 25 cts for the poor) 

Thursday 5th arose at 4.30 W. very hot did housework and sewing at 8.30 
took little Kate and visited my Block; haveing sent little George with dona- 
tions for the poor. At ten a.m. went to Fast Meeting came home at 12. at 
3. p.m. attended Committee meeting at 4. went up town; at 5. accompa- 
nied by Sisters Balser and A Duncanson vistied a family of new comers. 
Supped with Effie foud her and family well came home about eight did 
some more work. Bro Reeves called as teacher chatted with him several 

270 Before the Manifesto 

hours on principle; paid 2.00 as Temple donation retired between 12. & 

1. Johnnie Lloyd was marred to day. 

Friday 6th arose at 5.30 W. very hot Called on Sister Kimball, recived cloth- 
ing and sent it to she Sister Saley the lady whom we visited yesterday. Took 
comforts to Grandmother Williams, came home about 1 1 . did house work 
and made 34 sacks. Felt very anxious over little Kate may God preserve 
her from all harm 

Saturday 7th arose before 5. W. very hot mornings and evenings cool. 
Worked in the garden till about eight. Went up town saw my Sister whil 
up town, came home at thre 30 did housework and some millinary work 
retired at ten 30 
Sunday 8th arose about six W. very hot worked till lis read and rested, at 

2. p.m. attended Tabernacle meeting took little Kate, Bro CW. Penrose 
delvered an excelent discourse on the reserection. attended evening meet- 
ing took Kate and george Bro Penrose addressed us again in a delightfull 
manner. Called on Effie after meeting came at 9.30. This morning Sister 
Bell Russell Johnson presented her Husband with two verry fine Sons. 
Yesterday Dr. Tanner finished his forty days fast in good condition; he has 
walked unasisted every day, and rode and recived company, water alone 
has sustained him. 32 

Monday 9th arose at 5.15. W. as useual. Did the weeks washing and house- 
work. Aunt Hannah called retired about 9.30. very tired. 
Tuesday 10th arose about 5. did housework all day went for a ride with my 
Husband and little George in the eve. Retired at ten; the wind blowing 
fearfully dureing the night. 

Wensday 11th arose at 5.5 W. Windy cloudy and dusty did housework and 
ironing recived a letter from Addie and a note from Nephi. little May 
Ridges called; Aunt called in the eve. I retired about midnight 
Thursday 12th arose at 5.45. W. somewhat threating. At ten 30 took Kate 
and met Effie and Babe called to see Bell Johnson's beautiful twins all 
doing well, spent the rest of the day at Sister Ridges in company with 
many friends sewing carpet rags, came home earley, prepared supper 
wrote to Addie and Nephi retired about midnight. Recived a poster card 
from my Brother. 

Friday 13th arose at 4.45. W. windy, did housework and sewing retired at 

Saturday 14th arose at 5. W. hot cloudy tried to rain; did housework and 
went up town; saw Sister How who requested me to call and see her Sister 

32. Dr. Tanner concluded his forty-day fast on August 7, 1880. During the fast, which was 
widely reported in newspapers, he consumed only water and lost thirty-six pounds. 
About two thousand people in Salt Lake City visited the hall where he was located on 
the day he concluded his fast. Deseret Evening News, August 7, 1880. 

1880 271 

whom I have not seen for nearley thirty years; Retired at ten. 

Sunday 15th arose at six W. not quite so hot. did housework a.m. attended 

Tabernacle meeting p.m. Bro Orson Pratt delivered a grand discourse. 

on the Temple in Jackson Co Missouri. 33 Aunt Hannah called three 

times dureing the day was troubled over property affairs. Took little Kate 

and George with me to p.m. and eve meeting. George attended S.S. we 

retired at nine Born to the Wife of Wm. S. Burton August 14th 1880 twin 

Daughters, one is dead, mother very poorly. Poor Willie nearly eight years 

ago he lost his darling Wife immedately after giveing birth to their first 

Child a Daughter also. 34 

Monday 16th arose at 4.40 W moderateing a little cool cool morn and eve 

did the weeks washing and some sewing, retired at ten 30. 

Tuesday 1 7th arose at 4.45. W. cloudy rained some in the eve. Made twenty 

sacks, did housework and the weeks ironing, and some cutting out. Bro 

Parry of Ogden called from the trains. I have heard this eve that my litde 

Grandson is sick. I retired at 12.30 midnight 

Wensday 18th arose at 5.20 W. as useual did housework, cut and worked on 

a skirt; did some reparing retired at ten 

Thursday 1 9th arose at 5.35. W delightful morn and eve hot dureing the day. 

At 1 1 . a.m. started out to visit the new comer. After calling on Sister Balser 

and my Daughter Effie and sending a note to Sister Pollard her and I and 

Sister Balser really began calling on those of the last company of Saints 

who have made their home in this Ward, commenced at 1. p.m. finished 

about four, reached home at five. At seven took litde George and Kate with 

me to call on Sister How who had asked me to call and see her Sister Mrs 

Thorp a lady whom I had not seen for nearley thirty years. While there met 

Aunt Mary Pratt who told us of the death of Bro Oliver Free, who was cut 

and gashed with a reaping Machene 10 days ago died at ten this a.m. came 

home at nine retired at ten 30. The S.S. had a trip to Lake to day and a 

dance in the Ward hall and picnic in Johnsons Grove to night. 

Friday 20th arose before 5. W. as it was calm and pleasant, did housework 

33. In this address, Orson Pratt spoke of the New Jerusalem and the Old Jerusalem, "two 
glorious cities to be built upon the earth in the last days," and compared the prophesies 
about these cities in the Book of Mormon and in Revelations. Jackson County, Missouri, 
is believed by the LDS church to be the New Jerusalem, where Jesus Christ will appear 
at his second coming. Deseret Evening News, August 16, 1880. 

34. William Shipley Burton's first wife, Julia Marie Home (1851-1872) died on November 
26, 1872, while giving birth to the couple's only child, Julia Home Burton. The 
young child, Julia Home Burton, died eleven months later on October 24, 1873. In 
1879, William Burton married a second wife, Eloise Crismon (1857-1904). The twins 
mentioned in Mary Lois's diary entry were their first children. The twin who survived 
was Evadna Burton (1880-1923), but the other twin's name is not recorded in the 
Family History Library. 

272 Before the Manifesto 

swed most of the day; Aunt lavinia and little Vinnie Vaughan called in the 
eve. Recived two letters from Addie. answered them retired at ten leave- 
ing the letter unfinishd. 

Saturday 21st arose at 6. W. fine; did housework and transacted Busness 
up town; Aunt Hannah called p.m. retired at ten. 

Sunday 22nd arose at 5.20 W. as yesterday called on Aunt Hannah for a few 
minutes worked till 11. read and rested at 2. p.m. attended Tabernacle 
meeting the speakers were John Morgan and Prest Taylor. Prest A.M. 
Cannon spoke in our Ward, retired at nine. 

Monday 23rd arose at 6.30. W cloudy and threatening did the weeks wash 
and housework and entertained company. My friend Mrs. Clara Loverag 
called, and Her Husband afterwards. We retired between 9. and ten. Tu 
Tuesday 24th arse at 5.40. W fine did the ironing and housework and some 
sewing retired between ten and eleven. Reeved a letter from Addie. 
Wensday 25th arose at 5.45 W. as yesterday; made a pair of pants for George 
and began a pair for Nephi. Miss Williams called in the afternoon. Aunt 
Hannah in the eve. George and Kate and I called on Effie at night litde 
Eddie well, this a.m. at 7. my husband left for Montana to be gone for two 
months with his Son Elias and four of his workmen, his other Wife and 
Babe accompanied Him they all went with the Firemens excurton. We 
retired about ten. 

Thursday 26th arose at 3.45. W. much cooler worked on Nephi's pants 
most of the day finished them at 5. p.m. Recived an a letter from Addie 
and answered it. Johnnie came home from the Park this eve with Will 
Brimly. Retired about ten 30. 

Friday 27th arose at 5.15. days growing shorter and cooler. Worked on a 
dress all day wrote to Nphi; retired at 9. o'clock 

Saturday 28th arose about six W as useual sewed most of the day 3. p.m. 
went to the 14th Ward meeting met my Sister and Neice Mrs Pratt and 
Eldredge transacted business up town came home at six retired at ten 30 
Miss Jane Barlow called. Little Kate very feverish this eve and night. 
Sunday 26th arose at 6.25. W. cool and breezey little Kate rather better 
worked one till one took litde George and Kate to Tabernacle meeting 
Bro Naisbit spoke exelentely. took the children to Ward meeting the 
speakers were Levi W. Hancock and A.M. [Amos Milton] Musser My 
Sister abode with us over night the rain sprinkled dureing the day. Sister 
and I and the Children called on Effie after meeting found them well and 
happy. We retired about 1 1 . 

Monday 30th arose at 6. heavy rain dureing the night rather cold this a.m. 
visited with my sister this a.m. had a good time did the weeks washing this 
p.m. Aunt Hannah called we retired at nine, reeved a letter from Addie. 
Tuesday 31 arose at 4.45 W. cold sewed till six; did housework the rest of 
the day. Effie called this a.m. we retired at nine 15. 

1880 273 

September 1880 

1st arose at 4.35. W. chilly and fine did sewing and ironing visited the 
Block took litde Kate with me we retired soon after nine. Sisters Foster 
and Willson called as teachers gave comforts to the poor 
Thursday 2nd arose at 4.30 W. fine did housework and some cutting out at 
ten attended fast meeting called on Miss Parker and Sister Morgan, also 
Aunt Hannah and Effie. At 2 p.m. went to committee meeting; after that 
called on Sister Hull who arrived in the last company of Saints. Took com- 
forts to Sister Williams came home at seven; wrote to Addie and retired at 
ten 30. Sent litde Georg and Kate with fast donations this a.m. 
Friday 3rd arose at 4.30. W. fine did housework and sewing went up town 
in the eve. Sister Speight called, ye last night my neibour Sister John 
[Mary A.] Smith presented her Husband with a beautifull daughter. 
Uncle Hugh came in from Park City. We retired about ten. 
Fri Saturday 4th arose before 5. W. fine. Worked most of the day on a car- 
pet for the dineing room Aunt Hannah assisting me. I recived a letter 
from addie my Daughter and one from my Husband. Uncle Hugh went 
back to the Park this am. takeing a hansome presant to Nephi of a draw- 
ing slate and its appendages. Another of my neibour Mrs Richard [Eliza 
E.] Smith presented her Husband with twin daughters this a.m. Sister 
Terry lost a little Boy of diptheria. We retired at 9.15. 
Sunday 5th arose at 4.30. W fine and warm; worked till after ten, read 
and rested; at 1.45 went with the Ward to meet Prest Hays and Party. 3 " 
came home at 5 very tired spent the eve at home wrote to my Husband in 
answer to the letter I reeved on Saturday a.m. Apostle J. F. Smith preached 
in our Ward this eve. We retired at 1 1.30. 

Monday 6th arose at about 5. W. fine did the weeks washing and house- 
work; called on Sister Kimball relative to the reception of Prest Hays and 
party held at the Walker House, the same left our City at 12.55 this p.m. 
retired soon after nine. 

Tuesday 7th arose before six feeling very tired made 12 sacks by 7. did 
housework and scwin fruit drying and attended to little George who is 
rather poorly with cold feaver and sore throat. Sister Mcalister called 
retired about 9.30. 

Wednesday 8th arose before six W. very warm did housework and ironing 
and made 12 sacks. Called on Cousin Wm C. and Diantha found them 
from home. Went down to Aunts Hannah and Nancy spent half an hour 

35. On September 5 and 6, 1880, U.S. President Rutherford B. Hayes, the president's wife, 
Lucy Hayes, and General William Sherman visited Salt Lake City. It was hoped that 
President Hayes's "coming into contact with the people might correct the president's 
judgment on Utah affairs." Comp. History, 5:611. 

274 Before the Manifesto 

very pleasantly little Eli able to walk with his Mothers help. Came home 
about nine retired about ten Prest Hays and Wife and party left at 1 .30 on 
Monday leveing pleasant recolections behine haveing taken special pains to 
converce with Prest Taylor and party coming from and going to Ogden 3 '' 
Thursday 9th arose at 5.30 W. still quite warm Did some millinery work 
made a dress for Kate attended sewing meeting visited the new School 
house called on Sister Speight recived a letter from Addie and Nephi 
answered Addie's retired at 10.30. 

Friday 10th arose at 5.30. W. still very warm, recived another letter from 
Addie answered it and Nephi's of yesterday. Did housework and millinary 
work in the eve called on Cousins Wm C. and Dianthia Morris. Went down 
to see Effie but found she had gone to a surprise party held at the house 
of Bro Griggs gotten up in behalf of Bro Wm R. Jones a young Gndeman 
of our Ward who is called on a mission to Europe. Came home about 
nine myself and Children very tired we retired about ten. 
Saturday 11th arose at 5. W. fine air rather chilly about seven went up town 
to transsact business, returned about 11 called to see Sister Eliza Smith's 
Babies, felt almost sick with fatiage did some repairing soon after 2 p.m. 
attended 14th Ward meeting the spirit of God was poured out upon the 
sisters several spoke in tounges and the interpretation was given, came 
home at 5.30 retired at ten 30 

Sunday 12th arose at 5.15. air quite chilly sunshine warm worked till 11. 
read and rested at 2. p.m attended Tabernacle meeting the speaker 
was Apostle Albert Carington came home at 4.30 wrote to my Brother; 
attended Ward meeting the speakers were Wm. R.Jones who starts tomor- 
row on his mission and Elders John Midgley and Roral [Royal Barney 
Sagers] Young they spoke in an exelent manner had much of the spirit of 
God. Called on Sister Eccles where I had lef my letter finished it directed 
two card to my Brother accompanying the letter which I had written to 
him; took them to Cousin Diantha who starts for St George in the morn- 
ing. Retired at 11. 

Monday 13th arose at 5. W. warm, did housework millinery work and sew- 
ing composed some verses for little Clara [Claire Isabel] Bockholt's birth- 
day to which George and Kate went. We retired betwee eight and nine 
very very tired 

Tuesday 14th arose at 5.30 W. fine did housework fruit drying and preser- 
veing retired at 11. 

36. Three railroad cars containing prominent Utah citizens and church leaders were 
attached to President Hayes's train as it departed from Salt Lake City. Soon after leaving 
Salt Lake, Hayes "entered the rear cars and after shaking hands with all, took a seat 
near President John Taylor and remained conversing with him until the train neared 
Ogden." Comp. History, 5:614. 

1880 275 

Wensday 15th arose at 5.30 W. fine did the weeks washing and housework. 
Thursday 16th arose at 4. sewed till 6.30 a.m. cloudy began raining about 
4 p.m. rained till midnight. Did housework ironing and preserveing. 
Attended a grand Concert in our new Meeting house came home at 11 
took litde Kate & Gerrg; retired at 12. 

Friday 17th arose at 5.15. sill raining did housework ironing and sewing. 
Jesse Morris of Weber called. I retired at 10 

Saturday 18th arose at 5.15. W. drizzling, did housework sewing tranated 
business up town convrsed one hour with Bro Evans at the shop on 
Church Affairs. Went to the Court House and registered my name as the 
Daughter of a naturalized Cit. 37 hunted for the 6 from 7. till 10. retired 
at 11. 

Sunday 19th arose at 5.40 W. [illegible word] and fine. Worked all morning 
at 2 p.m. took Kate and George to the Tabernacle. We were addressed 
by Apostle Orson Pratt who said in the course of his remarks that fifty 
years ago to day he was baptized into the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter 
day Saints. And sixty nine years ago to day he was born into the World. 
And that next wensday Sept. 22nd it will be fifty three years scince Joseph 
Smith recived the plates containing the Book of Mormon — his discours 
was very Grand bour a strong testimony to many great events that will 
come to pass and which the faithful will see . Attended eve meeting in the 
new Meetinghouse which was Jamed the speakers were CW. Penrose & 
J.F. Smith. Retired at 10.30. 

Monday 20th arose at 5.45. W. fine did the weeks washing and housework 
retired at 9. 

Tuesday 21st arose at 4.30. did sewing house cleaning and painting did 
some writeing in the eve; Sister Rhodes came in and chatted for an hour. 
We retired at 11.30 

Wensday 22nd arose at [blank] W. warm sewed till six painted most of the 
day did a good deal of cleaning in the eve Jeddie Ash ton called in the eve 
retired at 9.30 

Thursday 23rd arose at 4.30 did some cutting out till six at nine called on 
Sister Clark presented her with a card containing verces of my own com- 
position. Called on Effie and Aunt Nancy came home at noon at 4. p.m. 
attended a birthday party being his fiftieth year came home at midnight. 
Friday 24th arose before six called on Aunt Nancy, did house work and 
ironing reeved a note from Addie and answered it stayed all night With 
Aunt Eliza who was confined on the 22nd inst at ten 40. of a fine Son she 

37. Mary Lois and her parents, William Gibson Walker and Mary Godwin, emigrated from 
England to the United States in 1850. As Mary Lois's mother died a year after their 
arrival, it was most likely her father who became a naturalized citizen of the United 

276 Before the Manifesto 

has had a very critical time and is still in great pain. 

25th left Aunt Eliza about 6.30 called on my Nephew Wm C. Morris 
reached home before seven, at nin road up town with Bro Evans road 
back with Bro Bockholt continued painting. Recived a call from my 
little Neices Crla bell, Lewie and Beatrice; who brought me a book of 
poms by Mrs MaryJ. Tanner just out. 38 At 3.30 attended Y.L.M.I. Society 
in the Assembly Hall took little Kate and Georg with me; though very 
late going in was well repaid for it; Bro J.E. Taylor spoke beautifully and 
affectonately as workers of good in the midst of the Saints incrouged us 
to look well after our Children and watch our sons strictly and by our 
love and faith draw them in the straight and narrow path. Transcasted 
business in town was accompanied home on the way home by my dear 
friend Miss Emma Williams. Reached home at six. Varnished nine 
chairs and with the proffered help of my neibour Sister Rhodes put 
down the new carpet in the dineing room; which looks very bright fine 
and pretty feel payed for all my time expence and trouble. Retired at 
ten 30. 

Sunday 26th arose at [blank] W. very fine a little chilly; walked about tow 
hours after the cow, fasted to day, worked till near one o clock rested 15. 
minutes attended Tabernacle meeting with little Kate. George attended 
S.S and spent the day p.m. with Effie. Georg and Lizzie Ashton recovred 
from diptheria. The peakers this p.m. were Elder Peter Reid returned 
Missionary and Apostle O. Pratt. The furth Company of Saints arrived at 
[blank] We spent the eve at home being almost sick with weariness. Sister 
Rhodes called in the eve. retired at 11. 

Monday 27th arose at 5. W. fine frost on the ground repaired some cloth- 
ing till seven, did the weeks washing and composed some vercs did house- 
work and worked on a shirt for Nephi, retired at 9.30 
Tuesday 28th arose at 5. W. fine, sewed till after six. did housework and 
made six sacks a.m. and did some writeing, p.m. prepared fruit for drying 
recived a letter from Addie; retire at 10.30 

Wensday 29th arose at 4.10 W. fine. Made twelve sacks before breakfast; 
did house cleaning painting and putting down carpet retired at 1 1 . 
Thursday 30th arose at 3.15. W. beautiful. Copied the verces I had com- 
posed from slate to paper; then wrote them from on gilt edged paper 
enclosed them in an envelope and carried them to Bro James Barlo the 
exptant Bridegroom, congratulated him and asked him to bear them 
to his lady love that is to become his Bride to day. It gives one great 
pleasure to be able to express ones feelings to thoes we love and respect 
especially when it is met with a hearty responce I had a very favourable 
opertuneity of giveing them him privately, received a letter from my 

Mary J. Tanner, A Book of Fugitive, Poems (Salt Lake City: J. C. Graham and Co., 1880). 

1880 277 

Brother. At 1.30. my Daughter Addie arrived from the Park and Nephi 
after an abecense of three months with the exception of comeing in for 
the 24th of July, accompanied Addie and Kate down to Effie's called on 
Aunt Eliza found her better. Came home at 5.30 Bro Reeves called as 
teacher, retired at 10.30. 

October 1880 

1st Friday arose at 4.45. W. still very fine, rather sultery. did housework 
most of the day. some sewing. Sister Rhodes was seized with a sad sweeling 
in her face to day it has reached down as far as her throat to night went in 
and tried to help her retired at 11.15. 

Saturday Friday 2nd arose at 5.15 W. very fine did housework spent most of 
the day putting down fruit. Addie out most of the day; Miss Lizzie Kimball 
called in the eve. Sister Rhodes confined to bed took breakfast to her this 
a.m. Retired at 10.30. 

Sunday 3rd arose at six W. quite warm. Sister Rhodes no better took nur- 
ishment and niceites dureing the day. Addi Addie George and Nephi 
attended S.S. I attended Tabernacle meeting the speakers were Elders 
Furgeson and Naisbet. I spent the eve at home with the Children, retired 
at nine 

Monday 4th arose at 4.30 W. lovely, sewed till 6.30 did housework and 
painting repared the parlor carpet. In the eve played blindmans Buff with 
the chilren 39 retired about ten. 

Tuesday fifth arose at 3.45 W. fine made nine sacks and did other sewing; 
made a hat over and trimed it, Attended a concert in the ward in the eve 
accompanied by Addie Nephi George and Kate came home before 1 1 . 
retired at 12. 

Wensday 6th arose at 6.30. W. delightful. Did housework and attended 
General Con a.m. the speakers were Apostles C.C. Rich L. Snow G.Q. 
Cannon and Prest Taylor, meeting ajorned till tomorrow 10 o'clock. 
Transcated business up town came home about 2. o'clock paid other five 
dollar donation to the P.E.F. did some cutting out and sewing and house- 
work, retired at 9.30 

Thursday 7th about 6 W. rather windy and dusty Addie Kate and I attended 
a.m. meeting the speakers were Apostles A. Carrington and W. Woodruff, 
meeting p.m. the statistical reports of the Church were read; then Prest 
J.T.D. Mcalister gave very good council and intresting discourse, came 
home about five retired before nine, converced with the Children at some 

39. Blindman's buff is a game in which a blindfolded player tries to catch and identify one 
of the other players. 

278 Before the Manifesto 

length on the subject of Abraham offering up Isaac as a sacrifice they 
listned with great attention, little George was much affected wept bitterly 
Friday 8th arose at 5.30 W. threating. I read till six 30. did housework and 
with little George attended a.m. meeting Apostie F.D. Richards spoke in 
a very intresting manner on the Missionary work. Bro G.Q. read a report 
of donations to the Manti and Logan Temples, p.m. meeting Apostle O. 
Pratt delivered a grand historical account of the work of God in the earley 
days of the world, occupied the afternoon. Reached about 4.30 did some 
sewing. Questioned the Children on the subject of last evening, played 
blindman buff with them for a while did some more sewing and read a 
skecth from the life of Prest Jededi M. Grant from the (Juvenile) 40 after 
they had retired. Retired at ten 

Saturday 9th arose at 4.30 raining steadily, did writeing sewing and house- 
work, attended meeting at 10. we had a beautiful discourse from Aposdes 
Moses Thacther [Thatcher] on forgiveing each other and keeping hum- 
ble. Bro Wells followede. Called at the Office transacted business in town 
reached home soon after one. After a good deal of dificulty reached the 
Tabernacle at 3:30 Bro Joseph Young had been speaking, a great many 
Elders were called on missions. Aposdes J. F. Smith spoke for a fewe min- 
utes in an excelent manner on the same subject as Bro Thacther this a.m. 
transacted more business in town litde Kate and George being with me; 
reached home about 5.30 retired before nine. 

Sunday 10th arose at 6.30 quite a snow fall dureing the night. Addie Nephi 
George and Kate attended a.m. Meeting Apostle O Pratt addressed us 
on the history of the Church and the order of the preisthood. 2. p.m. 
the following changes were effected and voted for; Prest John Taylor as 
Prest of the Church George Q. Cannon and J.F. Smith his Councilors. 
Apostle W. Woodruff as Prest of the Twelve, Bro FM. [Francis Marion] 
Lyman and John Henry Smith filling up the vacant places came in the 
courum by the change Prest Taylor and W. Woodruff addressed us and 
conference closed all the votes which were takes by each courum sepa- 
rately were anust. Spent the eve at home; questioned the Children on the 
life of Joseph who was sold into Egypt retired at 9.30 
Mondy 11th arose at six W. cold wet and windy did housework all day; 
my old friend Margret Williams of Cha Cache Valley accompanied by 
a Daughter presented her with two cards of my own composeing. Miss 
Lizzie Kimball called on Addie ths p.m. About seven this p.m. my Sister 
called spent a pleasant eve retired an hour after midnight 
Tuesday 12th arose at seven W. fine but rather cold; my Sister started for 
home at 11 this a.m. accompanied by Aunt Phoebe [E. Soper] Pratt whom 

40. This essay describes J. M. Grant's experiences as a missionary in southwest Virginia. T. 
B. Lewis, "Anecdotes of Elder Grant," fuvenile Instructor, October 1, 1880, 218. 

1880 279 

my Sister is taking wth her to visit. Did some sewing housework nearley all 
day; did some writing in the eve retired at nine 

Wensday 13th arose at 6. W fine did housework and sewing this a.m. Addie 
George and Kate went with me to see Effie, called on Sister Ashton and 
Aunt Eliza returned about nine yesterday Sept 12 our friend and neibour 
Bro J M. [James Mott] Barlow Jr. started on his mission to the Southern 

Thursday 14th arsse at 6.15. W. cold and windy did housework and worked 
amongst the rug and paper rags went to sewing meeting p.m. had a pleas- 
ant time. Bennie Labaron Son of my old friend Esther Labron was married 
to his cousin Miss [blank] Johnson. Took Nephi and George to see little Eli 
this eve took him a litde preent. Came before nine retired before ten 
Friday 15th arose at 5.20 W. pleasant did housework a.m. p.m. Effie and 
her sweet babes came to visit us; in the eve Bro Jones and Uncle Hugh 
called on business, recived a letter from my Husband retired at ten 
Saturday 16th arose at 5.30 W fine did housework all day Uncle Hugh 
called on business I retired at ten 30 

Sunday 17th arose before 5. read till 6 at 11 sat down to read; at 2. p.m. 
attended Tabernacle meeting the speakers were Milo Andrews and 
George Q. Cannon, they delighted us power of God which was upon 
them came home at 4.20 was had a time of enjoyement reading again in 
the Juvenile Instructor. Had two hours worriment with the cow who had 
been away four days. Took Kate and George and went to ward meeting, 
came home before nine retired at ten 

Monday 18th arose at 5.20 W. fine read till six washed beding most of 
the day read for the children in the eve from the Juvenile Ins. about an 
esqumoux family, 41 retired at nine. 

Tuesday 19th arose at 4. read till after 5. did some repairing; did house- 
work a.m. worked on a rug p.m. read for the Children in the eve, from J.I. 
A Reminscence by W.C.S. 42 retired at 9.30 

Wensday 20th arose at 5.40 W. fine did housework most of the day at 2.30 
attended the funeral of Bro Thomas Mathews who died [blank] the speak- 
ers were G. Bywater S.L. Evans and David Williams he was praised all that 
a mortal could be praised. Came home at four; read for the Children in 
J.I. as we did last eve retired at 9.30 
Thursday 21st arose before 5. read till six. did housework most of the day, did 

41 . This essay describes the living situation and dress of Eskimos and excerpts a passage 
written by an explorer who visited Eskimos on his travels. "Esquimaux," Juvenile 
Instructor, October 1, 1880, 217-18. 

42. This essay describes the author's experience of being ill and making plans for his 
burial. According to the essay, when he put his pen to paper, he received a revelation 
from the Lord saying that he would live, and the revelation proved true. W. C .S., "A 
Reminiscence," Juvenile Instructor, October 1, 1880, 219. 

280 Before the Manifesto 

some cloroing the children attended singing school in the eve retired at 9.30. 
Friday 22nd arose at 5.15. W. fine read from 5.30 till 6. did housework 
till 10. did millinary till 4. did housework afterwards Addie attended P.A. 
read for the children in the (J. I) did some writing after they had retired; 
did so myself at nine. 

Saturday 23rd arose at 5.5 W. lovely, read till six did housework till nine; 
did millinary work till five, called on Sister Morgan on business spent the 
eve in attending to the Elders, retired at ten 30 

Sunday 24th arose at 5.15. W. mild and cloudy, had a good time reading till 
6.30. Addie Nephi and George attended rehearsal at the Tabernacle for 
S.S. Jubalee. I attended Tabernacle meeting the speakers were Apostles 
O. Pratt and E. Snow. Sister Gardner accompanied me there and back. 
Addie, Nephi and George attended evening meeting Kate and I spent the 
eve at home after being dressed for meeting retired at 10.30 
Monday 25th arose at 4.35 W. cloudy and mild, sewed from 5 till six; did 
housework and some sewing a.m. transacted business up town p.m. saw 
my Sister while up town read for the children in the eve (a reminiscence 
Addie went to hear Moody and Sandy retired at 8.30 
Tuesday 26th arose at 3.30 wrote till 6.30 did housework am a.m. p.m. cut 
out a back and worked on it did housework again read for the Children 
(a reminisence) wrote to my brother this a.m. before day light retired 
before at nine 30. 

Wensday 27th arose at 6.15. W warm, worked on a dress most of the day told 
a story to the Children in the eve about crossing the plain, retired at 9.30 
Thursday 28th arose at 6.30 did housework and sewing a.m. p.m. attended 
sewing meeting did a good work and had a peasant time Called on Sister 
Lidia Bockholt who has a lovely Babe one month old her home is the picture 
of order and comfort, from there there went to Sister Christei [Christina 
Oliver] Bockholt found her well with a happy prospect; her home too is 
the picture of order and comfort. Came home at dark read two chapters of 
(A Reminisence) for the children. Did some writing Sister Rhodes came in 
on business; retired at 10.30 Addie recived a letter from her Father 
Friday 29 arose at 5.15. W. fine W. snowed yesterday was blustery and dis- 
eagerable. Read till six. at 4. o'clock this a.m a fire broke out in Morris 
& Evans Brick yard 43 distroyed one thousand dollars worth of property; 

43. The fire burned Morris & Evans's brickyard, located near Eighth South and Third West, 
in which firebrick was manufactured. According to the newspaper account, "[t]his 
morning at about twenty minutes after five o'clock, the several bells of this city began 
pealing the fire alarm. . . . The brickyard of Messrs. Morris & Evans in the Fifth Ward had 
taken fire, and the sheds were flaming up wildly." The fire caused one thousand dollars' 
worth of damage, and at the time of the newspaper account, its cause was unknown. 
It was believed that the fire might have been spread through the underground flues. 
Deseret Evening News, October 29, 1880. 

1880 281 

cause unknown but thought to be a defective flue under ground at nine 
when I visited Bros Evans and Maglaughlin were uncovering the still 
smouldering ground for rebuilding; met a load of lumber for that pur- 
pose on my return home. Did some cutting sewing and millinary work 
p.m. Attended Ward School being the last day of the term, came home 
about three, did millinary work till dusk. Sister Rhodes came in and chat- 
ted the eve I read for her (A Reminisence) Nephi and George went out 
with Addie. Retired at ten. 

Saturday 30th arose at 5.15. W. fine did millinary work till 2. p.m. did 
housework and repairing; retired at ten. 
November 1st 1880 

Sunday 31st arose at 5.15 W beautiful; Completed reading back numbers 
of the Juvenile Instructor which I comenced some weeks ago by rising at 
5. or before and reading till six. Began housework at seven, Addie has just 
come down stair looks paol pale and sick; Soon after ten Miss Sumerene 
Brown called on Addie to engage her to come and work with her at dress- 
makeing. George and Nephi attended the Jubilee in the Tabernacle this 
a.m. continued housework till after three. Nephi went to the Methodist 
Church Nephi and George attended Ward meeting this eve Dr. Clinton 
spoke Sister Rhodes spent the eve with us Addie better I retired before 
ten; at midnight arose to attend to Addie 

November 1880 

Monday 1st arose at 6.30 did housework and helped with the weeks wash- 
ing Addie helping with the work; Miss Emma Williams called this p.m. 
Retired at 9.30 

Tuesday 2nd arose before 4. read till 5. does till 6. did housework and 
washed beding a.m. washed carpet and cut peices for a rug. Sisters Foster 
and Willson called in behalf of the poor, gave them sugar tea 30 cts in the 
eve continued cutting piecs for a rug Nephi swed a string of two yards 
and a half George one and a half and Kate her portion. Addie attended 
Y.F.M.I. we retired at 9.30 

Wensday 3rd arose at 4.30 wrote in my Jornal and read till six did house- 
work till nearly 4. soon after, went around the block went to Bro James 
Lewis's on business returned home at 7.30. sadly tired, read some retired 
at 9.30 W. mild cloudy and sunny. 

Thursday 4th arose at 5.00 read and wrote till 6.15. Did housework sent 
donations to the poor attended fast meeting for the first time in our new 
Ward or meeting house, stones not put up yet. weather cold house Babies 
cold Bell Johnsons Twins were blessed also Sister Lidia Bockholt's Son 
Lewiy At 1 1 .40 this a.m. My Husband and his Son Elias reached the Depo 
from Montana having been abcent two month fourteen days passed the 

282 Before the Manifesto 

Meeting House as we were siting in fast meeting Bro Pollard spoke of it out 
aloud. This a.m. also Addie began to work for Miss S. Brown, p.m. attended 
attendid Committee Meeting took one pound of butter with me for the 
poor took litde Kate with me as a Society we finished paying one Hundred 
dollars to the new Meeting House. Took comforts to Grandmother 
Williams, came home at 4.30. attended to home affairs, Nephi Gerrge and 
I worked on a rug. Sister Rhodes came in, we retired at ten. 
Friday 5th arose at 4.30. W. cold and cloudy, did reading writeing and cut- 
ting out till 6. Did housework and some repairing Nephi, George and I 
continued working on the rug in the eve retired at nine 30. A week ago 
today Sept 29th Mrs. Sarah Oleson Langford presented her husband with 
twin Daughters. 

Saturday Saturday 6th arose before 5. wrote in my Jornal till 6. W. mild and 
cloudy called on Miss Foster Mrs Eccles called on business did housework 
all day repairing in the eve. retired at ten. To day Addie took her first 
music lesson from Mrs Felt. Is geting along nicly with her dress makeing 
Sunday 7th arose at 6.10 W. cloudy did housework till 11.15 read evening 
news and (Pearl of Great Price) At 4 attended Methodist Church to hear 
Moody and Sandy which caused me to prize the Gospel of the Son of God 
still more through hearing their Windy words void of power Came home 
at dark; attended Ward meeting was addressed by home Missionaries with 
a very good spirit Nephi George and Kate accompanied me. Retired at 
9.30 Today Sister James of our Ward has buried a little one of diptheria 
she buried one last thursday of same complaint 

Monday 8th arose at 4.20 read till 5.40. did housework all day attended 
a grand Concert Held in the Assembly Hall by Z.M.S. took Addie Kate 
George and Nephi; came home at 11 retired at 12. 

Tuesday 9th arose at 6.10 felt very wary did the weeks washing and some 
housework retired before 8. 

Wensday 10th arose at 4.40 read till 6 5.30 did housework all day W. like 
april to day; yesterday cloudy and cold. Monday hailed and snowed some. 
This eve George Nephi and I worked on a rug; retired at 9. 
Thursday 11 arose at 5.30 snow falling fast cleared up before noon. Did 
housework and composed some verces to accompany a grope of wax 
flowers presented to Miss Matie Salsbury on her Wedding day the flow- 
ers were gotton up by Misess Reene Brown Nell Brown Lou Stanford and 
Addie Morris. The flowers were a number of Pond lillies and a miniture 
swan placed beside them looking down into the water. 44 Sister Brown was 

44. In the Victorian era, women exhibited their dexterity and taste in creating decorative 
pieces such as this. In these exhibits, which were displayed on tables and mantels, 
women often attempted to imitate nature with cloth birds and feather or wax flowers. 
Green, Light of the Home, 148. 

1880 283 

the bearer of the present while the Bridal party were at the Endowment 
house. Attended sewing meeting this p.m. came home attended to home 
affairs, worked on our rug this eve. retired soon after nine. 
Friday 12th arose soon after 5. W quite cold did housework all day Nephi 
helped me in the kitchen in the eve while I read the news; worked on the 
rug After the children retired went to bed about 1 1 . 

Saturday 13th arss abot 6. W. cold and clear did cleaning all day, Miss Alice 
Pollard called in the eve with Addie; attendid to the Children in the eve 
and did some repairing retired at 10.30. 

Sunday 14th arose before 6. W. clear and cold, wrote in my Jornal before 
putting out the lamp. Attended to the children and the house a.m. Addie 
was busy and Nephi was late they all stayed from school and shared the 
same fate. Addie spent the p.m. with Effie Kate and I attended meeting 
in the Assembly Hall the first speaker Edward Brown returned missionary 
who spoke well for a few moments; he was followed by Bro John Nicolson 
who gave an excelent account of his labours and the work of God in 
Europe the spirit of God was poured upon him while speaking and tes- 
tified that it had been his companion whil on his mission. Bro George 
Q. Cannon spoke next in a very powrful manner the spirit of God was 
poured mightily upon him tears of joy often came to our eyes whil listen- 
ing. Came at 5. tried to attend Ward meeting but was prevented spent the 
eve at home with the Children Addie attended Ward meeting Bro GQ. 
Cannon spoke. I retired at 8. 

Monday 15th arose before 4. began washing soon after 5. finished at 12.30 
W. fine p.m. very tired read and tried to rest; finished the rug, made 
another over very bright and pretty, retired at 9.30 

Tuesday 16th arose at 5.40 snow on the ground did housework a.m. did 
the ironing and went up town trasacted considerable business before 
seven attended to home affairs Sister Rhodes came in had a pleasant chat. 
Addie attended Y.L.I.S. the weather to day has been perrceing cold high 
wind clear, retired before ten 

Tuesday Wensday 1 7th arose at 5.30. W. still very cold and clear did house- 
work all day read for a few minutes before puling the lamp; retired before 

Thursday 18th arose before 4. read till 5 to 6. Wether very very cold. Did 
housework a.m. Attended sewing meeting p.m. took little Kate with me. 
From their called on Effie and her sweet Babes. Called on Sister Ashton 
had a plasant interview with her and Sister Edward L. Parry of Sculpect. 
Paid a wedding call to Mrs. JW. Ashton called on Effie again before going 
home, reached home about 8 retired between 9 and 10 
Friday 19th arose at 6.30 W. still quite cold but cloudy and threting; did 
housework am a.m. and part of p.m. Did repairing afternoon and eve 
Nephi wrote in his Jornal and read a chapter in the Bible. Addie recives 

284 Before the Manifesto 

great encouragement from her Mistress in her efforts in dressmakeing. 
Retired at 9r30 10. 

Saturday 20th arose at 5.45. W. very cloudy did housework all day a.m. 
attended 14th Ward meeting p.m. and trascated business business in town 
as soon as I was seated in meeting was called upon to speak; Sister [Mary 
Isabella Hales] Home was abcent at her birthday party being her 62 brth- 
day. Met with Sister Uunger up town also my Husband, came home at 
5.30. Attended to home affairs children repairing retired at 11. 
Sunday 21st arose at 6.5. wrote in my Jornal before putting out the lamp, 
worked till evelen George Nephi and Addie attended S.S. we spent the 
p.m. at home there being no meeting in the Assembly Hall on account 
of an accedent with the pipes, spent the p.m. very plasantly reading back 
number of Exponant Addie attended eve meeting. I read for the Children 
from (A String of Pearls) 45 they retired at seven. I copied some verces 
from slate to paper retired between 9. and 10. Misses lizzie Kimball and 
lill [Elizabeth Dwight] Barlow came home with Addie. W. very cloudy. 
Monday 22nd arose at 5 sewed till 8; worked on a rug; at noon my Neice 
Mrs A Ridges called and spent a few hours with us. p.m. did housework 
and went up town with Addie and Kate we bought a carpet; came home at 
dark attended to home affairs worked on the rug again retired at 10.15. 
Tuesday 23rd arose before six did housework all day went up again about 
the carpet and other business, worked till nearley 9 retired at 9. 
Wensday 24th arose at 5.30 deep snow on the ground snowed all day clear 
and frosty to night did house work finished a bright pretty rug did the 
weeks ironing did housework till after 7. commenced another rug this 
eve the Children helping me. Miss Lizzie Kimball called on Addie 
Thursday 25th arose soon after 6. W. cold clear and bright, did housework 
till after 3. read till dusk; in the eve copied the verces again that I had 
written to our friend Bro A Unger by the request of his widow We had a 
very nice dinner and spent the eve very quiedy My Husband and I write- 
ing and Addie swing alltogether Thanksgiving day passed off very pleas- 
antly we retired soon after ten 

Friday 26th arose soon after 5. W. cold and clear did housework and repair- 
ing; Bro Chatfield called as teacher gave him one dollar of my own earn- 
ing as Temple donation. Did some repairing in the eve retired about 1 1 . 
Saturday 27th arose before 6. did housework till 3. rode up town with Bro 

45. A String o/Pearts: Designed for the Instruction and Encouragement of Young Latter-day Saints 
(Salt Lake City: Juvenile Instructor Office, 1880). The second book in the Faith 
Promoting Series, it recounts missionary and other faith-promoting experiences, 
including William C. Staine's experiences as a missionary to the Ponca Indians, 
Jedediah M. Grant's experiences on a mission in Virginia, and John Taylor's account of 
crossing the plains in 1849. 

1880 285 

Bockholt trancated business returned soon after 4. took litde Kate with 
me. Attended to home affairs did some repairing in the eve and attended 
to the children, retired at ten very tired 

Sunday 28th arose at 6.45. W. cold more fresh snow on the ground as yes- 
terday. Worked till noon. Nephi and George attended S.S. Addie attended 
meeting in the Assembly Hall in company with Ed and Effie. Prest G.Q. 
Cannon preached his farewell sermon before leaveing for Washington. 
Misess Lu and Flo Musser called to invite us to a surprise party at their 
Mothers Home on wensday next. Being uncucessful in persuading Nephi 
to accompany me to meeting I thought it better to stay at home with the 
children than leave them in the street to break the sabath; but this is a 
great denial to me. Spent the eve with the Children also read for them 
from (A String of Pearls) retired about nine 

Monday 29th arose at 4.20. began washing soon after 6. finished about 3. 
went up town with Addie and Kate transacted considerable business came 
home at six did some repairing and writeing in the eve retired at 9:30 
Tuesday 30th arose before six W. cloudy but still very cold; did housework 
and visited my Block; did some sewing retired about ten almost sick with 

December 1880 

Wensday 1st arose before six W. cold and blustery, did housework a.m. 

attended a surprise party this afternoon as per apointment at the house 

of Cousin Lin Musser came home after dusk took little Kate with me had 

a pleasant time met with many that I loved. Did some writeing in the eve 

retired about ten 

Thursday 2nd arose at 6.15 W. still very windy did ironing a.m. attended 

Committee meeting p.m. Bp Pollard met with us. Came home tended to 

home affairs, wrote in the eve retired at nine. 

Friday 3rd arose before 5 wrote till after seven wind still blowing. Did 

housework all day wind still wild as we retire after ten 

Saturday 4th arose before six deep snow on the ground did housework a.m. 

trasacted business up town took little Kate and George with me retired 

at dark; haveing bought many things for Nephi with his own earnings. 

When we reached home we found a beautiful set of chairs and lounge for 

the parlor; spent the eve in attending to home and the children retired at 

ten wind blowing again 

Sunday 5th arose at six fresh snow on the ground had a good time reading 

the evening News of friday last began to work soon after seven, worked 

till noon. Attended Assembly Hall p.m. took little Kate and George the 

speakers were Elder Wm C. Stayns [William Carter Staines], Prest AM. 

286 Before the Manifesto 

Cannon and Prest John Taylor Spent the eve at home with the Children 
read for them from the Juvenile Instructor retired at ten. 
erable Monday 6th arose about six W. bright and mild, did the weeks wash- 
ing and repaired a flannel dress, retired at ten 30 

Tuesday 7th arose at 5. W. mild and fine did housework and the weeks 
ironing; visited three old laides on my Block on offocial business. Mother 
Williams called this eve. 

Wensday 8th arose at 5.40 W. clear and pleasant did houeswork all day; 
retired about ten 

Thursday 9th arose at 5.40 W. cold and clear did housework a.m. at noon 
went up town with Kate and Addie returned before 2. at 3 attended sewing 
meeting, spent a plasant hour with the sisters there. Came home attended 
to home affairs. This eve Addie attended a seelect party in the Ward in 
company with Andrew Johnson, dureing his call related some intresting 
incidents of his recent Mission to the Southern States, did housework and 
writeing after the family had retired retired at 11:30 

Friday 10th arose at 5.45. W. cold and foggy did housework a.m. In the 
afternoon made three pairs of flannel panties for litde Kate. Aunt Hannah 
called. Did some repairing in the eve retired at ten. 

Saturday 11th arose at 6.15. W. cloudy and very mild did housework and 
went up town did some repairing in the eve retired after midnight, 
ar Sunday 12th arose at seven worked till one. In the afternoon Sister 
Brown and her Daughter Sumereene also Miss Sarah [Jane] Ashton and 
Alice Pollard paid us a visit had a very plasant time Addie sant and played 
for them we also sang together and alone which seemed to give them 
great pleasure; Addie accompanied her guests to ward meeting; the speak- 
ers were Aposde John Henry Smith and Frances Cope and peter Reid. 
returned Missionares had a splendid time After meeting Misses Jane and 
Lill Barlow and Lizzie Kimball called, we retired at 10.30. having spent 
one of the pleasantest) aftrnoons of our life. W. beautiful.) 
Monday 13th arose at 5.15 W. mild and bright as yesterday, washed and did 
sewing, read and wrote in the eve, Addie Nephi and Georg spent the eve 
with Effie and Mate. Came home soon after nine, retired at 9.30 
Tuesday 14th arose at 5.15 W. cloudy and very mild red and sewed till after 
seven; did housework and the weeks ironing, recived a pleasant call from 
Uncle Ed Parry of Cedar City who came up on last evenings train. This 
eve we were in danger of a great fire by a lamp being tipt and the burning 
oil spilt on the floor but by prompt and speedy action the blaze was soon 
extinguished. We retired at nine very very tired. 

Wensday 15th arose at 5.15 W. drizziling all day, rained yesterday, read and 
sewed till seven, did housework till 3. p.m. did cutting out began sewing 
at 4. sewed till after 11. retired before 12. read for the Children from (A 
String of Perals) Also read for them all monday eve, anecdotes of Elder 

1880 287 

Grant from the same book. 

Thursday 16th arose at 5.15 drizzily a.m. fine p.m. did the housework 
made 25 sacks and a pair of garments Mrs Ella Russell called p.m. This 
eve accompanied by Nephi called on Sister Unger Bro Salsbury and my 
Daughter Effie found them prepareing their new kitchen, for the paint- 
ers they wish us to spend christmas with them. Came home after nine, 
retired befor ten 

Friday 17th arose at 6.30 W. clear and beautiful, did housework a.m. 
attended R.F. Conference p.m. eccelent instructions were given, called 
on Effie before going home. Miss Williams called in the eve. 
Saturday 18th~W. very cloudy and mild did housework and went up town 
came home at dusk did some repairing Addie and Nephi went up town; 
we retired about 1 1 . Bro Saley died to day. 

Sunday 19th arose at seven worked till afternoon; George and Nephi 
attended S.S. Addie, George, Kate and I attended Assembly Hall the 
speaker was Elder John Nickelson. he spoke on the work for the dead and 
building Temples. Addie attended eve meeting I read for the children 
from the J. Instructor (Answer To Prayer) 46 we retired about nine 
Monday 20th arose at 5.30 W. snowing and raining began washing at 6.30 
finished about noon; made a shirt p.m. and eve retired ten. 
Tuesday 21st arose before 5. W. fine did housework and some cutting out; 
retired at 9.30 Effie called. 

Wensday 22 arose at 5.40 W. foggy a.m. warm and sunny p.m. did house- 
work and made a fine shirt for Nephi; Bro Chatfield called as teacher, 
retired at 9. 

Friday Thursday 23rd arose at 6. wrote in my Jornal till seven. W. wet did 
housework and ironing a.m. p.m. went up town to make percheses for 
Christmas came home at dark finished ironing did some sewing and reck- 
oning up retired at 1. o'clock 

Friday 24th arose at six 30 W. mild and cloudy did housework all day; 
called on Mrs Eccles who is sick in bed, and her Mother [Sarah Higham 
Spur] dieing. Litde Kate is sick to night, we retired at 11. 
Saturday 25th arose at 6.30 W. wet Katie better; Children delighted with 
there presants. We spent the day at home; called on Sister Eccles who 
is better her Mother died at this a.m. Nephi and George attended the 
S.S. party. This eve Aunts Hannah and Nancy called and Cousin Annie 
who are spending Chirstmas over to the other house. Effie's party did not 
come off on account of preveious engagements; she is gready disapointed. 

46. This essay recounts the author's experience losing his pocketbook while traveling over 
roadless terrain. After praying, he wrote, he allowed his horse to choose its own course 
and, after going a short distance, found the pocketbook. L., "Answer to Yrayer," Juvenile 
Instructor, December 1, 1880, 268. 

288 Before the Manifesto 

Addie has gone to a party with Ed and his Sister Sarah, we retired about 

Sunday 26th arose at 6.25. W fine. At 9.40 attended the funeral of Mrs Spur. 
Mother of our neibour Sister Eccles. the speakers were Elders F. Wells, J. 
Morgan and Andrew Johnson the two latter spoke very well the former is 
no speaker. Took litde Kate with me; felt sick rideing to the cemetary and 
back; reached home about noon. Attended Assembly Hall the speakers 
were Jessee west returned Missionary and Apostle J.F. Smith. Uncle Ed 
Parry called in after meeting. Addie attended Ward meeting the speakers 
were Aposdes J.F. Smith and W. Woodruff. We spend the eve at home read 
for the children (in Sunshine for Baby Land) retired about nine 
Monday 29th arose at 4.20 W. very mild and cloudy read and wrote till 
nearly six. began washing about 7. finished about 2. did some housework; 
spent the eve reading back numbers of the evening News; read for the 
Children in (The String of Pearls) retired soon after nine raining as we 
go to bed. 

Tuesday 28th arose at 5.10 read till nearley six; did sewing housework and 
ironing and cutting out; read for the children in the eve (Sunshine from 
Baby Land) Addie accompanied her Father and Sisters to the theatre to 
witness the very delightful Play of Pike." 47 retired at 11.30. snowing as we 
go to bed drizziled all day rained a good deal last night. 
Wensday 29th arose before six still snowing; continued all day. Did house- 
work and sewing read for the children in the eve (Sunshine Babyland) 
retired at 10.30. 

Thursday 30th arose at 5.45. W. cold and cloudy did housework a.m. went 
up town with Addie p.m. Attended a leap year ball in the eve took my 
Son Nephi his Father being otherwise engaged, had a good time retired 
about one o'clk 

Friday 31st arose at 8. W. mild and cloudy snowed a little all day. Spent 
the day in cleaning; wet up town in the eve took litde Kate, turned Back 
withoute transacting any business retired at 9.30 almost to weary to go up 

47. Pique, a play by Augustin Daly, was first produced in 1875. It is about a young couple 
living with the husband's father, who exacerbates their marital problems. The husband 
leaves; but immediately afterwards, their young child is kidnapped, and in the search 
for the child, the couple is reunited. Mary Lois saw the play herself three months later 
on March 28, 1881. Bordman, Oxford Companion, 499-500. 

"Conclude to Trust in God" 

January 1881 

Saturday 1st arose at 7. more fresh snow thawing and snowing but very mild 
Did housework till 11.30 called on Sister Eccles who is still sick, and her 
Daughter Libbie [Elizabeth Eccles]. spent the afternoon very plasantly 
reading. Effie sent for Addie to come over at 4.30. She has gone to a party 
with Ed and his Sisters Lizzie and Emma. Read for the children this eve in 
(Chatterbox) Two years ago to day I began to Keep a Jornal and have writ- 
ten something for every day scince I belive" though sometimes being too 
busy to write for several days have gone back and given an acount of events 
as they have occured; having wonce been two weeks without having time 
to write which was a great tax upon my memory but ccomplished it I find 
that my day book has been useful to refer to and intresting to read. I feel 
very thankful for the blessings surounding us this day and pray that we may 
apreac the same and make a wise use of those things intrusted to our care; 
retired at 11.30. 

Sunday 2nd arose at 5.30 W. clear and bright read till seven, worked till 
nearley noon. Addie Nephi and George attended S.S. We all attended 
the Assembly Hall, the speakers were John L. Smith C.W. Penrose and 
Prest John Taylor. The speaking was Grand . Addie and Nephi attended 
Ward meeting the speakers Bp R.T. Burton and John Morga. After meet- 
ing my Husband brought over three young Gentlemen from Cedar City; 
Sons of our friends Bros's and Sisters Hughes and Jones. It gave me great 
pleasure to see these children of my old friends took one back more than 
twenty years. 

Oh friendship fair thy streams are pure 
Thy foun tan's grand and will endure 
The heart is cheered and warmed by thee 
Thy links will reach eternity. 

Monday 3rd arose at 5.15. W. clear and bright finished washing at noon; 
did housework p.m. retired about ten 

Tuesday 4th arose at 5.15. W. mild something like april; did housework all 
day retired about ten 



Before the Manifesto 

Courlrsy of Special Collections Dipt., J. Willard Marriott Librar 

The Salt Lake City Temple Black in 1 883. Mary Lois often 

attended meetings in the Tabernacle (center) and Assembly Hall 

(left) on the Temple Black and mentions giving donations to the 

construction of the Salt Lake Temple. 

iity of Utah 

Wensday 5th arose at 5.35. W. mild and cloudy did housework a.m. Sister 
Duncanson called. Visited my block p.m. came home about 4. attended 
to home affairs did cooking and ironing in the eve. Miss M.J. [Mary Jane 
Eliza] Gardner and Mr Willard Burton are to be married to morrow. 
Thursday 6th arose about 6. Weather mild did housework a.m. and attend 
Fast meeting sent provisions to the poor p.m. attended Committee meeting 
gave groceries to the poor, came home about 4. attended to home affairs. 
Went around my Block again in the eve. come home before nine feeling 
thank that I am still able to attend to the duties placed upon me in a Ward 
capacity all that I called upon semed pleased with the invitation they recived. 
to day Mr. Willard C Burton and Miss Mollie J. Gardner were married. 
Friday 7th arose about 5. W. cold and snowing did housework all day 
retired about ten. Addie began takeing lessons from Bro A.C. Smith 
Saturday 8th arose soon after 6. W. clear and frosty, did housework a.m. 
and attended Conference for a little while felt well paid for so doing. 
Attended Conference p.m. had another excelent time Prest Taylor spoke. 
Reached home at 4.30 attended to home affairs retired before 11. This 
day at 4 p.m. my Neice Mrs B.E. Swan presented her Husband with a litde 

1881 291 

Sunday 9th arose at 6.15. W. cold and cloudy; did housework and attended 
morning meeting the speakers were Prest J. Taylor and Prest A.M. 
Cannon. Afternoon meeting the speakers were Apostles W. Woodruff J. F. 
Smith and John Henry Smith There is a pristhood meting in the Assembly 
hall this eve; retired before 11. 

Monday 10th arose at 4.30. W. clod cold and cloudy began washing before 
six stopt at eight called on Aunt Hatty [Harriet Maria Miner] Burton gave 
her a card containing verces composed for little Jesse tranacted business 
up town; came home before noon did housework; went up town at 5. 
called on Effie found her well happy and prosperious. presented with a 
portrate of myself handsomly framed, it being her 22nd birthday, came 
home about seven, read for the (Lost In a Fog) from retired about 10 
almost sick with weri fatuage 

Tuesday 11th arose about 6. W. mild and raining did housework all day, 
retired before nine. 

Wensday 12th arose at 3. read Delagate Cannons answer to Governor 
Murry, it is a splendid document, and showes in legal terms the Governors 
shameful fraud in giveing Allen G. Cambel [Campbell] the certificate 
that blonged to Bro Cannon by 18.000 votes 1 rested a while before 7. Did 
housework and ironing. W. raining and thawing all day, retired about 10. 
(From the Deseret Evening News of Jan 10th 1881) 2 

How big was Eli Murry Pa 
That people call him great 
Was he the handsomest of men 
From old Kentucy State? 

On November 2, 1880, in the general election in Utah for a delegate to Congress, the 
Peoples' Party candidate, George Q. Cannon, received 18,568 votes; and the Liberal 
Party's candidate, Allen G. Campbell, received 1,357 votes. Members of the Liberal 
Party argued that George Q_. Cannon was an unnaturalized alien, and thus all the votes 
cast for him were void. In addition, it was held that "the territorial law granting the 
elective franchise to women was void," and therefore the many votes Cannon received 
from female voters were illegal. Technically, Governor Murray's duty was only to certify 
the votes. Despite this, on January 8, 1881, Governor Murray issued the certificate of 
election to Allen G. Campbell. On April 20, 1881, the U.S. House of Representatives 
declared that neither Campbell or Cannon was eligible for the seat and that the seat was 
therefore vacant. While Cannon had won the election, they claimed that his practice of 
polygamy was a violation of the U.S. Constitution and made him ineligible to serve in 
Congress. A new election was held, and the position of territorial delegate was filled in 
1882 by John T. Caine. Comp. History, 6:2-11; Whitney, History of Utah, 3:130-60, 166-73, 

Mary Lois copied this poem about Governor Murray from the Deseret Evening News, 
January 10, 1881. As a poet herself, the political discourse that seems to have appealed 
to her was in the medium of poetry. 

292 Before the Manifesto 

O no my child his handsumness 
Existed but in name 
It was not glory made him great 
But greatness of his shame 

This brother fired Diana's dome 
So sages ancient story 
And Eli emulateing 
Stole Utah Territory. 

From the Deseret Evening News Jan 13th 81 3 

Minority" was a miner bold 

Where mormons tilled their farmes 

A Cannon knocked him off his lcggs leggs 

So he rose up in armes 

He felt himself a little off 

But others" set him on 

G And urged the Governor to send 

Him down to Washington. 

Agreed." quoth Murry, but I leave 
At wonce this saindy town, 
Lest, though a few may crack me up, 
The many crack me down." 

He then to the certificate 
Affixed his awful seal 
And generous gave Minority" 
What he himself did steal. 

Thus Eli wrought for Allen G. 
What And thus it came to pass 
While others wrote him up a knave 
He wrote himself an donkey. 

Thursday 13th arose at 6. W. mild. Thawing and snowing; at 1 1. attended a 
pic nic in the Ward gotten up especially for the old folks, of which there 

3. Talk of the Town, Deseret Evening Nous, January 11, 1881. 

1881 293 

was a goodly number in attendance and enjoyed themselves greately. The 
Bishop is highly pleased with our efforts. Broke up about 5. p.m. took 
comforts to the poor on my Block; came home before dark spent most 
of the eve writing in my Jornal Sister Rhodes came in and sat with us. 
This a.m. at 5 o'clock Cousin Mattie Morris gave birth to a daughter. We 
retired after eleven. 

Friday 14th arose at 7. W. still very mild and wet; did housework and went 
up town, returned at dark; attended to home affairs retired after nine 
very very tired. 

Saturday 15th arose before 6. W. drizziling still; spent the day in clean- 
ing, put the house in order after the poper hangers, which seemes very 
pleasant wonce more. Sisters Grey and Halley called, Little Willie Swan is 
very ill. Retired after ten. 
From The Deseret Evening News of Jan 13th 1881 4 

Gild the farthing as you will, 
It remains a farthing still" 
Rogues call rightious if you can, 
I will never make an honest,' man; 
Chothe him in a lion's skin, 
It cannot change the soul within; 
Let Murry roar as Murry may, 
His roar is but a feeble bray. 

Tho dastards deeme their leader brave 
His actions brand him as a slave, 
And hand him down to future age, 
A blot upon the Golden Page, 
Pile high a monument of shame 
Undying as his evil name — 
The synonym for coward crime 
Through all the changing scenes of time. 

Sunday 16th arose at 5.15 wrote in my Jornal till nearly 7. Worked till 
12.30. Effie and Edward came Effie and Babes spent the afternoon with 
us; Addie and Ed attended eve meeting Willard Burton spoke Elder John 
Morgan and Aposde John Henry Smith spoke at the assembly Hall this 
p.m. excelendy Effie and Babes spent the eve with us, we retired at ten. 
Monday 1 7th arose before six W. clear and fine as yesterday did the weeks 

4. Talk of the Town, Deseret Evening News, January 13, 1881. 

294 Before the Manifesto 

washing and housework retired about ten very tired. 
Tuesday 18th arose before 7. W. fine and feeling still very tired; did house- 
work and sewing Ed Parker and Uncle Hugh called to see my Husband. 
Nephi wrote to Brig Ashton. 

Wensday 19th arose at 5. W. clear and frosty, did housework and ironing 
retired before nine feeling very tired 

Thursday 20th arose about six. W. lovely; did housework and ironing; 
Sister Rudy called had a long chat with her. Theories Davis called to see 
my Husband in the eve. Addie and her Father attended a party gotten up 
by Y.F.M.IA. out of respect to Willard Burton befor going on his Mission. 
We retired after 12. 

Friday 21 arose before seven W. very fine did housework all day repairing 
in the eve and reading; retired after 1 1 . 

Saturday 22nd arose before seven W. cold and cloudy did housework all 
day repairing in the eve retired after 12. 

Sunday 23rd arose at 6.15. W. cold and fine worked all morning, p.m. with 
Addie Kate and George attended the Assembly Hall, the first speaker was 
bro George Renolds who came out of the [blank] last thursday a free 
man; to the Joy and delight of the latterday Saints; having been senten- 
stense to two years impriosnment and 5.00 dollars fine for takeing a sec- 
cond wife. On account of his good conduct he was released five month 
before the time expired. The house was Jamed," the choir sang Home 
Sweet Home on his accont which was very affecting, his speaking was all 
that could be disired. He looks quite as well as ever. The next speaker 
was Bro Mcmaster wh quoted scripture in a very forceably manner We 
all attended Ward meeting in the eve in our beautiful meeting Hous 
the speakers were Elder George Renolds, A.M. Cannon and Prest John 
Taylor, the house was packed and we had a good time. Retired before 

Monday 24th arose at 5.15. wrote in my Jornal till six 45 snow on the 
ground for the first time in two or thre weeks. Did housework and made 
19 sacks and other swing went up town came home at dark, read for the 
children in the eve from Sunshine for Baby Land, retired before ten. 

Third, day book of 
M Lois Morris 

[January 1881] 

Tuesday 25th arose at 5.10 W. cold and cloudy snow on the ground for a 
change; did the weeks washing and other work; read for the children in 

1881 295 

the eve from (Sunshine For Baby Land) retired about ten. To day Willard 
Burton started for his mission to the United States. 

Wensday 26st arose about [blank] feeling very tired did housework all day 
read for the children in (Sunshine for Baby Land) retired about 10. 
Thursday 27th arose before 5. read back Exponants till 6. did repairing till 
seven. Did housework a.m. attended Society meeting p.m. After meeting 
called on Ella Killpatric. On Bro [John] Clark with Nephi's tithing, then 
on Cousin Mattie Morris to see her pretty Babe. Came home before dark. 
Aunt Hannah and Tuesday 25th arose at 5.10 W. cold and cloudy snow on 
the ground ; did the weeks washing and other work read for die children 
in die eve in Sunshine for Babyland. Bro S. and Sister Ella Russell called 
in the eve retired before ten. 

Friday 28th arose before six W. cloudy and mild; did sewing till 7. did 
housework sewing watched Sister Ruth Pollard at night accompanied by 
Miss Orian Parker had a pleasant chat with Bro Pollard came home about 
eight this a.m. 

Jan 29th did housework and went up town, attended 14th Ward meet- 
ing for a few moments heard good instructions from Sister home, came 
home about 5. attended to home affairs retired at ten Nephi recived a very 
intresting letter from his S.S. teacher B.W. [Brigham Willard] Ashton 
Sunday 30th arose at 6. W mild and cloudy, read and wrote till 7. worked 
all a.m. attended Assembly Hall accompanied by little George the speak- 
ers were G.G. Bywater and C.W. Penrose, the latter spoke exclently; came 
home with Addie Effie Kate and George. Attended Ward meeting with 
Nephi and George the speakers wer Milando Pratt and H.C. Fowler, we 
retired about nine. 

Monday 31st arose before 4. W. a.m. drizzley p.m. Bright and fine did the 
weeks washing and housework and a good deal of cleaning; Aunt Eliza 
called this a.m. Sister A Brown this p.m. Worked till 9. wrote till half past 
and retired. 

February 1881 

Tuesday 1st arose at 6.30 W. very mild fine a.m. drizzly p.m. did housework 

and ironing felt tired all day from yesterdays work; retired about ten. 

Wensday 2nd arose before 6. W. very mild did housework a.m. went around 

the Block p.m. Sat up with Ella Killpatrick in company with Misess Lizzie 

Kimball and Barlow came home at 5.30 this a.m 

feb 3rd W. very mild and cloudy almost sultery; did housework; retired 

about ten Mrs A Brown called this p.m. 

Friday 4th arose soon after five; rained dureing the night has rained all 

day; did housework and repairing, retired at ten. 

Saturday 5th arose before six rain still coming down drizzled all day. heard 

296 Before the Manifesto 

of Bro Evans being very ill Did housework all day repairing in the eve 
retired before 12. 

Sunday 6th arose before 7. W. fine, worked till noon Attended Assembly 
Hall p.m. the speaker was John Nicleson called on Bro Evans after meet- 
ing found him better had been healed by the power of God. Spent the 
eve at home Addie and Nephi attended Ward meeting the speaker was 
Joseph E. Taylor who discoused excelently. Retired earley feeling very 
tired fasted to day. 

Monday 7th arose before 6. W. cold and cloudy did the weeks washing and 
housework retired about nine 

Tuesday 8th arose before 6. W. fine fresh snow on the ground, did house- 
work and cutting out a.m. Sister Atty called to say that Sister Ruth Pollard 
had died at 2 this a.m. we also heard that Thomas Heath died this a.m. at 
2.40. Called on Sister [Teresa Hastings] Judd who is dying but recognized 
me. bade her good bye and called on Aunt Nancy and hannah. Spent 
the remainder of the p.m. and eve with Effie made a pair of pants for 
litde George returned home about ten wrote in my Jornal and retired 
late rested poorley. 

Wensday 9th arose before 7. W. very cold snow falling fast; did house work 
a.m. soon after 12. started for Bp. Pollards, followed the corps to the 
meeting house the exersizes were of a very intresting nature. The trip to 
the cemetry was very cold came home at 4.30. read for the children in 
(Sunshine for baby Land) retired about ten. 

Thursday 10th arose before 6. W. clear and cold did housework a.m. Soon 
after 1 1 . attended the funeral of Thomas Heath, the assemblege was larg 
the speakers were R.F. Nelam and C.W. Penrose, the corpes was dressed 
beautifully it seemed as if every touch that was given to his attire was that 
of tenderest love the young Widdow is heartbroken. Came home before 
2. did housework p.m. did repairing and read for the children in the eve 
retired at 9.30 

Friday 11th arose before 6. W. cold more snow on the ground W. clear and 
cold, did housework all day retired about ten 

Saturday 12th arose soon after 5. W. clear and cold a.m. cloudy and mild 
p.m. spent a.m. in cleaning, attended 14th Ward p.m. came home after 
dark attended to home affair did repairing in the eve retired before 12. 
Sunday 13th arose about 7 . W. cold worked till noon, at 1.30 p.m. snowed 
and blowed terebly spent the afcrnoon afternoon at home with the 
Children very happily reading back numbers of the Juvernile Instructor. 
we all attended evening meeting had a good time. 

Monday 14th arose before 6. W. cold and changeable; washed a.m. p.m. 
went with Addie to have her teeth extracted; came home at dusk, retired 
between 11. and 12. very very tired. 
Tuesday 15th arose at seven W. cold and clear a.m. cloudy and mild p.m. 

1881 297 

did housework all day for the children in the eve from the J.I. wrote in my 
Jornal and retired 

Wensday 16th arose between 6. and 7. W. drizzley, began emptying the old 
part of the house, the men began tareing it down, continued moving all- 
day Cousin Wm C. Morris dined with us. 

Wensday Thursday 1 7 arose at 5.5 W. as yesterday, Moveing and putting 
down going; Bro Chatfield and Bro Edwards called as teachers read for 
the children in the Instructor retired between 9. and 10. 
Friday 18th arose soon after 5. W. fin did housework and repairing 
Saturday 19th arose at 5.30 W. fine spent the day in cleaning; went up 
town at 4.30. Attended the Humil Dwyer reading at the Theatre 5 with my 
Husband, on our way home were told of the death of our Neibour Mrs 
Blizzard by takeing poison retired at 11. 

Sunday 20th aros at 6.20 W. fine and mild. Worked till 3. p.m. Addie 
attended the Assembly Hall the speakers were elders H.W. Naisbet and 
C.W. Penrose. Was prevented from attending evening meeting, Addie 
Nephi George went, little Kate and I spent the eve at home read in 
Juvenile Instructor. Sister Judd died this a.m. at 2. o'clock And this is my 
little George's seventh birth day; may God preserve him from harm and 
sin . 

Monday 21st arose before 4. W. clear and fine, wash washed till 1. o'clock. 
At 2.20 attended the funeral of Mrs Blizzard who poisoned herself on 
Saturday eve; there was a good attendence the speakrs were Elders G.G. 
Bywater and R.T. Burton, came home and then went up town transacted 
business came home at 6.30 transacted more business in the Ward came 
home at dark, retired at ten almost sick with fatigue. 
Tuesday 22nd arose before 7. W. lovely; at 11. attended the funeral of Sister 
Judd the speaker was Elder C.W. Penrose; the Committee of whome she 
was a member when the society was first organized all dropted flowers as 
we passed the grave in rotation Bp. Pollard returned thanks to all for the 
kindnesses and respect shown. Came home about 2. p.m. rested and did 
housework; read for the Children in the eve from the J. Instructor retired 
soon after nine. 

Wensday 23rd arose at 5.15 W lovely did housework all day read for the 
children in the eve from the J. Instructor and (Sunshine For Baby Land) 
did some repairing a.m. retired soon after nine 

Thursday 24th arose at 4.15. W. warm and bright read and wrote till 5.30 
did housework and some uphol[s]ter work a.m. housework and ironing 
p.m. Sister Rhodes called, read for the children in the eve from (Sunshine 

5. A reading by Mr. and Miss Humil (the son and daughter of Professor S. S. Humill) and 
"Miss Ada Dwyer, one of his most promising Utah pupils." They rendered "a series of 
reading and costume recitals." Deseret Evening News, February 19, 1881. 

298 Before the Manifesto 

for Baby Land) retired at ten 

Friday 25th arose at 5. read till 6. finished the last number of vol 15 [1880] 
of The Juvenile Instructor. Did housework and some repairing Nephi 
George and Kate attended P.A. Weather rainy and windy; retired about 

Saturday 26th arose at 4.45 sprinkling of snow on the ground; read till 
six. did housework a.m. attended 14th Ward meeting p.m. several sub- 
jects were discussed Transcated business in town returned home at 5.30 
attended to home affairs It being Addie's birthday gave her some little 
tokens of love in which we all particapated was a very pleasant feature of 
the evening; retired at ten. 6.30 

Sunday 27th arose at 4.45 read till 6.30. worked till past noon at 2. p.m. 
attended the funeral of Sister Laman. the seveices were conducted in 
German the speakers wer Bro Riss KG Riser and Bp Pollard, the exer- 
sizes were quite intresting; accompanied Sister Kimball there and back. 
Effie and Babes spent the p.m. and eve with us. Ed and Addie attended 
Ward Meeting the speakers was Elder A. Miner. The speakers at the 
Assembly Hall were R.B. Young and A.M. Cannon. Misess Reene and Nell 
Brown Lucy Balock and Lu [Luella Jane] Balser calld after eve meeting 
we retired at ten. W. fine and mild. 

Monday 28th arose about six, did housework and visited my block, retired 
at 11. read for the children inJI 

March 1881 

Tuesday 1st arose before 6. W. windy, very slight sprinkling of rain and 
snow clared up before dark. Read for the children in the J.I. retired at 
nine; did the washing and housework. 

Wensday 2nd arose at 7. feeling very tired did housework all day soon 
repairing in the eve. Bro Wm Loyed to see my Husband retired at 11. 
Thursday 3rd arose at 6.20. W. clear and bright did housework, sent 
donations to the poor attended fast meeting a.m. at 2 p.m. attended 
Committee Meeting, Sister Bacon was admistered to. Took comforts to 
Mother Williams. Came home attended affairs. In the eve attended a 
recitation of original poems by Wm [William] Clegg the Springville Poet 
which was very intresting,'' retired at 1 1. 

Friday 4th arose at 5.55 W. fine did housework a.m. repairing p.m. read 
for the children in The J.I. in the eve did some writing and retired at ten. 

6. William Clegg (1823-?), who was known as the "Springville Poet," composed poetry on 
birthdays and wedding anniversaries as well as for public celebrations. In addition, he 
wrote several hymns. Carter, Treasures of Pioneer History, 6:183-84. 

1881 299 

Saturday 5th arose at 5.15. stormy a.m. fine p.m. did housework all day; 
retired at ten 

Sunday 6th arose soon after six W. fine worked till near noon at 2 p.m. 
attended Assembly Hall the first speaker was Rev Dr. fisher of the ameri- 
can Bible Society. 7 He was followed by Bp. Thomas Taylor who spoke by 
the inspireation of the holy spirit Prest A.M. Cannon followed him who 
was filled With the power of God which filled our hearts with Joy. We all 
attended Ward meeting a number of the bretheren spoke retired before 
9. heared that Bro Evans was very ill. 

Monday 7th arose at 4.15 W. fine did washing housework and sewing Aunt 
Hannah called in the eve. Nephi recived a very intresting letter from his 
S.S. teacher this a.m. heard that Bro Evans is still very ill. Retired at ten. 
Tuesday 8th arose before 6. W. warm and bright did housework and sew- 
ing; called on Bro Evans in the eve found him some better called also on 
his Wife Ada [Ahah Jane Powell Evans] . Retired about nine. 
Wensday 9th arose at 2. haveing an unpleasant dream; read till about 6. W. 
fine a.m. stormy in p.m. Did housework and sewing retired at 9. 
Thursday 10th arose before 6 wind seased, snowng and blowing all day, 
clear and cold to night did housework a.m. at 1 1 went to see my Daughter 
Effie called on Aunt Nancy and Hannah spent a pleasant afternoon with 
Effie; called on Sister Ashton came home at 6. read for the children in 
the eve from theju Inst, retired between 11. and 12 

Friday 11th arose at 6.20 after a disturbed night. W. cold plenty of snow on 
the ground, did housework all day read for the children in the eve from 
the Juvenile Instructor, retired at 9.30 

Saturday 12th arose at 6.20 W. cold and snowed this p.m. did housework 
all day. At 4.30 this afternoon our dear friend Bro S.L. Evans departed 
this life after some ten days illness; went to see the bereved funeral this 
eve. retired about midnight 

Sunday 13th arose before seven worked till noon spent the afternoon at 
home called on both famlies of Bro Evans this eve; did some reading and 
writeing and reading this eve retired at 1 1 . 

Monday 14th arose about 6. W. very fine; at noon attended the funeral of 
Bro Evans the exersizes were of a very instresting character; there being 
nine speakers, and nearly all who spoke were moved to tears the first 
was my Husband; next Bro Goddard Bp Hardey Wm [William] Jennings 
Council J. E. Taylor G.G. Bywater, Bp R T Burton Elder Wm Willes Prest 
John Taylor, Prest J. F. smith, the number of people who passed through 

Rev. Dr. Fisher was the district superintendent of the American Bible Society, an 
international agency founded in New York in 1816. Its goal in the nineteenth century 
was to place a Bible in every home. Fisher addressed "the congregation on the subject 
of the Bible." Deseret Evening News, March 7, 1881. 

300 Before the Manifesto 

the house to view the remans seemed as if they would never end the house 
was packed, and judging from those who passed the corpes there seemed 
as many outside as inside; about fifty vacles followed the reamains to the 
cemetry and some on foot the third Ward Band was in attendence. Bro 
Goddard offered the dedacatory prayer. Every body was out to wacth the 
cortage pass. One bright spot has left the earth and we all feel the loss. 
Tuesday 15th arose before 6. a.m. stormey cleared up p.m. did house and 
some cutting out. Aunt hannah called; retired at nine. 
Wensday 16th arose at 5.10 W. fine and mild did housework and some cut- 
ting out; received a visit from my Sister read for the children in the eve. 
retired soon after nine. 

Thursday 1 7th arose at 3. read till rre nearley 6. W. fine a.m. stormed p.m. 
did housework, made 10 sacks and other sewing; Sister Unger called; also 
Miss [blank] and Master Elias Evans; sewed in the eve and retired soon 
after nine 

Friday 18th arose at 5.30. W. as yesterday wash did sewing and housework 
read for the children in the eve from Juvenile Instructor and A Strng Of 
Pearls, retired at 9.30 

Saturday 19th arose between 5. and 6. W. bright and mild; made 11 sacks 
and did housework the rest of the day; reparing in the eve retired before 

Sunday 20th arose before 6. W very fine worked till after 1 1 . Attended 
Assembly Hall the speakers were Apostles E. Snow and G.Q,. Cannon. 
Called on Dianth Morris and babe; also Sister Bockholt and babe. Spent 
the eve at home, read some intresting pieces from the Deseret News for 
the Children. Misses L Barlow and L. Kimball called, retired at ten. 
Monday 21st arose at 5 did a large washing; went out in the eve retired at 9.30 
Tuesday 22nd arose at 5.30 feelling very tired from yesterdays work did house- 
work, made 18. sacks and other sewing sister Ridges called W. very fine read 
for the Children in the eve from the Juvenile Instructor retired about nine 30. 
Wensday 23rd arose at 5. W. very fine, washed beding all day; retired before 
9. quite exausted. 

Thursday 24th arose at 5.15. W. fine and warm, did housework all day 
Sister Rudy called; retired about 10 

Friday 25th arose before 5. W. fine warm did housework and sewing Aunt 
Hannah called in the eve; retired at 10.30 

Saturday 26th W. fine did housework all day arose earley retired at 1 1 
Sunday 27th arose before 6 W. delightful attended to home affairs a.m. 
takeing care of the children; Addie attended Assembly Hall the speak- 
ers were Elder John Morgan and Prest G.Q. Cannon both spoke to the 
delight of the people Miss L. Kimball accompanied Addie home. Addie 
attended evening meeting I stayed home with the children read for them 
in the Juvenile retired at 9.30 

1881 301 

Monday 28th arose at 4.30 washed and did housework; attended the the- 
atre with my Husband at night to witness the grand play of Pique. Retired 
after midnight. 

Tuesday 29th arose at 5.30 did housework all day Sister Foster called as 
teacher, we retired at ten. 

Wensday 30 arose about 5.30 W. very fine did housework all day; my Sister 
and her granddaughter called also Sister L. Bockholt. Also Bros Chatfield 
and Edwards as teachers paid 50 cts as Temple donation. Bro Parly [Parley 
Willard] Price's Baby was buried to day died retired at 11. 
Thursday 31st arose about 5.30 W. still very fine; did housework retired 
about nine 30. 

Wensday 23rd arose at 5. W. very fine, washed beding all day retired before 
nine quite exausted. Thursday 24th arose at 5.15. W. fine and warm did 
housework all day ; Sister Rudy called, retired about 10. Friday 25th arose 
before 5. W. fine and warm did housework and sewing Aunt Hannah 
called in the eve at 10.30 all day retired about 10 

April 1881 

Friday 1st arose at 5.5. W still very fine did housework and went around the 

Block. Addie attended a surprise party on her brother Elias. T.F. Howells 

was married yesterday. Read for the children in chatterbox; retired after 


Saturday 2nd arose before 6. W. hot. did housework and went up town. 

retired soon after eleven. 

Sunday 3rd arose before 6. W. hot attended Conference a.m. stayed home with 

the children p.m. Cousin Lizzie Morris of Morgan came retired about ten 

Monday 4th arose at 5. read till 6. W very warm attended Con a.m. Our 

friends Sister Williams of Cache Valley and Daughter Mrs Halversen came 

to stay Con — with us. stayed at home with the children; Addie attended 

theatre with Cousins Lizzie and Will, retired about midnight 

Tuesday 5th arose about seven attended Conference am. attended to home 

affairs p.m. Lizzie went home in the eve went up to see the electric light 8 

The Deseret Evening News said of this event, "A successful and satisfactory test was made of 
the Brush electric light, on Main Street, at and in the vicinity of Walker Brother's store, 
last evening between 8 and 9 o'clock. A large multitude had gathered in anticipation of 
the exhibition. . . . The two post lamps, one at Walker Brothers' corner and the other 
in front of the store of Lipman and Davis, gradually began to lighten and continue to 
increase in brilliancy until the vicinity was flooded with a beautiful white light." The 
incandescent light bulb was invented by Thomas Edison in 1879. It was not until the 
twentieth century that significant numbers of Americans had electricity in their homes 
or businesses. Schlereth, Victorian America, 115; Deseret Evening News, April 1, 1881. 

302 Before the Manifesto 

and Governer Murry come in and heard his speech came home about 9. 

retired about 1 1 

Wensday 6th arose at 7.30 attended Con all day which closed this p.m. we 

have had a grand time. Spent the eve very pleasandy at home with our 

friends the litde Girls and ourselves singing and little Ida dancing for us; 

retired at 1 1 . heavy rain to day. 

Thursday 7th arose at 6.30. W. chilly after the heavy rain did housework 

and sewing retired at 10. 

Friday 8th arose at 5.40. W. cool did housework and repairing, our friends 

have gone home by this p.m. train. This eve had a very pleasant call and 

extensive chat with our old friends Bro George Woods and Bishop Henry 

Lunt. had great satisfaction in talking with the latter. Addie and Nephi 

attended a concert in the 16th Ward for the benefit of Ella Kilpatrick 

retired about midnight 

Saturday 9th arose at 6.30 W. damp did housework; went up town, attended 

14th Ward meeting the power and spirit of God was there there were 

many presious things given by the gift of tongues. Came home before 6. 

retired before 1 1 . Ella Kilpatrik died this a.m. 

Sunday 10 arose at 5.30 W. wet. called on Effie this a.m. attended Assembly 

Hall p.m. Apostle E. Snow was th speaker. Called on Sister Price also on 

her Son Parley who is sick, supped with Effie came home after 6. read 

for the children in the eve from the J.I. Ella Kilpatrick was buried to day. 

retired about ten 

Monday 11th arose about 6. washed all day went up town in the eve; retired 

about ten very tired; rain and snow has been falling all day. 

Tuesday 12th arose about 6 W. cold and wet did housework all day; Sister 

Parker and her Daughter Orsen called this eve, also Lafey Burton 

Wensday 13th arose at 5.20 W. fine did housework and went up town 

retired about 10. 

Thursday 14th arose about 5.30 W. fine did housework and some more 

shoping retired at 9.30. Addie attended the theatre with Uncle Ed Parry. 

Friday 15th arose at 3.40 read till 5. rested 30 minutes, did housework and 

repairing. Sister Thomas called to see my husband. Retired about ten 

Saturday 16th arose at 5. W. warm did housework all day; Aunt Hannah 

called this eve retired at ten. 

Sunday 1 7th arose at 4.30. read till six spent the day at home received a 

visit from Effie and family. Mr D. and Miss Emma Williams called this eve; 

retired before ten. 

Monday 18th arose before 3. began washing at 5. finished at 3. p.m. did 

housework till 9. retired at half pass ten. 

Tuesday 19th arose at 5.30. feeling very tired did housework and directed 

work in the garden. Sister Unger and family called as per apointment 

to the verses read which I had composed for their Husband and Father, 

1881 303 

were much pleased with the verces; had a pleasant time Miss Pollard and 
Brown called on Addie. Retired soon after ten. W. fine and cool. 
Wensday 20th arose at 6.30. W. fine did housework ironing and cutting 
out. Recived a visit from Sister Miller retired soon after nine, read for the 
children from the evening News. 

Thursday 21st arose at 4.40. W. very fine did housework, had a long con- 
versation with an outsider on the principles and history of the church, 
wrote a letter to my Brother Addie attended a surprise party on Miss Alice 
pollard retired after midnight. 

Friday 22 did housework a.m. called on Sister Eccles who is very ill. spent 
p.m. with Effie came home about 6 — feeling very tired attended to home 
affairs retired soon after ten; read for the children in (Leaves from My 
Journal) 9 

Saturday 23rd arose earley did housework attended 14th Ward meeting; 
transacted business up town retired about ten 

Sunday 24 arose at 5. W. cool after yesterdays rain. At 7. a.m. Addie accom- 
panied her Father and Sister Nellie to Provo. At 9. a.m. our Neibour Bro 
Parley Price departed this life. Retired soon after ten 
Monday 25th arose at 4.20. made 12. sacks did the week washing and 
housework. Addie came by the evening train. After her return I went to 
see the bereved Mother and Widow of Parley P. Price who died yesterday 
from their went down to Sister Balser's helped trim hats for the funeral 
came home between 1. am and 2 this a.m. 

Tuesday 26th Arose about 9. Attended to home affairs a.m. Aunt Lavinia 
accompanied my Husband home to dinner. At 2.30 attended the funeral 
of Parley Price the speakers were Elders Jermey, Thomas Bywater. While 
Elias Morris J.F. Smith all spoke in Great prais of the departed. We fol- 
lowed the remains to its resting. David Ewards called as teacher in the eve 
we retired about ten 

Wensday 27th arose at 6. W. still very pleasant did housework all day 
attended a meeting of the stockholders of the new School House in the 
eve came hom at ten retired at 1 1 . 

Thursday 28th arose about 5. did housework all day W. very fine retired 
before 9. 

Friday 29th arose at 4.30. W. fine and warm, made 20 sacks did housework 
and repairing, read for the children in the eve from the Juvenile Instructor 
retired at 9. 

Wilford Woodruff, Leaves from My Journal . . . Designed for the Instruction and Encouragement 
of Young Latter-day Saints (Salt Lake City: Juvenile Instructor Office, 1881). This was the 
third book in the Faith Promoting Series and covered Wilford Woodruff's early life, 
including his conversion to the LDS church, missions to the southern states and to 
England, and several reported cases of healing. 

304 Before the Manifesto 

Saturday 30th arose at 5 W. fine and warm did housework all day; read for 
the children in the eve from the Juvanile Instructor, retired at ten. 

May 1881 

Sunday 1st arose at 4.5. bathed, and read till near seven. W. lovely. Received 
an a very pleasant visit from my Sister also a call from Effie and her sweet 
Babes and Husband. Miss Hadock called on Addie. retired before ten. 
Monday 2nd arose at 4.20. W. very fine did the weeks washing and house- 
work. Recived a postar card from my Brother stateing the he expected 
to spend the summer working on the Manti Temple, there is now hopes 
that we may meet in this life. 10 Read for the children from the Juvenile 
Instructor; retired at ten. 

Tuesday 3rd arose at 4.40 W. fine and warm, read (Leaves from My Journal) 
till 5.30 did housework and sewing read for the children in the eve from The 
Juvenile Instructor, retired befor ten. wrote to my brother. My Sister called 
Wensday 4th arose at 5.30. W. fin did housework repairing, millinary work 
and vistied the Block; retired at ten. 30 

Thursday 5th arose at 4.40 W. fine did sewing and housework a.m. attended 
Committee Meeting p.m. had a very plasant time; Sisters Haywood and Pack 
visited us. Visited my Block after meeting, on carpet business being apointed 
committee on carpet for the new Meeting House Took comforts to Mother 
Williams who is failing fast Sent donation to the poor, retired before ten. 
Friday 6th arose at 5. W. very fine did housework a.m. received a call from Elder 
John L. Jones who came in last night with the first company of Emigrants, 
p.m. called on on my neibour Sister Wilson, also Mrs Annie Ridges Williams; 
visited Aunt Lavinia with Effie and sweet litde Elias. Retired at ten. 
Saturday 7th arose at 5. made 11 sacks; did housework went up town 
attended 14th Ward meeting came home soon after 5. attended to home 
affairs retired at ten 30. 

Sunday 8th arose before 5. W. cool and gusty spent the day at home; take- 
ing care of the children Addie attended Tabernacle Miss Emma Williams 
and Sarah Haddoc [Haddock] accompanied her home. Read for the chil- 
dren in the eve in (Leaves from Myjornal) retired soon after nine 
Monday 9th arose at 4.40. W. cool rainy changeable did the weeks washing 
and housework retired about ten 
Tuesday 10th arose at 7. feeling sorely tired did some repairing housework 

10. Mary Lois's brother, Charles Walker, was a resident of St. George, Utah. He went on a 
mission to Manti, Utah to work on the temple, arriving in Manti on April 30, 1881. His 
diary records that his work on the temple included cutting stone, standing guard, and 
working in the temple blacksmith shop. CWD, 552-59. 

1881 305 

nearly all day. W. wet raining thundering and lighting, read for the 
children in the eve retired about ten 

Wensday 11th arose soon after 5. rained all night did housework and sew- 
ing recive a meloncholy letter from my Brother and answered it W. cold 
and damp retired at 11.15. 

Thursday 12th arose at 5.30 W. cold and fine did housework a.m. attended 
carpet meeting p.m. retired at 9. very tired 

Friday 13th arose at 6. still very tired W. fine; did housework and repairing 
retired at midnight. Read for the children in (Leaves From My Jornal) 
Saturday 14th Arose at 6. W. lovely did housework all day; this eve recived 
a present from my dear daughters Effie and Addie as it is my forty sixth 
birth day. May the Lord help me to be faithful to him and his work all my 
days retired at ten 

Sunday 15th arose at 5.30 W. cloudy and sultery worked till 2. p.m. rain 
began to pour down and continued till 5.30 spent the day at home Addie 
and Kate attended Tabernacle spent the p.m. reading evening News and 
Exponants retired at 11. Read for the children in the eve. 
Monday 16th arose at 4.45. W. cool after the rain did housework and sew- 
ing; read for the children from the J. Instructor retired at 9. 
Tuesday 1 7th arose at 5. W. cold and fine, made 20 sacks and and did other 
sewing and housework Sister Brown called also Sister bynon. My Husband 
started for Park City this a.m. retired at ten 

Wensday 18th arose at 4. W. still cool; Did housework, sewing and cutting 
out Effie called this eve retired at 11. 

Thursday 1 9th arose about 4.30 W. cool and bright did millinery work and 
house a.m. attended carpet meeting p.m. went up town in the eve. Called 
on Cousin Mattie and Sister Bockholt. Sisters holden, Williams, Williams, 
and Rhodes called on me. retired after 11. 

Friday 20th arose at 4.45. W. lovely did housework and sewing, called on 
Effie and Bro Home. Did some writeing in the eve; read for the for the 
children in (Leaves From My Journal) retired about 1 1 . 
Saturday 21st arose before 5. W. hot; did housework all day went up town, 
retired about 1 1 . 

Sunday 22nd arose about 5. W. windy and dusty; litde Eddie and Elias and 
their Papa called earley this a.m. p.m. we attended Tabernacle meeting 
the speakers were David C. Dunbar and John Nickleson We all attended 
evening meeting but little Kate; we were addressed by Prests A.M. Cannon 
and J.E. Taylor, retired at 9.30 

Monday 23rd arose at 4.15. W. fine and cool, did a large washing and 
housework retired at 10. 

Tuesday 24th arose at 7.30. still very tired, did housework all day retired at 9. 
Wensday 25th arose before 5. W. fine did housework and ironing Willford 
Ridges called, we retired at 11. 

306 Before the Manifesto 

Thursday 26th arose before 5. W. fine did housework and ironing attended 
Ward School exhibition Bro Edwards called as teacher. My Husband went 
to Ogden this p.m. 11 we retired at ten 

Friday 27th arose at 4.5. W. warm did housework sewing and repairing 
attended children party in the eve retired after midnight. 
Saturday 28th arose at 4.35 W. warm did housework all day; little Kate 
recived a gash in her forehead from a stone being thrown at her I reeved 
a letter from my Brother retired at before eleven. 

Sunday 29th arose between 5. and 6. W. warm, worked all day. Addie and 
litde Kate went with Father out to Sugrhouse Ward. Effie and her dear 
Babes spent the day with me. Nephi and George, attended S.S. Addie and 
Nephi attended Ward meeting retired at 9.30. 

Monday 30th arose at 4.5. W very warm worked till noon; Addi went to peas- 
ant Valley with the Ward. Nephi and George accompanied their father to 
Black Rock; Kate and I spent the day quietly at home; feel rather depressed 
in spirits this eve but feel that all will work out for my own good if I am 
faithful and obedient. So endeth deckeration Day; 12 retired befor ten. 
Tuesday 31st arose at 4.30. W. warm. a.m. did housework and visited the 
Block, made a pair of garments; p.m. did housework and made another 
pair, Sister Foster called as teacher read for the children in the eve in 
(leaves From My Journal) retired at 9. 

June 1881 

-Tsi Wensday 1st arose before 4. washed all day did housework and retired 
before 11. 

Thursday 2nd arose at 4.30 did repairing and housework and attended fast 
meeting a.m. Attended committee meeting p.m. called on Sister Eccles 
who is very sick. Took comforts to Sister Williams, did housework and 
retired at 9.30 frid 

Friday 3rd arose at 4.15. W. still very warm. Before noon was called to my 
Daughter Effie who at 4. p.m. gave premature birth to a fine boy. Baby 
dead, mother doing well. Death though in a miner cakes casts its gloom. 
Saturday 4th still with Effie, she is pretty weel to day. feels to acknowledg 
the hand of God in her deliverence but mourns the loss of her babe. 
Aunt Aggie called on Effie to day. Bro [Henry] Emery of the 16th Ward 
did this p.m. the house of Bro Greger was burnt down to day; it is said a 

11. Elias Morris's visit to Ogden, Utah, may be related to the fire that destroyed the Ogden 
Union Pacific and Central Pacific transfer depot and twenty cars of merchandise on this 
day, May 26, 1881. Chronology, 108. 

12. More commonly known as Memorial Day and celebrated on the last Monday in May. 

1881 307 

child is burnt also, retired at 11. 

Sunday 5th arose at six Effie doing well reived pleasant calls from Winnie 
Tibbs Maggie Thomas Aunt Ann Trayhirn Sister ashton and Sister 
Duncanson also had an intresting chat with Bro Ashton aboute old times 
in this Valley, retired late. Sister Mollie Griggs Baby was buried to day died 
last friday 

Monday 6th spent the a.m. with Effie p.m. did housework and repairing 
retired at 10.30 

Tuesday 7th arose before 5. W. pleasant did housework all day retired 
about 10. 

Wednesday 8th arose at 5.10 did housework sort some ironing; Bros 
[Alexander Morris] Ledingham and Edwards called as teachers retired 
before eleven 

Thursday 9th arose about 5. W. cool and pleasant, did housework a.m. 
and went up town on business about the matting, p.m. attended carpet 
meeting, did housework retired at 9.30. rain this eve my husband went to 
Ogden this a.m. returned p.m. 

Friday 10 arose at 4.30 W. cool and plasant some rain and thunder did 
housework all day retired after 1 1 . 

Saturday 11th arose before 5. W. cool and fine did housework and trans- 
acted business up town, retired at midnight. 

Sunday 12th arose at 5.30 rain comeing down, day clear and cool, spent it 
al expecting company; called on Effie in the eve retired before ten. 
Monday 13th arose at 4.40. W. fine did housework and repairing read for 
the children in the eve from J. Instructor retired abouot 9. 
Tuesday 14th arose about 5. W. hot did housework all day retired about 9. 
Little Kate sick in the night 

Wensday 15th arose at 6. W. fine and cool did housework and repairing 
Thursday 16th arose at 4.30 W. fine did housework and sewing called on 
Effie in the eve retired at ten. 

Friday 1 7th arose before 5. W. fine did housework and sewing, retired at 9. 
Saturday 18th arose before 5. W. fine did housework all day retired at 

Sunday 1 9th W arose about 6. W. warm spent the day at home Aunt Hattie 
Burton called in the eve. retired at 9.30. 

Monday 20th arose at 5.5. W. cool and breezy, washed all day Sister Rowe 
called in the eve retired about ten 

Tuesday 21st arose about 5. W. fine did housework all day retired at 10.30 
Wensday 22nd arose at 4.20. W cool did housework and ironing retired 
about 10 

Thursday 23rd arose earley did housework and coloring retired late much 
Friday 24th arose earley did housework and ironing retired at 1 1 . Sister 

308 Before the Manifesto 

Parks and children called. 

Saturday 25th arose earley W. hot did housework all day; Nephi had his 
foot hurt to day; will be a cripple for several days; retired at 1 1 . litde Kate 
almost strangled about 12. with Whooping cough. 13 

Sunday 26th arose about 6. W. hot spent the day at home with the chil- 
dren. Miss Haddock supped with us. I had the pleasure of attending Ward 
meeting which was addressed by Daniel Tyler of beaver, called on Effie 
after meeting retired at 1 1 . 

Monday 27th arose at 5.20 did a large washing retired at 8.30 feeling very 

Tuesday 28th arose at 5. W. hot did housework all day retired feeling very w 
Wensday 29th arose earley about 4. did housework and ironing, rtired late 
Thursday 30th W very hot did housework and sewing F 

July 1881 

Friday 1st arose earley worked as yesterday retired at 1 1 . 

Saturday 2nd arose before 4. W. very hot did sewing housework and trans- 

cated business up town retired at 11. Prest Garfield was shot to day. 14 

Sunday 3rd arose at 4.20 W. hot Myself and Husband were sent for by our 

dear Daughter Effie who was very ill but is now better. Miss John of Provo 

is visiting with Addie retired at 1 1 

Monday 4th arose about 6. W. peasant; worked till 3 p.m. spent the rest of 

the day very pleasantly reading Exponants. Addie went to the Lake with 

her Provo friends we retired about 9. 

Tuesday 5th arose soon after 5. did housework and visited the Block retired 

about 12. 

Wensday 6th arose before 4. did the weeks washing and housework little 

Gerge was taken sick of diptheria to day. Bp Pollard called on my Husband 

retired very late 

Thursday 7th arose about 6. feeling very tired did housework most of the 

13. Whooping cough is a respiratory infection that is primarily found in children under 
two years of age. It often occurs in epidemics and is caused by a bacterium invading 
the respiratory tract. Its symptoms begin with a sneeze and night cough, then become 
rapid, consecutive coughs, and finally the coughs decrease in frequency. 

14. On July 2, 1881, Charles J. Guiteau shot President James Garfield (1831-1881). 
President Garfield died of his wound on September 19, 1881, and his vice president, 
Chester Arthur, became president. To many contemporary Americans, Garfield's 
death "seemed a tragedy unmatched since the Civil War and they responded with an 
extravagant outburst of public mourning" (Foner, The Reader's Companion to American 
History, 438-39). See also Vincent DeSantis, The Shaping of Modern America, 1877-1920, 

1881 309 

day retired at 9.30 

Friday 8th arose about 6. W. cool and peasant did housework all day; eve- 
ning chilly wrapings comfortabl retired at 12. 

Saturday 9th arose at 6. W. fine and cool, attended Stake Con— a.m. the 
speakers were J. E. Taylor Elias Smith and D.O. Calder. Transacted busi- 
ness p.m. went out to Black Rock in the eve, accompanied by Addie 
Katie Sister Brown and her daughters Reen and Nell and Miss Eamma 
Balser. to Join my Husband and his men and famies who had spent 
the day there. Little George went with us. his health being restored 
by the blessing of God through the power of the holy priesthood; he 
was admistered to on thursday night and went out to play all day on 

Sunday 10 arose at 5r 5.45 W. cool and cloudy, attended Conference a.m. 
had a splndid time; spent p.m. at home takeing care of the children; Addie 
attended Con — Miss Haddoc accompanied her home, we retired at 9.30. 
Monday 11th arose at 4.15. W. peasant did the weeks washing; at 10 p.m. 
called on Sister Eccles who was dying stayed and helpd lay her out came 
home after 12. retired about 1. o'clock. 

Tuesday 12th arose about 6. W. fine, did housework and preserveing fruit. 
Aunt Hannah called, also my son in law Mr E.T Ashton. Called on Sister 
Eccles's folks before we retired at 10 

Wensday 13th arose at 4.45. at 8.15 went to dress Sister Eccles in company 
with Sister Hattie Burton. At 10. attended the funeral, followed the remains 
to the cemetry came home at 2. p.m. did housework till after 9. retired at 11. 
Thursday 14th arose before 5. W. hot did housewor and sewing retired 
about 1 1 . recived a letter from my brother 

Friday 15th arose before 5. W. very hot. worked as yesterday; my Husband 
started this p.m. for Montanna 15 we retirde about ten 
Saturday 16th arose about 5. W. hot and sultery did housework all day; at 
night heard of the of the death of Grandmother Williams which occured 
this p.m. at 6. We retired at 1 1. 

Sunday 17th arose at 5.45. W. cloudy and hot, did housework till 10.30 
went to Sister Kimball's about clothes for Grandmother Williams called 
on Sister Rolands faded about the corpes; came home before 2. very tired 
spent p.m. at home. Aunt Hannah spent the eve with us, we retired at 10 
Monday 18th arose at 5.5. W. sultery and cloudy at 9. went to dress 
Grandmother Williams. At ten attended the Funeral; the seakers were 
Bros Jemery, Giles, Jones, Ashton and Pollard. Came home at noon, did 
housework, retired at 9.30 
Tuesday 1 9th arose at 4.30. W. cloudy rained last night. At 1 1 . a.m. attended 

15. Elias went to Montana with nine employees to oversee the brick work on furnaces for 
the Moulton Mining Company near Butte City. Deseret Evening News, July 16, 1881. 

310 Before the Manifesto 

the funeral of Prest Joseph Young The Music was very solom and grand 
the suroundings very imposing the speakers were Prests Woodruff G.Q. 
Cannon, and John Taylor the cortag was large the Professe George 
Carless composed a tune last evening called (Joseph) Which the Choir 
sang to day, directed by himself and accompanied by his Wife accompa- 
nied Addie on business in town; came home at 6. p.m. retired at 9.30. 
Wensday 20th arose at 4.10. W. much cooler did houswork all day, finished 
cleaning the new part of the house Aunt Hannah makeing the carpet had 
a pleasant chat with her in the eve; we retired about ten. 
Thursday 21 arose at 4.45 W. not so hot; did the weeks washing retired 
about ten 

Friday 22nd arose at 5.15. W. peasant, confined house ceaning, received a 
call from my Sister, retired after 1 1 

Saturday 23rd arose at 4.45 W. fine spent the day in cleaning, retired 
before 12. 

Sunday 24th arose about 6 W. fine feel very tired from last weeks work, at 
10 a.m. my dear Brother arrived from Manti. before 12 accompanied by 
him attended the dedication of our beautiful new Meeting House which 
has erected in two years and a few days, and is said to be the handsom- 
est in the territory of its size, which is very spacious and lofty. 16 Addie 
accompanied her Unci to the Tabernacle. Ma stayed at home to guard 
the Children we retired at 9.30 sill feeling very tired 

Monday 25th arose between six and seven feeling quite poorly, spent the 
day at home quietly this being a holyday in place of yesterday but no dem- 
onstrations on accont of Prest Garfeild's illness Addie took her Uncle 
Charles out to Sugar House Ward to visit Aunt Aggie we retired about 10. 
Tuesday 26th arose soon after 5. W. fine shower dureing the day. Did hou- 
work all day; reeved a visit from my friend Mrs Clara Loverage, Addie 
sang and played for us retired about 1 1 . 

Wensday 27th arose soon after 5 did housework all day Mrs Loverige left 
this p.m. we retired before 1 1 

Thursday 28th arose soon after 5. W. hot did housework and washing; 
recived a letter from my Husband and answered it. Retired at 11. 
Friday 29th arose at 5.30 W. hot; did housework and attended to business 
in town; retired at an hour past midnight. 
Saturday 30th arose at 5.30 W. hot and windy spent a.m. at (Lake Point) 

16. Between 1852 and 1881, the Salt Lake Fifteenth Ward met on the top floor of a two- 
story adobe building known as the "Granary," located on First South, between Third 
and Fourth West Streets. The bottom floor of the building was used for storing grain. 
On July 4, 1879, the building of a new meetinghouse on First South near Third West 
was commenced. The new Fifteenth Ward chapel, which cost about twelve thousand 
dollars, was dedicated on July 24, 1881. Barraclough, 15th Ward Memories, 9; Jenson, 
Encyclopedic History, 750. 

1881 311 

p.m. at (Black Rock) in company with my Sister and Mrs Clara Loverage 
Miss Jenson, my daughters Effie Addie, and Kate, George and Nephi. 
My Bother and Bro Loverage Joining us in the eve. Had a plasant time. 
Returned about eight retired at nine dreadfully tired. 
Sunday 31st arose at 5.30 W. hot; my Sister and Brother spent the day with 
me chating about family affairs of long ago retired after ten. 

August 1881 

Monday 1st arose at 5.30. W. warm; did housework all day. Sister Marcroft, 
my daughter Effie and Neice Annie called upon me; my Brother took his 
departure for my Sister's home. Retired at ten. 

Tuesday 2nd arose at 5.30. W. pleasant; did housework all day. My brother 
returned to day from Sugarhouse Ward; at 7. went to Effie 's spent a an 
hour or two pleasandy returned at ten there with him; returned at ten, 
retired at 1 1 . 

Wensday 3rd arose at 5.15. W. hot did housework a.m. visited my block 
p.m. retired at 9.30 very very tired. Addie taken very ill dureing the night; 
and was healed in answer to ernest prayre. 

Thursday 4th arose soon after 7. W. hot, thunder storm at noon. Attended 
fast meeting a.m. Committee p.m. My brother returned from Logan this 
a.m. my sister came this eve stayed all night retired soon after 1 1 . 
Friday 5th arose at 6. W. still very hot. my Sister went home this a.m. bid- 
ing My brother goodbye. At noon my Husband returned from Montana 
rather poorley. At 3 p.m., Attended the furnal of Bro W.C. Staines Apostle 
J.F. Smith spoke we retired at 10.30 

Saturday 6th arose at 6. W hotest yet known, did housework all day; Bro 
Chrochron called, retired about midnight. 

Sunday 7th arose at 5.30 W. pleasant did house work a.m. attended 
Tabernacle p.m. Apostles W. Woodruff B. Young John Henry Smith spoke 
excelently. After meeting accompanied my brother to my Neice Mrs Aggie 
Ridges had a plasant visit. From there went to evening meeting in our 
own Ward had a good drenching on the way, we were addrest by Apostle 
J.F. Smith. We retired about 11. 

Monday 8th arose earley W. moderate did millinary work and cleaning. 
At 2. p.m. my Bro started for Manti. Called on Sister Kimball and my 
Daughter Effie also Sister Parks Miss Jones and Ash ton went with me. we 
came home at ten retired soon after. 

Tuesday 9th arose about 6. W. warm did housework all day retired about ten 
Wensday 10th arose before 6. W. fine a.m. thunder and rain p.m. did 
housework and repairing my Husband went to Ogden and returned to 
day; Bro Hall called this eve we retired about ten 

312 Before the Manifesto 

Thursday 11th arose before 6. ground very wet W. fine, did housework all 
day called on Effie this eve. Nephi and George came to bring me home, 
retired about nine. 

Friday 12th arose before 6. W. fine did a good deal of cleaning a.m. p.m. 
reived a very pleasant visit from my Daughter Effie. Sister Ashton Sister 
Roberts and Miss Mary Jones, retired at 9. My Husband went to Park City 
to day 

Saturday 13th arose at 5.30 W. hot hot did housework repairing and trans- 
acted business up town retired at 9. overpowered with weariness 
Sunday 14th arose about 6. W. cloudy thunder and rain, did housework 
till ten. read till 1.30 attended tabernacle meeting the speakers were T.F. 
Howells and C.W. Penrose. Spent the eve at home, fasted today; dreadful 
thunder and rain before noon to day; lighting this eve retired before 9. 
feeling very weak. 

Monday 15th arose earley did housework all day. W. pleasant our old friend 
Mr Ed Durnford called this eve; my Husband returned from Park City to 
day. retired after 9. 

Tuesday 16th arose at 5.45. W. plasant cloudy lightening this eve. Worked 
among the fruit all day. Sister Grey called. Called on Bro Evans's family 
this eve Baby better, presented them with some lines I had composed to 
his memory, retired at ten. 

Wensday 1 7th arose at 5. W. pleasant did housework all day; Misses Ashton 
and Russell called, retired soon after 9 

Thursday 18th arose before 5. W. cool and showery, heavy rain and hail 
between 12 and 1. p.m. worked among the fruit all day. Little Harrie 
Lewis died this p.m. called on Aunt Nancy and Hannah this eve, found 
them very weary from watching the Babe. Retired at ten. 
Friday 19th arose at 5.15. W. fine did a good deal of cleaning, called on 
Sister Bockholt. Sister Grey called on us, retired before 9. very weary. 
Saturday 20th arose at 5.30 W. fine did housework attended the furnarel 
of little Harrie Lewis. Elders T.E. Giles and T.F. Howells spoke excelendy. 
Transacted business up town retired at 10.30. 

Sunday 21st arose earley, W. fine, worked till 11. spent the day at home, 
though had a great desire to attend meeting. Addie attended S.S. p.m. 
and eve meeting, I guarded the Children Effie and her sweet Babes spent 
the eve with us, we retired at ten. 

Monday 22nd arose at 5.25. W. very fine, did housework attended a funeral 
of Sister Ann Duncanson's Grandson at the residence of Grandparents 
we retired soon after 9. 

Tuesday 23rd arose at 5.5. W. pleasant sewed most of the day. retired in 
good time. 

Wensday 24th arose earley W. fine did housework sewing and coloring; 
called to see Sister Ball's sick babe Called on Effie Misses Jone and Ash to 

1881 313 

brought me home, retired about ten 

Thursday 25th arose earley sewed most of the day; W very plasant called on 
Sister Ball Baby better. Recived a letter from My Brother, also one from 
Grandma Morris. Sister Rudy called, worked on a batheing suit till after 
one, retired before 2. 

Friday 26th arose before 6. W. very blustery spent the forepart of the day at 
Lake Black Rock; had no enjoyment on accont of high wind; came home 
on the p.m. train; retired before 9. haveing spent a very tiresome day. 
Saturday 27th arose before six W. cool and pleasant; spent most of the day 
in cleaning in the eve called on my Neice Mrs Aggie Ridges who is very ill 
we retired about ten 

Sunday 28th arose before six W. pleasant attended to home affairs a.m. 
attended Tabernacle p.m. Elder T.B. Lewis spoke with great power to 
the joy of his hearers. Followed by Apssd J.H. Smith. Walked home with 
Miss Mary Jones, bought Mother Williams home with me. Dureing last 
night my Daughter Addie was seased with cholomordes and was healed 
by the prayer of faith for which I feel to thank God. Also last tuesday 
night George was troubled with tooth ache after trying another remedy I 
anointed his teeth with holy oil in the na« name of Jesus, and the outside 
of his face by his own request he slept sweedy the rest of the night how 
good it is to trust our heavenly Father. This eve we all attended evening 
meeting; retired soon after nine 

Monday 29th arose at 6. W. pleasant did housework and washing Miss 
Cheer Gardner and Mr called we retired about 9. 

Monday 30th arose before 5. W. cool and pleasant did housework and sew- 
ing went up town; retired about ten. August 1881 

Wensday 31st arose at 5.15. W. pleasant sewed till nearley nine spent the 
rest of the day in cleaning. Miss Parker and Sister Foster called as teach- 
ers; Retired at 9.30. 

September 1881 

Thursday 1st arose at 5.15. W. very plasant; sewed till nearley eight; went 
around the Block; attended Fast meeting at ten; had much of the spirit 
of God in our midst spoke a few words under its influence at tow p.m. 
attended Committee meeting; had a good time spoke a few words as 
impressed by the spirit of God. Called on Sister Griggs found her very 
feeble. Called on Sister Willson little Girl very ill. We retired at 9.30 
Friday 2nd arose before 5. W. fine sewed and transacted business in town 
called on Bp Pollard and Wife Bro Lewis, Effie, Sister Roberts and Miss 
Jones. Wacthed little] Wittie Willson [Florence Witty Wilson] all night 
had very pleasant conversation with her Uncle Thomas Pride. 

314 Before the Manifesto 

Saturday 3rd came home at 7. rested a.m. did clening p.m. retired at 10. 

Sunday 4th arose at 5.30. W. plasant worked till ten. stayed till noon, called 

on litde Wittie. attend Tabernacle; attended Ward meeting Watched little 

Wittie Willson all night 

Monday 5th came home soon after seven had a plasant visit with Miss S. 

Hadock who stayed with Addie over night reted a.m. transacted busines 

in town p.m. retired at ten. 

Tuesday 6th arose earley W. pleasant, did housework; at 4. p.m. was called 

to little Wittie who seemed to be dying; called in the Elders, child better; 

put away doctors medcine conclude to trust in God who framed her. she 

dureing the night. 

Wensday 7th W. fine, still watching little Wittie, assist in washing and 

anointing her, stay with all day, doctors discharged; makes them very mad. 

Watch dureing the night 

Thursday 8th W fine, Wittie not so well, conclude still to trust in God, with our 

own efforts, call in my Elders to administer to her, watch dureing the night 

Friday 9th W. fine, Wittie some better, have more hope, remain with her 

all day, we are all hopeful now; was called home at night, went to bed for 

the first time since monday. 

Saturday 10th arose about 9. W. lovely did cleaning a.m. attended 14th 

Ward meeting p.m. a good spirit prevailed quenshd that spirit my self. 

retired at 10. 

Sunday 11th arose at 5.30. W. fine spent the day at home; in the eve reeved 

a visit from my old friend Mr Ed Durnford accompanied by his Mother 

Sister and little Daughtr had a plasant time; Effie and Ed called later in the 

eve retired before ten; this p.m. called on Sister Willson little Wittie quite 

comfortable for which I feel to prais God her parents are in extacies. 

Monday 12th arose earley. W. fin did housework all day composed some 

verces. In the eve called Effie, Sister Pollard, and Sister Roberts. Retired 

before ten 

Tuesday 13th arose earley, W. fine, did housework and sewing and in 

company with Sister Pollard visited the new comers in the Ward. At eight 

p.m. visited went to sit up with Sister Willson who is sick watched her and 

little Wittie who is now pevish from her sever illnes came home before 

ten rested a.m. 

Wensday 14th did housework p.m. went up town in the eve; retired before 


Thursday 15th arose at 6.15. W. fine did housework and sewing went up 

town to add my signiture to a deed of sale of my Fathers property of 

Decald 111. 17 had a long chat with Bro A.M. Cannon, came home before 2. 

17. In 1872, married women in Utah were given the "legal right to own and convey their 
own property." In this case, Mary Lois's signature seems to have been needed for 

1881 315 

attended to home affairs, retired before ten. 

Friday 16th arose before 5. W. fine did repairing housework and went up 

town. Misses Russell and Kimball called. Had a chat with Bro Ball while 

up town Retired m about ten. 

Saturdy 1 7 arose earley made a pair of garments before brakefast spent 

the rest of the day in cleaning; retired about ten, W. fine. 

Sunday 18th arose at 5.30 W. bright and windy accompanied my Husband 

as home Missionary to Granit Ville 16 miles south, 18 had good meeting; 

accompanied by my Husbands fellow Missionary Robert Dixton we dined 

with Bro and Sister Boice who made us very happy. The lady is young 

pretty amiable and refined; had a very peasant ride home, arrived before 

six Called on little Wittie Willson who has had a relaps on accont her 

Mother's sickness; Mother bettr we retired about ten. 

Monday 19th arose at 4.30 read till six. W. fin did sewing housework and 

transsacted important business up town. President James A Garfield died 

to night at 10.35 oclock all the bclc beels in town are toaling. Retired at 


Tuesday 20th arose about 5.30. W. fine; all business is suspended, flags at 

half mast; public buildings draped in Black Did housework all day, spent 

the eve reading the account of Prest Garfields death, and sketch of his 

life. Retired at 11. 

Wensday 21st arose soon after 5. W fine and windy continued houseclean- 

ing, my Da Effie and little Grandson Eddie called Addie assisted in the 

Childrens Fair. 19 we retired before nine oclock. 

Thursday 22nd arose at 5.10. W. blustery, worked as yesterday 

Friday 23rd arse earley, rained some last night, rain poured down this 

a.m. accompanied by thunder and lighting took Nephis marble slab st to 

the Fair cam home at noon. p.m. attended Society Conference, had a 

splended time. Transacted business in town visited the Children's Fair, 

came home before dark, retired about 11. 

Saturday 24th arose earley. W. fine rather chilly did housework all day; 

feel rather down cast. This eve feel rather proud and happy seeing the a 

the sale of her deceased father's property, which most likely passed to his children at 
his death. Carol Cornwall Madsen, '"Feme Covert': Journey of a Metaphor," 57. 

18. Most likely Crantsville, located at the south side of the Creat Salt Lake, thirty-three 
miles southwest of Salt Lake City. The reference may be to the town of Cranite, 
located at the mouth of Little Cottonwood Canyon, which served as a campsite for 
those working in the LDS church granite quarries and other nearby mines. Van Cott, 
Utah Place Names, 161-62. 

19. Primary fairs exhibited children's handiwork, including "quilts, embroidery, wool and 
paper flowers, stockings, braided rugs, nutmeg graters, ladders, hay racks, drawings, 
whips, and nose sacks, in addition to foodstuffs." The exhibitions consisted of items 
that children commonly made at home. Derr, "Sisters and Little Saints," 79-80. 

316 Before the Manifesto 

notice in this evenings News of Nephi's marble slab and Katies littl Pillow 
in the Childrens Fair; 20 retired about 1 1 . 

Sunday 25th arose before 6. W. fine, did housework till near 1. at 1. p.m. 
attended the funeral of Bro S. Reeves's baby. Attended Ward meet- 
ing in the eve Apostle W. Woodruf spoke, to our Joy and edifacation. 
Accompanied him and a number of Bretheren and Sister Woodruff and 
Sister Kimball to Bro Willson's they adminstered to litde Wittie who is 
very low of a relaps. came home about ten and retired. 
Monday 26th arose earley cloudy a.m. fine p.m. this is a holyday all over 
the nation as Prest Garfield is to be buried to day. did housework and sew- 
ing called on litde Wittie who is much better fasted to day for her benfit. 
read for the children in (Leaves From My Journal) retired about 9. 
Tuesday 27th arose earley washed all day retired about 9. W. cloudy and 

Wensday 28th arose at 6.30 feeling tired from yesterdays work; W. as yes- 
terday, a.m. assisted the upholster p.m. continued fitting up; in the eve 
took litde Kate to the Childrens Fair transacted business s up town retired 
about ten. 

Thursday 29th arose at 3.30 washed beding a.m. finished at two p.m. read 
and rested from 4. p.m. being much fataged. Bro D. [David Samuel] 
Edwards as teacher in the eve. W. cold and cloudy and sunny hailed at 
noon; we retired at 10. oclock. 

Friday 30th arose at 6. W. clear and cold; spent the day in repareing did 
housework in the eve read finished (Leaves From My Jornal) retired at 

October 1881 

Saturday 1st arose about six W. warm transacted business up town. Called 

on Bro Comball on geneological matters, attended to home affairs retired 

bef after midnight. My Husband returned from Park City 

Sunday 2nd arose at 6.30. W. fine Spent the day at home; My Husband 

returned from Park City, my litde son Nephi is 11 years old to day we 

attended eve meeting had Bros Macalaster and Penrose addressed us. we 

retired about ten 

Monday 3rd arose about 5. W. warm and blustery worked till am at noon 

Cousins Mary Robason and Lizzie Morris and Mrs Smith arrived as Con — 

visters. My Neice Mrs Ridges who has been called also. Addie accompa- 

20. The newspaper notice about the Primary Fair said that from the Salt Lake Fifteenth 
Ward, there was a "marble bed foot, lettered, boy of 10; pillow, girl of 5." Deseret Evening 
News, September 24, 1881. 

1881 317 

nied the folks to the Theater I worked till 1 1 . o'clock and retired. Aposde 
Orson Pratt died this a.m. 

Tuesday 4th arose earley W. blustery and warm did housework and sewing 
recived a call from my old friend Sister Maggie [Margaret Alice Corlett] 
Parry who arrived from the south this a.m. We attended the Territorial 
Fair in company with my Husband. Miss Jones, Miss Nellie Aunt Lizzie 
Parry, Uncle Ed Parry and Wife; we retired about 12. 
Wensday 5th arose at 5.40. W. waarm and Windy; did housework and visited 
my block; Recived a call from our dear old friend Bro Elizer Edwards had 
a long chat. The p.m. Aunt Sarah [Elizabeth Henderson] Morris arrived 
from Morgan Co. we retired about 11. 

Thursday 6th arose at 5.10. W. fine did housework a.m and viewed the 
remains of our beloved Apostle Orson Pratt. As he was pure in life, so was 
he pure and beautiful in death. His funeral and that of Fermoze Little 
Young, convened at 1. p.m. to day; Apostles W. Woodruff L. Snow ED. 
Richards and Prest Taylor spoke grandly in reference to Bro Pratt. Bro 
G.Q. Cannon spoke beautyfully in reference to the life and conduct of 
Bro EL. Young, a cortage of fifty nine carrages followed the remains of 
our beloved and esteemed Bro Pratt Never has Israel buried a btter man. 
Friday 7th arose a earley W. fine attended Con a.m. the speakers were 
Apostles EM. Lyman and C.W. Penrose both spoke excelently. p.m. 
attended to home affairs Cousin Mary Robison and Charlie Stevens 
started for home. 

Saturday 9th arose about 5. W. lovely attended Con a.m. attended to home 
affairs p.m. Addie accompanied her friends to the Theater we retired 
long after midnight 

Sunday 10th arose soon after 5. W. very fine Aunt Sarah left for home by 
the early train. We attended Con. a.m. guarded the children p.m. received 
a letter from my Bro this eve; we retired at 10.30. 

Monday 10th arose at 4.40. thundering rain and lighting as we rise before 
nine sultery dureing the day. Tuesday 11th arose at 6.30. Wind high and 
lighting durcing durcing night did housework and sewing, recived a call 
from my Sister and her grandson Parley [Pratt] Eldredge. began to read 
(Gems For the Young Folks) retired earley 

Tuesday 11th arose at 6.30 Wind high and Lighting dureing the night. Had 
company for dinner Uncle Ed and Maggie Parry Aunt Lizzie Coray My 
Daughter Effie and Grandchildren, my Neice Barbara Swan, and children 
Father [John] Parry being sick was excused. Had a long chat with Uncle 
Ed after the folks left on the train Effie and babes also stayed the after- 
noon with us began reading (Gems for the Young Folks) 21 retired at 9.30. 

21. Benjamin Brown, Gems for the Young Folks: Designed for the Instruction and Encouragement 
of Young Latter-day Saints (Salt Lake City, Utah: Juvenile Instructor Office, 1881). This 

318 Before the Manifesto 

Wensday 12th arose at 5.30 W. fine sewed most of the day, little Eddie spent 
the night with us. retired at nine. 

Thursday 13th arose at 5.30. W. dusty warm and very windy, sewed most 
of the day, did repairing in the eve, also read a very pleasant chapter in 
(Gems for the Young Folks) retired at ten. 

Friday 14th arose at 5.30. snow sprinkled as we arise, W. cold and cloudy 
did housework most of the day, some repairing; had a good time reading 
for the children in (Gems For The Young Folks) in the eve, continued 
repairing retired at 10.30. 

Saturday 15th arose before 6. W. fine. At ten Bp Pollard called and 
requested us to attend the funeral of Edward [Thomas] Hunter Latimer, 
Grandson of Bp Edward Hunter, followed the remains to the graveyard, 
came home at 3. oclock attended to home affairs, called on Bro Robert 
Cambell while out; retired at ten. 

Sunday 16th arose at 5.10 W. lovely did housework ill nine at ten attended 
the furnal of Bp Edwin Wooley [Edwin Dilworth Woolley] who died yes- 
terday noon. The speakers were Bp Hunter Bp Wiler Bp Sheets A.M. 
Cannon. Cptin [William Henry] Hooper Fermoze [Feramorz] Little 
William Naylor and D.H. Wells, the services were continued at 2 p.m. 
the speakers being FM. Lyman and J.H. Smith all spoke highly of the 
deceased we spend the p.m. at home, and eve at Ward meeting, retired 
at ten. 

Monday 1 7th arose before 5. W. fine, spent most of the day cutting out 
and sewing called on Sister Willson, little Wittie siting up and eating, litde 
May [Jennie May Wilson] very ill of fever, retired before ten 
Tuesday 18th arose before 5. W. fine, bgan washing at seven finished at 
3. p.m. continued housework called on sister Willson little May no btter. 
read rested and wrote in the eve retired at ten. 

Wensday 19th arose at 6. W. lovely feel tired from yesterdays work; did 
housework and sewig a.m. p.m. visited the newcomers of the Ward, my 
partners being sick I went alone the first family I visited was Sister Walk 
and Sister — then called on my Daughter Effie then on Matie Ashton with 
her new Babe. Next visited Sister Saley, who Son is very ill had an intrest- 
ing time felt blessed in my Efforts; came home after dark stayed all night 
with litde May Willson. 

Thursday 20th came home at 5.20 a.m. rested a while did housework a.m. 
p.m. recived a visit from my Neice Mrs Eva Woods of Malad. accompanied 

book was the fourth book of the Faith Promoting Series. It includes an account by 
Abraham A. Kimball of his childhood with relatives who had left the Mormon church 
and his eventual return to the LDS church, the experiences of J. Nicholson while in 
charge of a company of LDS immigrants, and the experience of a mother who had faith 
that God would answer her prayers. 

1881 319 

by her Sisters Lona and Aggie and their Mother; also my Daughter Effie 
and babes, had a peasant time assisted Effie home with her babes called 
on Aunt Nancy, Jennie Labron, Cousin Mattie Sister Ball and had a long 
chat with Sister Parker came home at 8. At 9. went to sit up with litde May 
but returned and retired at 9.30. 

Friday 21st arose at 5.20 W. wet did housework and entertained Miss 
Williams a.m. at 11 went to help Sister Willson little May very ill. Came 
home at six; read for the children in the (Gems for the Young Folks) did 
some writeing. My Husband returne from Park City last night we retired 
at 11. 

Saturday 22nd arose at 6.20 W. wet spent most of the day in cleaning; went 
up town p.m. retired at ten. Addie watched litde May Willson all night. 
Sunday 23rd arose about six W. very fine, did housework a.m. attended 
Tabernacle p.m. the speakers were John Nickelson and Apostle W. 
Woodruf. On my way home home was met by my Husband who told me 
that our little son Nephi's leg was broken, it had occured while he was 
pulling hay for the hor[s]es but was comfortable now. Effie and Ed came 
to see us in the eve Addie was left in care of the children and she had to 
stand the shock with oute a mothers aid. his Father broke the news very 
gendy to me; we watched him all night 

Monday 24 still watching my little son, reeved many callers Mrs Van, Sister 
Pierpont, Sister Morgan Aunt Hannah Sister Willson though in great 
trouble her self. Bro Horn Andrew Johnson and Miss A. [Anna] Bowring 
and E. Burges [Edith Amelia Burgess] and a host of children Ed called in 
the eve. a telegram was recived from Cedar City stateing that Father John 
Parry died yesterday at 8 a.m. 22 His Daughter Mary and Son Edward left 
with the 2. o clock train to attend the furnal. W. fine to day 
Tuesday 25th W. fine Nephi has rested better than Sunday night feels bet- 
ter to day his Fathe left for Park City this p.m. Effie and little Eddie called 
this eve Miss Mary Jones spent the eve with us brought a presant for Nephi 
we retired soon after nine. 

Wensday 26th arose about 7. W. pleasant Nephi had a dreadful spell last 
night was reived by anonting with holy oil. we have had many callers to 
day; Bro and Sister Elias Davis, Jemima Morgan and Burt Ruppe [Burton 
Samuel Rupp] . Aunt Aggie, Cousin Eva and children and Florence 
Ridges spent p.m. with us. Bro Burges [Charles Burgess] called, dear 
Effie and darling Eddie Miss Jane Parker, Bro David Edwards Cousin Wm 
C. and Wife, Jemima Morgan, Charlie [Charles Ure] Griggs David Parry 
Miss Lizzie Kimball we retired before midnight. Mr Will and Miss Nellie 
Thursday 27th arose between 6 and 7. W. rather wet. Nephi had another 

22. John Parry (1801-1881) was the father of Mary Parry Morris, Elias Morris's first wife. 

320 Before the Manifesto 

bad spell last night anointed him with holy oil he soon aftrwards slept 
to day his health is improved Sister Pierpont called a.m. In the eve Miss 
C. Bockholt, Miss Rosa Edington [Rosina Matilda Eddington] Miss Mary 
Jones and Claud Clive. We retired about ten 

Friday 28th arose before 7. Nephi rested better than any other night, 
did some sewing as well as nursein. Miss Nell Brown called this eve, also 
Marsters Bowring Morgan and Vrie. Did writing sewing read for the chil- 
dren in (Baby Ways) retired about 10 it has raind all day. 
Saturday 29th arose at 4.30 Nephi has had a good night; read from 5. till 6. 
soon after Bro Willso came to say that litde May was dead. I hasened over 
to lay her out; remained with them all day, recived callers and helped 
make her berial clothes; wacthed the litde corpes most of the night 
Sunday 30th at daylight began to make prepareations for the funeral 
helped to dress the little corpes and put her in the coffin Bro A.M. 
Cannon spoke beautifully at the funeral; took care of the house and chil- 
dren in company with Isabella Britt. Tried to greet the heartstricken par- 
ents cheerfully; came home at 3. p.m. Found Nephi happy with Effie and 
Ed, Eddie and Elias and a host of little Boys, yesterday Mother Empie, 
Andrew Johnson and cousin Wm C. Morris called This a.m. Misses E. 
Ashton Bell Russell and Nettie Hawlly We retired at 9. 
Monday 31st Nephi has had a dreadful night his pains began at 9. last 
night continued till 10 a.m. to day Mrs Lavina Johnson and Miss Kimball 
called, also Sister Foster and Miss Parker as teachers. In the eve my Neice 
Mrs Eva Woods and dear little children came to stay with us, we retired 
about ten 

November 1881 

Tuesday 1st arose about six W. fine Nephi had a good night Miss Russell 
called, and Sister Ridge made us a visit did housework all day wrote in the 
eve read for the Children in the eve in (Baby Ways) retired at 9.30. 
Wensday 2nd arose at 4.40 read from 5. till 6. W. fine my Neice Mrs Eva 
Woods and children started home this a.m. Nephi had a good night last 
night suffers a good deal this eve. Visited my block this p.m. recived a let- 
ter from my Husban Misess Rosa Edington and Charl Bockholt and Willie 
Mackean called ths eve; we retired at ten 

Thursday 3rd arose before 7. W. fine Nephi had a good night did repairing 
a.m. and sent dontions to the poor. Effie and her Babes called also Aunts 
Sarah and Emma Ashton. p.m. attended Committee meeting; visited my 
block on quilt business. Answered my Husbands letter attended to home 
affairs, read for the children in (Baby Ways) retired about 9. 
Friday 4th arose at 3.30 worked on society quilt till 5.40 W. lovely did sew- 

1881 321 

ing a.m. cleanng p.m. My Husband came home from Park City this eve; 
retired at 10. 

Saturday 5th arose at 6. W. fine spent the day in cleaning; did repairing in 
the eve retired at 1 1 . 

Sunday 6th arose before 6. W. cloudy high Wind and snow between 10. 
and 12. first of this season. Attended Assembly Hall p.m. the speakers 
wer Bp Rudge and Milo Andrus. Called on Sister Willson. Read for the 
children in the eve in (Baby Ways) Miss Mary Jones accompanied Addie 
home; also Mr Ed Ashton we retired at 11. 

Monday 7th arose at 6.30 deep snow on the ground W. cold and wet, did 
housework all day retired about 10. 

Tuesday 8th arose at 4.30 W. fine and cold did sewing most of the day; my 
Husband left for Park City by earley train. Read for the children in the 
eve in (Baby Ways) retired about ten. 

Wensday 9th arose at 5.5. W. fine did housework and went up town pr a.m. 
had the Sisters off my Block help me on the Block quilt p.m. work till 
seven. Brother D. Edwards called as teacher, we retired about ten 
Thursday 10th arose at 5.30 W. fin did housework a.m. p.m. called on Sister 
M. Pierpont, Sister Ella Russell, and My Daughtr Effie. litde Eddie sick, 
came home before dark called on Sister Rudy. Sewed in the eve. retired 
about ten 

Friday 11th arose before 5. W. cloudy did housework a.m. Assorted paper 
rags p.m. Took Nephi to the doctors in the eve. came home after dark. 
Recived a call from Elder Gronway Parry who returned from a Mission to 
the states and Great Britton this p.m. Did some repairing and retire at 10 
Saturday 12th arose about 6 W. wet part of the day rained in the eve; did 
housework and transacted business up town; retired after 10. 
Sunday 13th arose at 6.35 W. wet did housework a.m. started for meet- 
ing haveing a great desire to go but concluded it was unsafe to go in the 
pouring rain; spent r p.m. reading and writeing; began prepareing my 
family record, to insert in the Bible. W. foggy this eve, attended Ward 
meeting Bro G. Parry spoke also Bro N.V. Jones and a Brother Bendy 
returned Missionary. Accompanied Mary Jones th to Sister Rolands had 
a long chat with Bro Thomas Jones of Lehi going on a missio to England. 
Came home at 9 35. retired at ten. 

Monday 14th arose soon after 6 W. cloudy and frosty, did housework and 
washing. Sister Eliza Jones called also Ed Ashton read for the children 
from Juvenle also taught them to sing retired soon after 9. 
Tuesday 15th arose about 7. W. cloudy and mild, high wind dureing the 
night little sleep to be had. Did housework a.m. coloring p.m. Sister E. 
Jones and Miss Haddock called called . Recived a letter from my Husband 
this eve. answered it read for the Children from the Bible retired at ten. 
Wensday 16th arose at 6.10 high wind dureing the night W. cloudy to day 

322 Before the Manifesto 

did housework a.m. did sewing p.m. sewed in the eve Nephi read a chap- 
ter in the Bible. Retired before 11. 

Thursday 1 7th arose before 6 W. fine. Quilted the Block quilt aided by 
Sister Rudy Sister Jenkins Mollie Burton and Cristy [Christie Ann] Rudy 
finished at 8. p.m. Called on Sister Griggs before quilting found her very 
low. snow began to fall about dark retired about 10. 

Friday 18th arose at 6.40. did housework a.m. sewing p.m. did repairing 
this eve. read for the children from (Gems For The Young Folks Addie 
read a chap from the Bible; it has snowed all day retired before ten. Sister 
Griggs at 6. p.m. this eve. Sister Petit was killed at 5.35 last evening. 
Saturday 19th arose soon after 6. W. clear and cold did housework a.m. 
sewing p.m. Addie attended 14th Ward meeting had a good time. Aunt 
Lavinia called this eve retired about ten 30. 

Sunday 20th arose soon after 6. 6. W. cloudy and cold, took Nephi to the 
Dr. a.m. who pronounced his leg a good job. p.m. attended the funeral 
of Sister [Charlotte Willis Foreman] Griggs the speakers were Prest D.H. 
Wells and J.F Smith the remans looked beautiful followed them to the 
cemetry came hom at 5. had an accident with fire. 5 Spent a very pleasant 
eve at home reading Missionary sketches to the children and taking on 
the principles of the Gospel; retired about ten. 

Monday 21st arose soon after 6. W. clear and cold, did washing and house- 
work read for the children in the even from (Gems For the Young Folks) 
retired at 9. 

Tuesday 22nd arose at 5.20 W. cold and clear, did housework all day Bro 
Chatfield called as teacher; also Miss Haddock Addie and Nephi are 
gone to a party gotton up by the Y.FM.IA. for the benefit of returned 
Missionari Elders C.H. Bliss, T.C. Griggs, Gronway Parry and J.H. Moyle. 
Addie and Nephi came home before midnight accompanied by Miss 
Haddoc the affair was very pleasant and the speaking of of the Missionar 
was very affecting, retired before 12. 

Wensday 23rd arose between 6 and 7. W. clear and cold did housework 
and ironing retired at ten 

Thursday 24th thanksgiveing day. arose at before 6. W. cold and bright 
did housework all day; read in the eve. read for the children in G. F the Y 
Folks retired before 1 1 . 

Friday 25th arose before 6. W. fine and cold as yesterday did housework 
a.m. cutting p.m. Recived a letter from my Husband makeing special 
request that I should take charge of a sick young man in his employ. 
Called on Bro Walter Lewis to enquire about him. Called on Bp Pollard 
who is very sick, called on Effie also on Miss Mary Jones; came home at 
9.30 answered my Husbands letter and retired before 12. 
Saturday 26th arose before 7. W. fine and cold sewed all day makeing warm 
clothes for the children retired before 1 1 . 

1881 323 

Sunday 27th arose before 7. W mild and fine worked till 1. stayed home to 
guard the children though had a great desire to go to meeting. Ed and 
littel Elias spent the eve with us. Miss M Jones also called, had a long talk 
with her retired before 12. 

Monday 28th arose before 6. W. cloudy and mild. Washed and visited my 
Block; retired before 7 being very tired; Aunt Lavinia and Vinnie Vaughan 
called to day. 

Tuesday 29th arose soon after 4. deep snow on the has snowed all day clear 
moon light to night, did repairing and sewed some carpet rags for the 
logan Temple was obliged to rest a good portion of the day, knited this 
eve and wrote retired after ten 

Wensday 30th arose before 7. feeling better W. brigt bright and cold. a.m. 
p.m. cloudy began snowing this eve. Did housework and repairing. Sisters 
Foster and parker called as teachers Spent the eve knitting; Nephi read a 
good deal from the Instructor poor Nephi had his leg sadly hurt this eve; 
retired before 1 1 . Thursday 

December 1881 

Thursday 1st arose at 6. a.m. mild and cloudy, attended fast meeting 
a.m. at noon attended the funeral of Elder Thomas Latimer the speak- 
ers were Elders Taylor and Romney his partners. Elders Eardly Midgly 
F. Mayor Little Bp T Taylor Bp Hardy Elder J. Nickleson and Presiding 
officer of the Ward [blank] all spoke in the every highest terms At 2.30 
p.m. attended Commttee meeting, had an intresting time. Bp Pollard and 
Bo Griggs made very pleasant and encourageing remarks. After meeting 
took comforts to the poor on my block also sold my block quilt for which 
I recived 5.00 in gold; and feel very proud of my efforts came home about 
6.30 feleing quite exhausted, read and rested retired after ten 
Friday 2nd arose at seven snowed all night and still snowing, did house- 
work a.m. sewing p.m. W. thawing p.m. Did repairing in the eve, read for 
the children from the Juvenile, retired before 11. 

Saturday 3rd arose at 7. W. cloudy snowing some did housework a.m. 
Attended 14th Ward meeting p.m. also transacted business in town, came 
home at dark, rested and did some repairing, retired before 10. 
Sunday 4th arose at 7. W mild and cloudy, worked till near 12. stayed at 
home p.m. guarding the Children, read and continued my family record. 
In the eve read a lengthy piece from the Juvenile for the children, retired 
about 10 

Monday 5th arose about 7. sadly disturbed in the night W. mild and cloudy, 
did housework a.m. In company with Sister Balser visited the new comers 
wonce more felt well in the descharge of our duty came home about 6 

324 Before the Manifesto 

much exhausted Read for the children from the Juvenile retired at 8.30 
Tuesday 6th arose at 3. read from 4. till 5. rested till 6. did housework all 
day, called on Sister Davis in the eve accompanied by Miss Jones and 
Sister Balser spent an hour with Effie. litde Eddie better; retired about 11 
W. dull and raining 

Wensday 7th arose about 7. W. mild like spring did housework all day, read 
for the children in the eve from the Juvenile did knitting also retired 
about 9.30. 

Thursday 8th arose at 5.20 W. fine like spring, did housework all day repair- 
ing in the eve; recived a call from Johnnie Loyed and Miss M Lover read 
for the children from thejunile. retired at 11. 

Friday 9th arose at 6.25. W. fine ironed till 9.30. at ten attended the funeral 
of Bro John S. Roberts aged 81. on the 7th inst the speakers were James 
Lewis John Evans Thomas Giles A.M. Cannon the two latter spoke grandly, 
followed the remains to the grave. Came home before tow did housework 
till 8.30. read for the children tin from the Exponant retired about ten. 
Saturday 10th arose at 5.30 W. lovely did housework all day, retired at 
before 11. 

Sunday 11 arose at 7. sprinkling of snow on the ground, high wind dureing 
the night bright and fine to day, attended to home affairs a.m. attended 
Assembly Hall p.m. we were addressed by our belovd Presedents John 
Taylor and W. Woodruff. Spent the eve at home; read for the children in 
the Juvenile. Miss Jones and Mr Willie Bowring called, retired about 11. 
Monday 12th arose about 7. fresh snow on the ground W. fine Went up 
town a.m. called on Sister Willson who is moveing to their own home; they 
have our best wishes for prosperity after so much afliction. Did housework 
and swing p.m. read for the children in the eve retired about ten. 
Tuesday 13th arose at 5.15 more snow on the ground day fine did house- 
work all day; read for the children in the eve from (Gems For the Young 
folks) Mrs Van and her Daughter and Grandchild called recived a let- 
ter from my Husband, read for the children from (Gems For The Young 
Folks) retired at 9.15 retired before 1 1 . 

Wensday 14th arose after seven did housework all day W. fine like spring; 
read for the children from (Gems For The Young Folks) retired at 9.15 
Thursday 15th arose at 5.15. W cloudy and mild did sewing and housework 
a.m. p.m. went to meeting ajourned Sister being very ill. accompanied 
Sisters Oleson an Roberts to visit Mother Tom. had a very plasant talk 
on work for the dead. 23 called on my Daughter Effie foud her and sweet 
babes well, called on Sister clive; came home before 9. 

23. In LDS temples, all temple ordinances, including baptism, confirmation, ordination, 
endowments, and sealings, may be performed by proxy for people who died without 
receiving the ordinances. EM, 3:1257-59; 4:1444-45. 

1881 325 

Friday 16th W. pleasant like spring, attended Society Conference all day 
had a good time. Bro J.E. Taylor spoke to us in an intresting manner on 
prural marrage. came home before dark spent the eve peasantly read for 
the children finished (Gems For The Young Folks) retired before 9. 
Saturday 1 7th arose at 4.30 W. lovely sewed till ten; Addie George and Kate 
attended Primary Con Spent the rest of the day in claning retired before 

Sunday 18th arose at 6.20 W. very fine worked till near noon Addie 
attended p.m. and evening meetings I guarded children read for them 
from the J. Instructor. Had a good time reading the Exponant Misses 
Jones and Davis called, retired before ten 

Monday 19th arose soon after 6. W. cold and fine; did housework all day; 
began to read (Jacob Hamblin) 24 for the children in the eve, retired at 

Tuesday 20th arose soon after 6. W. still fine did housework and sewing, 
read for the children in the eve from (Jacob Hamblin) retired at 9.30. 
Wensday 21st arose before 6. W. fine did housework and sewing read for 
the children in the eve from (Jacob Hamblin) Recived a letter from my 
Husband retired after ten 

Thursday 22nd arose soon after 6 W. dul and cold did housework and 
sewing and made purchases for Christmas came home before 9. eve very 
foggy, retired before ten. 

Friday 23rd arose before 5. W. foggy and cold did work as yestady. My 
Husband and all the men came home to day at noon. Retired at mid- 

Saturday 24 arose before 7. W. dull and cold, did housework, took com- 
forts to the poor, went up town, recived company from the country and 
did millinary work, retired at 1.30. 

Sunday 25th arose before 7. W. brighter than yesterday did housework 
a.m. Attended Assembly Hall p.m. had a splendid discours from Elder 
C.W. Penrose. Miss Jones called in the eve. Dressed the Chiristmas Tree 
and retired before 12. 

Monday 26th arose soon after 6. W. lovely, did housework entertained a 
large company Effie, Ed Eddie Elias Aunt Hannah Aunt Nancy Eli and 
Annie. Uncle Hugh and Aunt Eliza and their children our own family 
included mad 19. Miss Jones Nellie and Barbara called in the eve. retired 

24. Jacob Hamblin: A Narrative of his Personal Experience, as a Frontiersman, Missionary to the 
Indians and Explorer, Disclosing Interpositions of Providence, Severe Privations, Perilous 
Situations and Remarkable Escapes (Salt Lake City: Juvenile Instructor Office, 1881). This 
was the fifth book in the Faith Promoting Series and is about the life of Jacob Hamblin 
(1819-1886), who was well known for his missionary work among Native Americans. 
Hamblin recounts his experiences in Nauvoo and his labors among different Indian 
tribes in the Utah region. 

326 Before the Manifesto 

before 11. 

Tuesday 27th arose before 7. W. wet spent the day in putting things to 

rights; did some repairing Lizzie [Elizabeth Amer] Butterworth and her 

Mother called in the eve retired about ten. 

Wensday 28thW. mild and fine arose about 7. did housework and repairing; 

heard of the death of John [E.] Gardner who died last night. Attended 

the old Folks Ball at the old meeting house this eve; had a splended time, 

accompanied my Husband returned soon after midnight. 

Thursday 29th arose before 8. W. lovly Attended to home affairs a.m. called 

on the berived family of Bro Gardner, also the families of Bro S.L. Evans 

came home before 4. attended to home affairs read for the children from 

(Chatterbox) in the eve retired at 1 o'clock. 

Friday 30th arose at 7. W. very fine did hosework a.m. attended the funeral 

of John Gardner p.m. the peakers were Elders G.G. Bywater and Elias 

Morris, came home at 3.30 attended to home affairs read for the Children 

from Chatterbox retired at 9.30 and 12.15. 

Saturday 31st arose at 7.35 W. beatiful spent the day in cleaning; the eve in 

repairing retired at 1 1 . 

"Felt Most Acutely My Baby Was Gone" 

[January 1882] 

€ January 1st 1882 

Sunday 1st arose at 7. W. lovely spent the day at ohme. Addie attended 
S.S. and p.m and evening meetings. Apostles M.F. Lyman and J.H. Smith 
addressed our Ward meeting, received a newyears call from Cousins Wm 
C. and Diantha Morris also Miss Jones retired about 11 
Monday 2nd arose before 7. W. mild and dull, did house work most of the 
day; Miss Jones made us a vist visit, also accompanied us to the Theater 
retired at 12.30 

Tuesday 3rd arose at 6.20 rained most of the day. did housework and 
repairing. My Husband left for Park City this p.m. we attended Joint meet- 
ing this eve 

4th day book of 
M. Lois Morris 

January 1882 

Sunday 1st arose at 7. W. cloudy spent the day at home. Addie attended 
S.S. and p.m. and evening meetings. Apostles F.M. Lyman, and J.H. Smith 
spoke at our Ward meeting. Recived a newyears call from Cousins Wm. C. 
and Diantha Morris, also from Miss Jones retired about 11. 
Monday 2nd arose before 7. W. mild and dull, did housework most of the 
day, Miss Jones made us a visit, also accompanied us to the theatre retired 
at 12.30. 

Tuesday 3rd arose at 6.30 rained most of the day. did housework and repair- 
ing. My Husband left for Park City this p.m. We attended Joint meeting 
this eve, retired at ten 30. 

Wensday 4th arose about 7. W. mild and dull, did housework all day, read 
for the children in the eve from Chatterbox retired at ten 30. 
Thursday 5th arose at 7. W. mild and dull, attended fast meeting a.m. 
Committee meeting p.m. took comforts to the poor, did repairig in the 
eve read for the children in Chatterbox retired about ten. 
Friday 6th arose about 7. W. mild and cloudy snow began to fall about 2. 


Courtesy oj the Athlon Family Organization 

Effie and Edward Ashton 'sfour oldest children, photographed by 

Charles R. Savage. Their three oldest sons were Mary Lois Morris 's 

first grandchildren. Back row, left to right, Conway, Marvin O., 

Edward M. Front: Raymond. 

1882 329 

p.m. spent the day in cleaning the eve in Knitting Mrs Van called, retired 
about 10. 

Saturday 7th arose at 7. still snowing, attended Stake Conference all day, 
read for the children in the eve from Chatterbox retired at 9.30. 
Sunday 8th arose at 7. W. bright and fine attended Stake Con all day had 
a good time Prest Taylor spoke with very great power, spent the eve at 
home reading and writeing; eve very cold retired before ten. 
Monday 9th arose before 7. W. cold and cloudy, began snowing p.m. did 
housework all day 

Tuesday 10th arose about 7 . W. very cold, did housework a.m. called on 
Cousin Mattie. Aunt Nancy and Miss Jones, spent an hour or two with 
Effie it being her birth day; came home before dark, spent the eve repair- 
ing retired at 11. 

Wensday 11th arose before 7. W. more mild, did housework and repairing 
a.m about noon accompanied my Neice Mrs Ridges to Sugar house Ward 
to visit my Sister spent a very pleasant p.m. visiting with my Sister, my 
Neices Mrs Ridges Mrs Eldredge Sister Winder and Miss Mary. 
Thursday 12th W. very cold and clear, visited and dined with my Neice 
Mrs. Eldredge. my Nephew M.W. Pratt from Bear Lake Joined our party. 
Friday 13th W. sill very cold, dined and visited with Miss Mary. Spent the 
evenings very pleasandy in intelecual converce. 

Saturday 14th W. very clear and cold, arrived home at 11. found all well, 
attended to home affairs, at 2. p.m. attended 14th Ward meeting, had 
a good time. Transacted business in town, came home before dark did 
repairing retired before dark 10. 

Sunday 15th arose about 7 . W. very cold, did housework a.m. attended 
Assembly Hall p.m. had a splendid time spent the eve at home read for 
the children from the Juvenile. Miss Jones called retired about 11. 
Monday 16th arose at 7. W. colder and colder did housework all day. This 
a.m. my Sister and son came in town. Effie and babes Joined us this p.m. 
and spent the eve. retired before 12. 

Tuesday 1 7th arose before 5. W. dreadful cold accompanied my Nephew 
to the Depo. At 1. oclock my Sister left for home. Bro Chatfield called as 
teacher, re received a letter from my Husband, spent the eve in writeing 
retired about ten. 

Wensday 18th arose about 7. W. milder, did housework a.m. writing p.m. 
and evening retired at 1 1 . 

Thursday 19th arose at 6.30 W. milder fresh snow on the ground, spent 
the day in coppying accounts attended to home affairs in the eve. retired 
about ten. 

Friday 20th arose before 4. read till 6. W. cloudy and miler, did housework, 
confined coppying, retired about ten 
Saturday 21st arose before 6. W. bright and cold did housework a.m. went 

330 Before the Manifesto 

up town p.m. continued coppying retired before 12. Last night Nephi was 
releived of a distressing cough by the administration of holy oil by own 
hand for which I thank and praise my heavenly Father. 
Sunday 22nd arose before 7. W. fine worked till one o clock. Addie 
attended Y.F. Confrence I guarded the children, read for them in the eve 
from Infants Magazine Miss Jones called; we retired before 12. 
Monday 23rd arose at 6.40 W. fine, did housework all day; Sister Barlow 
and Miss Davis called read for the children in the eve, wrote a letter to my 
Husband, retired before 11. 

Tuesday 24th arose at 6.45. W. mild and cloudy, began snowed p.m. did 
house work all day did a good deal of Writing in the eve retired before 

Wensday 25th arose at 7.20 W. mild and cloudy, did housework all day; 
praticed and instruct Nephi in the (Deseret Alphabet) retird at 11.30 
Thursday 26th arose at 6.40 W. cold cloudy, did housework and ironing 
retired before 10. Last wensday 25th inst at five minutes 11. p.m. Mrs 
Elizabeth [Hoagland Cannon] Wife of Sen George Q. Cannon, departed 
this life 

Friday 27th arose before 7. W. cold snowed a good part of the day. wind 
blac very high last night and housework all day; repairing in the eve, 
retired about 1 1 

Saturday 28th arose at 7. W. clear and and cold did housework all day and 
eve about 11 to day my Sister and litde Emma called; this eve I received a 
letter from my Husband. To day at noon Sister Ann [Roberts Parry] Wife 
of Thomas [Robert] Parry died. 

Monday 29th arose at 6.30. W. cold and clear at 10. a.m. attended the 
funeral of Sister Elizabeth H. Cannon, whos Husband is at Washington; 
how hard for him to bear" and the dear children. Veryly the rightious 
must earn their Crown The Hall was packed; the speakers were Aposdes 
Woodruff, J.F.Smith and Prest Taylor. Accompanied by Bp Pollard called 
on the Family of Sister Parry, viewed the remains. At 2. p.m. attended 
Assembly Hall the speakers were [blank] and Bro Georg Teasdale. Addie 
and Nephi attended Ward meeting I guarded the children retired about 
9. Mond 

Monday 30th arose at 5.45. W. cold and clear read till seven did house- 
work all day, the funeral of Sister Ann Parry was held to day at noon, the 
speaker were RV. Morris and A.M. Cannon. Called on Miss Jones this eve 
who is quite ill. retired late 

Tuesday 31st arose at seven. W. cloudy, snowed this p.m. did houseworked 
and worked on a quilt. Sisters Parker and Foster called as terchers retired 
about ten. 

1882 331 

February 1882 

Wensday 1st arose about 7. W. cold fresh snow on the ground; finished pie- 
ceing a quilt and did housework and ironing Bros Chatfield and Edwards 
called this eve, retired at ten 

Thursday 2nd arose at 6.10 W. cold and clear did housework a.m. p.m. vis- 
ited my Block and attended Committee meeting had a good time; trans- 
acted business in town, came home at dark, put the quilt in the frames in 
the eve, and did some repairing retired at 11. 

Friday 3rd arose at 6.30 W. clear and cold did housework all day had a quilt- 
ing party who was my Sister, my Daughter Effie, Miss Sarah and Emma 
Ashton Bp Lunt of Cedar City called in the eve, retired after midnight. 
Saturday 4th arose at 9. feeling poorly from yesterday fatague did some 
housework and repairing retired after 10. W. bright and fine. 
Sunday 5th arose at 6 W. fine read till 7. did housework a.m. read an 
excelent sermon sermon of Bro G.Q. Cannon, p.m. Addie attended 
Assembly Hall, we all attended eve meeting Bro Clegg of Springville 
recited his beautiful poems retired about 9. 

Monday 6th arose before 7. W. mild and cloudy did the weeks washing and 
housework, retired at 8.30. 

Tuesday 7th arose at 3.15. read till 5 rested till 6.30. did housework most of 
the day. Recived a letter from my Husband, Read for the children in the 
eve from the Juvenile, retired soon after ten. W. fine and cold 
Wensday 8th arose at 6.10. W. cloudy, did housework all day, called on Miss 
Jones in the eve, retired at 11. 

Thursday 9th arose at 7. W. like spring, called on Miss Jones a.m. found her 
better had a pleasan chat with her did housework and repairing retired 
at 9. 

Friday 10th arose at 4.15. began to read the history of Joseph Smith. 1 
did housework and repairing read for the children in the eve from the 
Juvenile; retired before ten. 

Saturday 11th arose about six W. cloudy, heavy snow p.m. did housework 
a.m. attended 14th Ward meeting p.m. had a good time transacted busi- 
ness in town returned home before dark, attended to home affairs retired 
about ten. 

Sunday 12th arose about 5. wrote till six W. fine and cold did housework 
a.m. Addie attended S.S. p.m. and evening meetings I stayed at home to 
guard the children retired about 9. 
Monday 13th arose at 6.25. W. fine did housework and writing went to the 

Mary Lois may be reading Joseph Smith's History of Joseph Smith (Liverpool: S. W. 
Richards, 1852). This eighty-eight-page volume was a supplement to the periodical of 
the English Saints, The Latter-day Saints' Millennial Star. 

332 Before the Manifesto 

Polls to cast my vote for the Peoples Ticket retired about 9. 2 
Tuesday 14th arose about 6. W. fine did housework and washing, Sister 
Rudy called, Nephi attended a birthday party retired before 12. 
Wensday 15th arose before 7. feeling tired from yesterdays work, W. fine did 
housework a.m. attended the funeral of Reece Powell retired about ten 
Thursday 16th arose before 7. W. stomey a.m. and p.m. Called on Miss 
Jones and my Daughter Effie; came home at dark retired at 9. 
Friday 1 7th arose before 3. continued reading the history of Joseph Smith, 
rested for one hour; W. stormey did housework att ended the funeral 
of Mother [Elizabeth Ann Smith] Whitney the speakers were Elders 
D.H.Wells L.D. Young and J.F. Smith; the latter said that as earley as the 
year 186131 the [Lord] showed to Joseph in vision the Laides that would 
be his Wives when the princaple of prural marrage should be brought 
about; saying that God himself seelected them knowing that said women 
would be true to him" and his servant Joseph Smith He also said that 
their was a crown of groly laid up for those women, and they should dwell 
in the presenc of God. 3 Read and rested in the eve; retired at 9.30. 
Saturday 18th arose soon after 6. W. cold and stormy; spent the day in 
cleaning and repairing retird about 10. 

Sunday 19th arose soon after 6. W. cold and clear, spent the day at home, 
though had a great desire to go to meeting Addie attended S.S. and p.m. 
evening meeting Bro David Ewards called this a.m. to say Bro Davis was 
dying. George is not well this eve retired about ten 
Monday 20th arose about 7.30 had a diturbed night with Georg. W. cold 

Mary Lois was voting in the Salt Lake City municipal election held on February 13, 
1882. On this day, William Jennings (1823-1886) was elected mayor of Salt Lake City, 
aldermen were elected for the five muncipal wards, and a city council was chosen. 
Deseret Evening News, February 14, 1882. 

Joseph F. Smith said that Mother Whitney "was one who received in her heart the 
doctrine of plural marriage from the lips of the Prophet Joseph; and she was one of the 
first mothers in Israel who gave her daughter in the bond of marriage to the Prophet." 
Smith further said that "there was laid up for her a crown of glory, a queenly crown 
for her and all those honorable women who sacrificed their own feelings in order to 
establish in the Church and make honorable in the earth the doctrine of patriarchal 
marriage. He knew that such women would stand in the presence of the Eternal Cod 
crowned with glory and eternal lives, which none living can enjoy but those who are 
worthy and make this sacrifice." In addition, Smith stated "that the women who entered 
into plural marriage with the Prophet Joseph Smith were shown to him and named 
to him as early as 1834, and some of them were given in matrimony to him as early as 
that date, although it was not then prudent, under the circumstances, to make these 
facts public." This speech by Joseph F. Smith may be a response to the passage of the 
Edmunds Anti-Polygamy Act by the U.S. Senate the day before. The Edmunds Act 
disenfranchised polygamists, barred polygamists from political office andjury duty, and 
put a commission hostile to Mormon interests in charge of territorial elections. Deseret 
'News, February 17, 1882; Gordon, The Mormon Question, 161. 

1882 333 

a.m. clear; did housework and sewing read for Nephi in the eve from the 
Juvenile retired about ten 

Tuesday 21st arose before 7. W. fine did housework ar most of the day; 
called on Aunt Nancy, also Sisters Russell spent a cople of hours with 
Effie, feel very down heartd about her weak state but hope she will be 
restored to heath by the blessing of God. Attended a lecture by Elder 
William Fotheringham. retired late. 

Wensday 22nd arose at 7.30 W. fine did housework all day recived a call 
from Sister Rowe. Did repareing and writeing in the eve, retired about ten. 
Thursday 23rd arose about 6. W. cold and fine, did housework a.m. paid a 
visit to Sister Willson this p.m. came home at 8. wrote to my Bro. this eve 
retired about ten. 

Friday 24th arose at 6.30 W. fine did housework all day heard from my 
Husband wote to him to night, retired about 1 1 . 

Saturday 25th arose soon after 6. W. fine and mild, spent the day in clean- 
ing, the eve in repairing, retired at 11. 

Sunday 26th arose before 7. W. mild and fine, at 10. a.m. attended the funer- 
all of Sister Sarah Ann [Booth Needham] Wife of Bro John Needham Bro 
AM. Gannon and Bp. Hardy spoke excelently. Attended Assembly Hall 
Aposde E. Snow spoke in a very spirited manner, called on Effie found 
her better little Eddie sick. Spent the eve at home retired at 10. 
Monday 27th arose soon after 5. W. fine and mild, did housework and 
repairing. Sisters Foster and Parker called as teachers, retired soon after 9. 
Tuesday 28th arose about 5.30 W. cloudy and very mild, at 10 a.m. took 
little Georg Q. to the Endowment House to be baptized Bro John Cottom 
officateing. At 11.30. attended the funeral of Bro [blank] Davis attended 
to home affairs retired at 10.30. Wensday 

March 1882 

Wensday 1st arose earley W. very and dull, visited my block and did a good 
deal of housework; My heart is sad to day. My Husband came home this 
p.m. my heart finds vent in sobs and tears; my body very weary this eve, 
retired about ten 

Thursday 2nd arose at 6.40. W. mild and fine, did housework and attended 
fast meeting, litde George was confirmed by Bp Pollard Who said to him 
if you will obey your father and Mother you shall gain wisdom day by day. 
In due time you shall recive the preisthood of the Son of God go forth 
and preach his gospel and gather the saints; and do mighty works in his 
name, and eventualy besaved in his celestial Kingdom. Amen. 4 Attended 

4. Mary Lois's youngest son, George Q. Morris (1874-1962), was eight years old at this 

334 Before the Manifesto 

Committee meeting p.m. went up town, cam home at 5. very weary, rested 
read and wrote in the eve, retired before 12. 

Friday 3rd arose about 7. W. dull snowed in the eve, Did housework all 
day; a surprise party came this eve to Master Nephi gotten up by Miss 
Clara Bockholt the children enjoyed themselves much. Felt dispon- 
dant and sorely tried this a.m. and tempted but if I can submit to will 
of God now as I have in the past shall be enabled to overcome. Retired 

Saturday 4th arose at 6. W. cold snow on the ground; sewed all day; did 
repairing in the eve, retired about midnight feeling much need of reli- 
ance on the Lord. 

Sunday 5th arose about 6. W. cold and very stormy, spent the day at home 
p.m. and eve in reading. Addie attended S.S. p.m. and evening meeting. 
And still I drink the bitter cup but do not feel to mermer. 5 retired at ten 30 
Monday 6th arose before 6. W. bright and cold; did housework all day 
My Sister called on important buisness. my husbands brother is very ill. 
retired late. 

Tuesday 7th arose at 6.30. W. clear and cold did housework all day; my 
soninlaw Mr. Ashton called to see me. Bro Richard much the same, retired 
after midnight. 

Wensday 8th arose about 6.30. W. cloudy and cold; did housework all day 
feel sick with fatague this eve retired about 10.30. 

Thursday 9th arose before 7. W. cold and stormy, did housework all day; 
repairing in the eve Bro Richard very low My Husband gone to watch 
him. Retired at 11.30. 

Friday 10th arose soon after six. W. mild and fine; did housework most of 
the day. This a.m. Wm [William Thomson Kenneth] Swan my Husbands 
soninlaw committed suicied by poisoning himselfe. cause drunkeness 
and dspondence. 6 poor dear Barbara it is hard for her. My Sister and son 
Willford stayed the night with us Uncle Richard seemes better this eve; 
Husband returned from watching retired about 1 1 . 

time. In the LDS church, children are baptized at the age of eight and then confirmed, 
a blessing, according to LDS doctrine, in which they are given the gift of the Holy 

Mary Lois seems to be referring to her pregnancy with her last child, Richard Vaughan 
Morris. As he was born on July 20, 1882, she would have been about four and a half 
months pregnant at this time. 

William Thomson Kenneth Swan (1854-1882), the son of George Swan and Agnes 
MacDonald, was the husband of Barbara Elizabeth Morris, the daughter of Elias Morris 
and his first wife Mary Parry. Swan was employed as a janitor at the U.GR.R. office 
on East Temple Street. He committed suicide on March 10, 1882, by taking poison. 
According to the Deseret Evening News, his suicide was caused by alcoholism, which "had 
led to a separation between himself and family, and he had become despondent in 
spirit." Deseret Evening News, March 10, 1882. 

1882 335 

Saturday 11th arose about 6.30. W. fine and mild, at this p.m. William 
Swan was buried poor Barbara is nearly frantic. Uncle Richard no better 
Husband gone to watch Retired at 9.30. 

Sunday 12th arse at 5.30. W. beautiful, at noon was taken up to se Uncle 
Richard whois dieing, poor dear man; stayed several hours, rode home 
with Cousin Wm C. Morris. Spent the eve at home. Have just recived 
word that dear Bro Richard has gone to rest from his sufferings, at 9.15. 
this p.m. Retired at 11. 

Monday 13th arose before 6. W. mild did housework and sewing retired about 

Tuesday 14th arose about 6 W. mild and fine. At 10 a.m. my Husbands 
Sister Mrs Barbara Jene arrived from Frisco. At 12. m. we attended the 
funeral of our beloved brother Richard, the House Ward Hall could not 
accodate a fourth of the people; the speakers were Apostle J. F. Smith Bp 
Hunter Prest A.M. Cannon it was dificulty that they controled their emo- 
tions while they addressed us; our hearts overflowing with grief also; the 
cortag who followed the remains was very large. Reached home about 
four; spent a pleasant evening with Aunt Barbara retired about ten. 
Wensday 15th arose soon after 6. W. mild, did housework and sewing, 
retired after 12. 

Thursday 16th arose at 6. W. windy did housework and ewing Amelia 
Roberts called retired at 10. 

Friday 1 7th arose at 5.30 W. cold snowing all day; did housework all day 
retired about 1 1 . 

Saturday 18th arose soon after 6. W. cold and clear; Bro Home called p.m. 
and a.m. Did housework all day, repairing in the eve retired at 11.30 
Sunday 19th arose about 6.30. W. very cold, snowing all day. spent the day 
at home; Addie attended S.S. a.m. Assembly p.m. and Ward meeting in 
the eve; the speaker was Apostle J.F Smith who spoke with great power, 
little Jonnie is sick of rhuematism. retired about 12. 

Monday 20th arose about six. W. fine did housework and sewing attended 
Corperation Meeting in the Ward; little Jonnie very sick to night, retired 
about 10. Charles C.[Croxson] Jones of the 16th Ward died to day. 
Tuesday 21st arose at 5.15. W. fine did housework and sewing. Aunt Barbara 
went home yesterday, little Jonnie some better to day. retired after ten. 
Wensday 22nd arose before 7. W. fine did house and sewing retired at 8. 
much fatuaged. about 8. oclock 

Thursday 23rd arose at 5.30. W. lovely worked at yesterday bro White called 
to see my Husband. Jonny better 

Friday 24th arose about 5.30 W. fine did housework a.m. sewing p.m. 
retired before 12. 

Saturday 25th arose before 7. W. stormy a.m. fine p.m. did cleaning and 
repairing retired before 1 1 . 

336 Before the Manifesto 

Sunday 26th arose at 6.30 W. wet and mild spent the day at home Addie 

attended S.S. Assembly Hall and evening meeting Ed Ashton my soninlaw 

called this eve. Did housework a.m. reading p.m. read a splendid sermon 

by Prest Taylor, delverd on the 5th inst. Retired at 10.30 

Monday 27th arose before 6. W. very fine did housework and sewing sister 

Hall called. My Husband had company from the Park, retired about ten. 

Tuesday 28th arose at 5.20 W. fine did housework a.m. sewing p.m. retired 

about ten 

Wensday 29th arose before 6 W. very fine did housework all day some swing 

in the eve recevived a letter from Grandma Coslet [Mary Ann Morgan 

Cosslett] and answered it Addie and Nephi attended a Concert in the 

Ward, gotton up by the Ward Glee Club, retired before 12. 

Wensday Thursday 30th arose at 6.30. W. fine, did housework most of the 

day, sewed in the eve. Henry Giles and Joseph Price called on business. 

Effie quite poorly to day not able to sit up. Nephi has gone to a surprise 

party, retired about ten 

Friday 31st arose at 5.5. W. warm, did sewing most of the day Addie Georg 

and Kate attended a s[c]hool party; Addie attended in the eve. retired 

after Midnight. 

April 1882 

Saturday 1st arose before 6 W. warm, did housework and repairing; retired 

soon after 1 1 . 

Sunday 2nd arose at 6.15. W. warm and cloudy did housework a.m. spent 

the p.m. reading my little Grandsons Eddie and Elias called with their Papa. 

Mises Lizzie Kimball and Barlow called on Addie. Retired about ten. 

Monday 3rd arose at 6.45 W. cloudy and warm did housework all day. 

rained to nigt 

Tuesday 4th arose soon after 5. W. pleasant did housework, re Sister Rudy 

and foster called. My Husband went to Park City retired earley. 

Wensday 5th arose earley retired W. fine did housework received a visit 

from my Daughter Effie retired at 12. 

Thursday 6th arose about 6. W. stormy snow falling all day Miss Lizzie 

Morris arrived from the north. Effie is with us yet; weather bound. Edward 

called to day but had to go back without her. Retired at 10.30 

Friday 7th arose at 5.30. W. cold; snowing hard Cousin Cill Morris came 

this eve. Effie went home this eve My Husband came home at noon to day 

Addie attended p.m. meeting; retired about 10.30 

Saturday 8th arose about 6. W. fine and cool; Cousin Will Morris arrived. 

did housework all day Miss Rock accompanied by Cousin Will called this 

eve. Little David John. also. Bro and Sister John Parry abode with us all 

1882 337 

night, retired after 1. o'clock. 

Sunday 9th arose about 6.30. W. fine cloudy p.m. litde Eddie and Elias 

called with their Papa. Effie no better our old friend Bro Samuel Leigh of 

Cedar City called retired about 1 1 

Monday 10th arose before 7. W. cold Cousin Cilia and Will went home to 

day. Miss Mollie John is staying with Addie. Sewed most of the day; Bro 

and Sister Parry and Miss John spent a few hours with us to night; retired 

after 1 1 . My litde Kate is ten years old to day. 

Tuesday 11th arose before 6. W. fine and chilly recived callers most of the 

day Bp CD. Evans, Bro D. Labrom and wife Bro Barnard Parry. Sisters 

Ashton and Roberts also my old friend Sage Jones and S. Leigh Bro and 

Sister Parry and Little David John went home to day. Retired at 9.30 

Wensday 12th arose soon after 5. W. fine did housework and cutting out. 

Bro Home called on important business. Mr. S. Barlow and J. Grey called 

ths eve retired late. 

Thursday 13th arose before 6. W. fine, did housework a.m. sewing p.m. 

retired at 9. 

Friday 14th arose before 5. W. fine, sewed most of the day; Bro and Sister 

Taggart called p.m. Mrs J. Grey and Mrs Mollie Burton in the eve. retired at 9. 

Saturday 15th arose at 5 before 6. W. cloudy raine at night, did sewing 

most of the day. Miss John went home to day. Retired about ten 

Sunday 16th arose about 5. rain fell all night, snowed vary hard this a.m. 

My Husband came from the Park at noon to day, went there last friday 

spent the day at home, though much desire to attend meeting read a 

good deal from church works and other good books retired about ten. 

Monday 17th arose before 5. rain and snow continue. Read for a few 

minutes from History of Joseph Smith. Find that the first public 

speaking was done on the 11th day of April. 1830 the same month 

as the Church was organized the speaker was Oliver Cowdery. and 

it occured 5. days after the church was organized Also that the first 

Missionarys were sent to the Indians in the year 1830. and two of the 

party were P. P. Pratt and Sidney Rigdon. and that Eward Partrage 

[Edward Partridge] was the first Bishop of the Church. 7 Did cutting 

out, writeing, and housework a.m. sewing p.m. Bro Home called this 

eve, retired after ten, 

Tuesday 18th arose before 6 W. fine did houseworkk a.m. seweing p.m. 

retired about 9. 

Wensday 19th arose earley at 5.15. sewed most of the day; Sister Ridges 

called this p.m. W. cloudy retired at 9 

Edward Partridge (1793-1840), the son of William and Jemima Partridge, was the first 
presiding bishop of the LDS Church and one of its earliest members, having joined the 
church in 1830. 

338 Before the Manifesto 

Thursday 20th arose before 6. W. very stormy snowing and blowing hard 
a.m. did Housework and sewing, retired at 11. 

Friday 21st arose at 5.15. W. fine and cold, did housework and sewing. 
Retired at 11.30. 

Saturday 22nd arose soon after 5. W. fine, did kniting housework and 
repairing, retired at 12. 

Sunday 23rd arose before 6. raining and snowing all day, spent the day 
at home, read a grand sermon by Prest Taylor, and Aposde J.F. Smith, 
retired about 1 1 . 

Monday 24th arose at before 6. W. fine did housework most of the day, 
some sewing 

Tuesday 25th arose soon after 5. did washing, knitting housework and cut- 
tin out Mrs Amelia Roberts called. Retired after ten. 

Wensday 26th arose before 5. W. fin, as yesterday and day before, did 
housework most of the day, retired about ten 30. 

Thursday 27th arose soon after seven 7. W. very fine did housework knit- 
ting and cutting out, our young friend Miss Emma William called also 
Bro David Edward called as teacher retired before 9. 
Friday 28th arose at 5.5. W. warm and fine, did housework sewing, knitting 
and repairing; my Dear friend Sister willson and little Wittie and sweet 
Babe Lula paid us a visit. Retired about 9 

Saturday 29th arose before 5. W. fin did housework and sewing retired 
about 10 

Sunday 30th arose about 5. W. fine, spent day at home. Cousin Richard 
[Phillips Morris] and Sallie [Sarah Isaac] Morris visited us and babe 
retired at 9.30 

May 1882 

Monday 1st arose at 5.15. W. war warm, did housework all day. retired 
before 10. 

Tuesday 2nd arose at 5.20 W. warm and windy, sewed all day, retired at 10. 
Wensday 3rd arose before 5. read from the history of Joseph Smith that 
it is wrong to kill venomos snakes, birds, or anamals of any kind where 
it is not needed; when man seaces his war upon animals the Lion and 
the suckling ly down together. 8 Did housework and sewing, and cutting 
retired at 10.30 

While traveling with Zion's Camp in May 1834, Joseph Smith stopped the other men in 
the camp from killing three rattlesnakes. Joseph Smith then asked the other members 
of the camp "not to kill a serpent, bird, or an animal of any kind during our journey 
unless it became necessary in order to preserve ourselves from hunger." History of 
Church, 2:71-72. 

1882 339 

Thursday 4th arose before 5. W. cloudy rained at night. Sewed all day. Aunt 
Hannah called this p.m. My Husband returned from the Park at noon to 
day retired after midnight. 

Friday 5th arose before 6. W. fine did housework and sewing, retired about 

Saturday 6th arose before six. W. fine did housework and repairing. Bp. 
Pollard called also Sister Duncanson. retired about 10. 
Sunday 7th arose before 5. W. fine accompanied my Husband and his 
Daughters Winnie and Effie out to the Farm which which he bought 
on the 30th inlt. Spent the p.m. at home retired about 10. read for the 
Children in the eve from the Juvenile in the eve. 

Monday 8th arose about before 6. W. cloudy and darmp; fire and winter 
clothing comfortable did repairing and knitting some housework, called 
on Mrs Van who is sick retired at 10.30 

Tuesday 9th arose before 5. W. fine and cool did housework all day, Aunt 
Lavinia and Vinnie Vaughan called. My Neice Mrs Winnie Tibbs prsented 
her Husband a daughter this p.m. Retired at ten. 

Wensday 10th arose before 5.5. W. fine, read a chapter from the history 
of the Prophet Joseph find that the first Aposdes were called and cho- 
sen on the 4th of febaruary 1835. as follows Lyman E. Jonson. 1. Wm 
E. McLellin 7. Brigham Young 2. John F. Boynton 8. Heber C. Kimball 
3. Orson Pratt 9. Orson Hyde 4th. William Smith 10. David W. Patten 5. 
Thomas B. Marsh 11. Luke Johnson 6. Parley P. Pratt 12. they were after- 
wards aranged according to age. 

Thursday 11th Spent the a.m. in cutting and other work, p.m. worked on a 
quilt. W. fine retired about 9.30. 

Thursday Friday 12th arose soon after 4. read from the history of Joseph the 
Prophet find the first Endowments were given in Jan. 1836. in one of the 
rooms of the Temple, then pardy finished. W. fine worked all day on a quilt, 
finished it. Sister Mcalaster called a.m. My old timed friend Bro Samuel 
Jukes called p.m. as he said prehaps for the last time. Retired at 9 9.30 
Saturday 13th arose before 5. W. fine spent the day in repairing retired at 

Sunday -L2 14 arose at 4.40. W. cloudy rather cold spent the day at home 
reading mosdy p.m. Fancy very sick, this is my 47th birthday may my heav- 
enly Father help me to continue faithfull to the end of my days. Retired 
at 9.30 

Monday 15th arose at 5.30. W. fine, did housework and repairing, retired 
at 9.30 sadly tired. 

Tuesday 1 6th arose before 6. had a very resdess night with George, W. fine, 
did housework and sewing. Bro John Parry did died of Logan died to day 
at noon. My Husband left on the p.m. train for Park City. We retired at 

340 Before the Manifesto 

Tuesday Wensday 17th arose at 5.15. W. fine sewed most of the day, Mrs 
Rose Nuttal and Daughter and intended Soninlaw called find by reading 
a Chapter from Joseph's History that the Saints were driven from Clay 
County for one reason because they were Eastern "men" and against 
Slavery and that thers and that their dialect was different from theirs. 9 
retired about ten 

Thursday 18th arose at 4.30. W. fine. Find that it was as much as a mans 
life was worth to stand by the Prophet Joseph in the year 1837. and that 
in July of that year on the first day of that month the first Elders started 
for England Liverpool, they were as follows Presedent Heber C. Kimball, 
Orson Hyde, Willard Richards, Joseph Fielding, John Goodson, Isaac 
Russell, and John Snider. 10 Did housework and repairing a.m. p.m. took 
care of winter clothing and beding. Miss J. Parker called. To day at noon 
my Husband arrived from Park City. Also started on the p.m. train for 
Logan to attend the funeral of John Parry Master Mason, on the Logan 
Temple, retired about 9.30. 

Friday 19th arose before 6. dreadful wind dureing the night. W. fine rather 
cold. Spent the day in repairing Sister Ridges called this eve; retired about 

Saturday 20th arose at 5.30. W. fine, did housework and tailoring. My 
Husband reached home from logan this a.m. Sister Ridges called this eve. 
Retired at 1 1 . 

Sunday 21st arose before 6. W. cool and lovely, spent the day home, shed 
many bitter tears a.m. spent the afternoon in peace, retired at 9.30 
Monday 22nd arose soon after 4 4. W. fine, did housework and tailoring 
retired after midnight 

Tuesday 23rd arose at 5. W. cloudy and changeable the Children spent the 
day at Fullers Hill. My Neice Mrs A.P Ridges spent the p.m. with me. My 
Husband left on the p.m. train retired about 9.30. 

Wensday 24th arose before 6. W. fine, did housework and repairing retired 
about 10. 

Thursday 25th aros before 4. wrote an article for the Exponant. Did house- 
work and repairing Sister Duncanson called retired before ten. 

9. On June 29, 1836, a public meeting of citizens of Liberty, Clay County, Missouri, was 
held regarding the situation of the Mormons in their county. The meeting issued a 
report recommending that the Mormons leave the county and explore other areas 
of the country. The report explained that the Mormons "have become objects of the 
deepest hatred and detestation to many of our citizens" because they are "eastern men, 
whose manners, habits, customs, and even dialect, are essentially different from our 
own" and "are non-slaveholders, and opposed to slavery." History of Church, 2:448-52. 

10. The six men mentioned in this diary entry sailed on the merchant ship Garrich from 
New York to Liverpool, England, departing on July 1, 1837. History of Church, 2:494— 

1882 341 

Friday 26th arose at 4.20. had a thuder shower yesterday at 2. p.m. W. fine 
and cool to day. copied my piece for the Exponant; did housework cut- 
ting and sewing, retired about ten. 

Saturday 27th arose before 4. W. fine rather cold, did housework and sew- 
ing, retired before 1 1 . 

Sunday 28th arose at 5.20. W. fine spent the day at home attending to 
home affairs, reading p.m. Aunt Hattie Burton Mrs Mollie Burton and 
Miss Lizzie Kimball and Lill Balow accompanied Addie home from 
Meeting, retired about 10. 

Monday 29th arose at 5.20 W. fine did housework and sewing recived a let- 
ter from my husband, retired soon after 9. 

Tuesday 30th arose before 4. W. fine. This being Decoration Day there is 
much going on in and out of town the Weathr is lovely, we have spent th 
day at home attending to home affairs Addie called on Sister Renolds 
who is very sick, retired before 1 1 . 

Wensday 31st arose before 5. W. fine did housework and repairing and 
milinary work retired soon after 9. evening, lovely moon very bright 

June 1882 

Thursday 1st arose before 4. heart heavy about my poor Effie who does not 
gain health or strength Did housework most of the day Sister Duncanson 
called this eve tells me that Effie is feeling better, about 9.30 
Friday 2nd arose before 5. W. warm, did housework most of the day. litde 
Kate assisting me. heard of the death of Mrs Mary Horner. Addie called 
on Sister Bowlden, took her some comforts. Retired before ten. 
Saturday 3rd arose at 5.30. W. warm did sewing and milliary work retired 
at 11.30 

Sunday 4th arose at 4.35. W. quite warm spent the day at home Addie 
attended S.S. p.m. meeting. Read this p.m. a grand sermon of Bro G.Q. 
Cannon delivered on April 3rd 1881. Also from last evenings News a dec- 
laration from Bp Fredric G. Clesler now an aged gentleman Be it known 
to all unto the whole World, that I was presant and was an eye witness to 
the hideing up unto the Lord, by the prophet Joseph Smith of the origi- 
nal manuscript of the Book of Mormon, as taken from the plates, unto 
which I bear my humble Testimony. Fredric. Kesler, Sen, S.L. City, may 
29 1882 11 Yesterday wrote a note of condolence to Bro George Hiner who 

1 1 . This declaration by Fredric Kesler was in response to claims by David Whitmer that he 
had the original manuscript of the Book of Mormon. Kesler asserted that Whitmer did 
not have the handwritten original manuscript in his possession, as he saw the prophet 
Joseph "[hide] up" the manuscript "unto the Lord." Deseret Evening News, June 3, 1882. 

342 Before the Manifesto 

lost his Wife a few days ago retired soon after nine. 

Monday 5th arose before 5. W. warm did housework a.m. swing p.m. Addie 
attended S.S. Union retired at ten 

Tuesday 6th arose before 4. W. warm, read from an account of a con- 
ference held in Manti May 26th 1882 of Bro W. Woodruff relateing an 
instance of the appearing of ortrt one of the three Nephites, and testified 
that the Prophet Joseph gave the Nephites his endo [ illegible letter] ments . 12 
Also that Emma smith gave th her husband five or six Wifes. Sewed most 
of the day. composed a poem for Cousin Lizzie Morris, retired about 10 
Wensday 7th arose before 5. W. warm did housework all day. retired about ten 
Thursday 8th arose before 5. W. warm did housework cutting and sewing 
heard of the wedding of Cousin Will Morris which occured last Sunday 
the 4th inst Retired before 9. night very windy 

Friday 9th arose soon after 4. heard of the death of Sister [M. Lancaster] 
Bowlden. which occurd last night at 11. Did housework and sewing; 
assorted many volumes of Juveniles preartory to binding. Addie and 
George called on Effie who is not so well; retired about 1 1 . 
Saturday 10th arose before 4. air cool and fresh continued looking over 
some wrting read from the History of Joseph that some of the Saints were 
starved to death; the Mob preventing them from buying food — Others 
died on the way from Missouri to Calldwell the company was shot at 
as they Journd on the way. 13 Sister Bowlden was buried to day. Addie 
attended the funeral peace to her ashes My litde Grandson Elias with us 
to night retired about ten did sewing about most of the day. 
Sunday 11th arose at 5. W. fine spent the day at home; wrote to my brother 
retired about 10 

Monday 12th arose before 6. heavy shower p.m. did sewing and housework. 
Sister Duncanson called reeved a blessing from her. retired about 10. 
Tuesday 13th arose before 5 pouring rain, recvd a letter from Bro George 
Hiner yesterdy. Did sewing most of the day; rain poured down at intervals 
all day and eve retired at ten 30. 

12. According to LDS doctrine, Jesus visited the inhabitants on the American continent 
and called twelve apostles to carry on his work when he left. Three of the twelve desired 
to remain on earth as John the Revelator had done. The Lord granted their desire, and 
they continued to minister and preach on the earth. These Three Nephites are reported 
to have appeared many times to members of the LDS church in the nineteenth and 
twentieth centuries. 3 Nephi 28:1-31. 

13. Joseph Smith wrote that he traveled to De Witt, Carroll County, in September 1838 and 
found that the Mormons there "were surrounded by a mob, and their provisions nearly 
exhausted" and that some of the members died "in consequence of their privations and 
sufferings." The Mormons were finally able to leave De Witt for Caldwell County, but 
during their "journey were continually insulted by the mob, who threatened to destroy 
[them], and shot at [them]," causing the deaths of more members of the church. 
History of Church, 3:368-69. 

1882 343 

Wensday 14th arose at 4.20 sewed most of the day; my Husband came 
home from Montana Our old friend Bro R.R. Burkbek [Richard Robert 
Birkbeck] abode with us over night retired about 1 1 . 
Thursday 15th arose about 5. W. fine sewed most of the day. Our Young friend 
Miss Emma Williams was married to day to Mr B.F. Gumming Jr. little Kate 
not well this eve. Addie resved wedding cards and cake retired about 11. 
Friday 16th arose about 6. W. warm, did sewing all day retired about 10. 
Saturday 1 7th arose at 4.30. W. warm, sewed all day retired about 9. sadly 
tired There has been a grand opening of liberty Park to day 14 
Sunday 18th arose soon after 5. W. warm spent the day at home Addie 
Nephi Kate and George attended S.S. p.m. and evening meetings little 
Kate did not attend this eve. Effie, Ed, Eddie Elias Sarah and Emma 
Ash ton called Effie is with us to night retired about 10 
Monday 19th arose soon after 5. dreadful wind about 2 a.m. rain falling 
fast at 6. Windy all day began to rain at eve. Did house work all day retired 
before 11. 

Tuesday 20th arose at 4.20. pouring rain, thunder and lightning dureing 
the night, clear and cool dureing the day, winter clothing comfortable; 
did housework and sewing Ed and Eddie called to see Effie. Bp. Pollard 
Bro Parry and and Bro Edwards called at night we retired late 
Wensday 21st arose about 6. W. cool and fin George sick did housework 
and sewing and ironing retired about ten. 

Thursday 22nd arose at 5.20 W. fine did housework and sewing; had com- 
pany from the Park about midnight. 

Friday 23 arose abou 6. W. fine did housework most of the day retired late 
Saturday 24th arose at 6.30 W. fine did housework all day repairing in the 
eve, retired about 10. 

Sunday 25th arose about 3. being unable to rest, W. fine, spent the day at 
home retired at 11. Addie attended S.S. p.m. and evening meeting. Bro 
G.Q. Cannon addressed the peopls haveing returned home last week 
Monday 26th arose about 4.30. W. fine did housework and sewing retired 
before 11. 

Tuesday 27th arose at 4.15 W. warm did housework and sewing cutting Mrs 
Dr Furgeson visitd Effie a couple of the old Folks abode with us retired 
about 11 

Wensday 28th arose about 4. W. warm did housework and sewing; Effie 
very weak to day, retired at 1 1 . 

Thursday 29 arose about 6. W. quite warm did housework and sewing 
retired about 1 1 . 

14. On June 17, 1882, Liberty Park, the largest public park in Salt Lake City, was opened 
to the public. It was located in southeastern Salt Lake and contained 110 acres. Fohlin, 
Salt Lake, City Past and Present, 127. 

344 Before the Manifesto 

Friday 30th arose about 4.30 W. warm did housework most of the day 
besides a good deal of sewing. The Old folks went home on the earley 
train. Miss Lizzie Ashton called this eve; Effie very feebel to day retired 
abot 1 1 . 

July 1882 

Saturday 1st arose early W. very warm cannot work much to day not feel- 
ing well. Sister Duncanon called Effie not much better, retired about 1 1 . 
Sunday 2nd arose about 11. W. very warm, worked till noon read p.m. 
retired about ten 

Monday 3rd arose before 5. W. warm did housework and sewing; my 
Husband returned from Cach Valley, went last Friday Effie still very weak, 
Aunt Hattie Burton called to see her. Retired befre 12. 
Tuesday 4th arose soon after 5. W. hot My Sister spent the day with us. Bp 
Pollard called Effie very weak, retired about 9. 

Wensday 5th rose arose abot 5. W. very hot. my old friend Sister Hannah 
Bella Height spent the day with us also Sister Home retired earley. 
Thursday 6th arose early. W. hot some rain 

Friday 7th arse before 5 W. hot some rain sewed most of the day Sister 
Parker called retired at midnight night cool 

Saturday 8 arose before 5. W. Much cooler do not feel well to day, did 
some sewing retired about 1 1 . 

Sunday 9th arose soon after 5. W. warm dont feel well to day, Sister L. 
Russell and Bro G. Woods called to day. Effie went home this p.m. feeling 
cheerful though not much better, retired about 11. 

Monday 10th arose at before 5. W. hot did housework and repairing; my 
Neice Mrs Aggie Ridges called; retired at 9.30. 

Tuesday 11th arose soon after 5. W. hot did housework a.m. prepared for 
quilting p.m. retired about 10. 

Wensday 12th arose about 5. W. hot did housework and repairing My Neice 
Mrs Ridge also Mrs L. Russell spent the day with us. 

Thursday 13th arose early W. hot did housework and repairing; Sister 
Duncanson called. 

Friday 14th arose at 3. W. hot did repairing sent a postal to my Brother 
concrnig Effie 's sickness recive a letter from him a week ago to day retired 
before 12. 

Saturday 15th arose at 5.15 W. hot, did repairing all day. retired about 11. 
Sunday 16th aros about 5. W. hot spent the day at home, Addie attended 
S.S. p.m. and evening meeting Effie some better; retired before ten 
Monday 1 7th arose before 6. W. hot did housework most of the day retired 
about 10. My Husban went to Park Cty to day 

1882 345 

Tuesday 18th arose about 6. W. hot did housework and sewing, my my 
Husband returned from Park City at noon to day. retired at 11. 
Wensday 19th arose soon after 5. W. very hot did housework and sew- 
ing. Addie and her father, attended the Theatre this eve; retired after 
Midnight haveing felt sick dureing the p.m. and evening 
Sunday August 6th I agian resume writing in my Jornal. two weeks and 
three days having elapsed scince I did so before. 

Thursday July 20th 1882 at 6. a.m. my sixth son was born weighing 15. 
pounds he died shortly after birth. 15 His father blessed him and named 
him Richard Vaughan [Morris] , after his dear Uncle who died on the 
12th of last march. It seems hard that death should be the reward of such 
horriable suffering; but we do not feel to mermor our heavenly Fathr 
doeth all things well. 

Little floweret you have left us, 
In this shady sorrowing sphere 
Death's cold hand has this bereft us 
Thickly falls the bitter tear. 
Who was it hovered near our bed? 
When in the shores of Motherhood 
Who was it came with noisless tread 
To bear our baby heavenward 
Perchance some dear departed one 
Commissioned from the realms of Joy 
To take our little new born son 
Where pleasure reigns without alloy. 

Poor Addie takes it very hard; thinks it is awful to put such a perfectly 
beautiful child in the ground. At 5. p.m. the carrages bearing the lit- 
tle treasure with Father and sisters and brothers left the house for the 
cemetery. We will draw the curtain over the sorrows of this day 
21st and 22nd pass off gloomly and painfully 

23rd feel some better Sisters Jones and S.E. and L. Russell called; suffered 
much dureing the night 

Monday 24th feel better and happier, my nurse read a sermon for me 
I composed a poem on work for the dead. Reeved a call from Mr D. 
Williams whom Addie accompanied to the theatre. 

25th fealt sick and sorrowful all day; recived calls from my Sister Aunt 
Lavina and others Aunt Lavina and I migled our tears to gether in her 
berevement and mine 

15. Richard Vaughan Morris (July 20, 1882), the youngest son and eighth child of Mary 
Lois Walker and Elias Morris, died on the day of his birth. 

346 Before the Manifesto 

28th recived a plasant call from Aunt Eliza. 

29th arose for the first time wept most of the day, felt most acutely that my 

baby was gone . 

30th feel better reeved a call from my friend Mrs S.E. Langford and and 

my old nurse Miss O. Parker. 

Monday 31st began to ply my fingers to such work as they could perform. 

reeved a call from Aunt Hattie Burton 

August 1882 

Tuesday 1st continued my work, reeved calls from my Neice Mrs Ridges 
and Mrs D. Morris 

Wensday 2nd reeved a call from Dr. Furgeson who brought my Daughter 
Effie to see me. 

Thursday 3rd my nurse went home, spent a good part of the day in writ- 

Saturday 5th recived a plasant call from my sister both feeling better in 
mind body. 

Sunday 6th arose about 8. all the children attended SS. p.m. read for 
the children from Jacob Hamblin also a sermon from Aposde E. Snow, 
and wrote up my Journal. Mrs. Eliza Loyd died at 6. p.m. to day Mr. J.D. 
Farmer Merchant of this City was drowned this p.m. in Salt Lake, being 
one of the Sunday bathers. 16 Mrs. J. Ballow and Miss Lille Barlow called 
this eve retired about 10. 

Monday 7th arose about 8. W. very warm, continued cutting; Sister 
Duncanson called, retired about 10. 

Tuesday 8th arose about 8. W. very warm; continued cutting feel better 
to day than yesterday; Miss Loyed was buried to day. Addie attended the 
furnral we retired about 10. 

Wensday 9th arose about 7. W. still very warm, began to do a little house- 
work to day. my friend Mrs Hauly called; did cutting and riping and other 
work retired before ten 

Wensday Thursday 9 arose about 6. W. hot, did sewing and other work 
retired about 9. 

Friday 1 Oth arose at 6. W. very warm did sewing and other work; my friends 
Mrs Unger and Willson called, at 11. 

Saturday 12 arose about 6. W cooler, worked on a bathing suit and other 
sewing retired before 11. 

16. Mr. J. D. Farmer went bathing with his family in the Great Salt Lake on Sunday, August 
6, and not being "much at home in the water," drowned. Deseret Evening News, August 7, 

1882 347 

Sunday 13th arose before 7. W. pleasant accompanied my Husband to the 

funeral of Bro Thomas Winters [Thomas William Winter] the speakers 

were Bp. Thomas Taylor Apostle Brigham Young. Bp Hunter and Bp 

Brimly. followed the remains to the cemetry. returned home at two. Mr 

E.T Ashton and Miss Ella Gardner called. Retired about ten. 

Monday 14th arose soon after 4. W. cooler the children spent the day at 

Salt Lake. Accompanied by Addie. I attended to home affairs retired 

about ten. 

Tuesday 15th arose about 6.30 W. hot; continued and riping retired about 10. 

Wensday 16th arose soon after 5. W. hot did housework all day. retired 

about 1 1 . Bp. Pollard called this eve on my Husband. 

Thursday 1 7th arose soon after 5 W. sultery. Did cutting and repairing. My 

Husband started for Park City this p.m. Addie called on A Effie this eve. 

foun her better has been working some to day; feel to praise God for the 

improvement of her health, read for the children this eve also told them 

some stores Retired about 10. 

Friday 18th arose soon after 5. read a chapter from the history of Joseph 

wet find that a Bro McBride who faught under General Washington was 

shot with his own gun, by one of the Mob and another of the mob cut his 

body to piecies with a cane cutter . 17 W. pleasant, did sewing and wrote a 

poem. Bro Chatfield as teacher. Retired before 11. 

Saturday 19th arose about 5.30. W. changeable heavy rain with thunder 

and lightning. Did cutting and repairing; my Husband returned from 

Park City this eve. Sister Ann [Anna Harris] Edwards Wife of John [E.] 

Edwards died to day of old age. We retired about 1 1 . 

Sunday 20th arose at 5. thunder storm a.m. fine dureng the day. Did 

housework a.m. read p.m. Sister Edwards was buried to day. Called on 

Sister Morgan; wept bitterly at the sight of her babe, feeling acutely the 

lossof of my own. Retired at 9.30. 

Monday 21st arose before 5. W. fine, did housework and cut piecies for a 

rug read for the children in the eve from J.I. retired after ten 

Tuesday 22nd arose at 4.35. W. find read from the history of Joseph 

find that Prest John Taylor was ordained to the aposdeship on the 19th 

of november 18338 under the hands of Brigham Young and Heber C. 

Kimball) worked on a quilt all day; my Sister spent the p.m. with us. 

Wensday 23rd arose before 5. W. fine did housework and worked on a 

quilt — read for the children in the eve retired about ten 30. 

Thursday 24th arose about 5.30 W. fine did housework most of th day had 

17. Thomas McBride (P-1838) died in the Massacre at Haun's Mill on October 30, 1838. 
Joseph Young, who was present at the massacre, said of McBride's death, "He was shot 
with his own gun, after he had given it up, and then cut to pieces with a corn cutter by 
a Mr. Rogers of Daviess county." History of Church, 3:182-87. 

348 Before the Manifesto 

a rug bee. 18 Retired about 11. 

Friday 25th arose at 4. had a diturbed night; sick all day, prepared piecies 
for a rug. retired at 10. 

Saturday 26th arose before 5. feel better W. fine, did housework and sew- 
ing, retired at 10.30. fasted to day. Recived a note from Sister Kimball 
Sunday 27th arose at 5.15. W. fine a.m. thunder and rain at noon. Attended 
Ward meeting this eve for the first time scince last march; retired at 

Monday 28th arose at 4.20. Addie Kate and George started to school this 
a.m. I attended to home affairs; reeved calls from Sisters Sarah smith of St 
George, also Miss Mary Jons and Sister L Russell, retired about 11. 
Tuesday 29th arose before 5. W. fine attended to home affairs attended to 
the funeral of the Baby of Bro and Sister Britt. Bp Pollard and Bro Parry 
called to see my Husband, we retired about 11. My Husband came from 
Park City at noon to day. 

Wensday 30th arose before 5. W. very pleasant did did housework and 
attended a carpet bee. at Sister L Russell's retired before 9. 
Thursday 31st arose soon after 5. W. lovely. Did housework all day, retired 
about 10. 

September 1882 

Friday 1st arose soon after 5. W. fine did housework all day, retired at 11. 

Saturday 2nd arose soon after 5. W. fine spent the day at the Lake, With 

my Husband's workmaen and familes retired at 10. 

Sunday 3rd arose at 5.30. W. fine, spent the day at home, not being able to 

Walk to the tabernacle, retired early. 

Monday 4th arose about 5. W. fine, did housework and sewing, retired 

before 11. 

Tuesday 5th arose before 5. W. fine did housework most of the day some 

sewng 30. years ago to day I became a fife Wife, being then 1 7 yeras and 4. 

months old. Retired at ten 30. 

Wensday 6th arose at 5.15. W. fine, did housework all day, retired about 


Thursday 7th arose at 4.30 W. quite warm. Attended fast meeting a.m. had 

a good time felt impressed to speak, did so and felt blessed My Daughter 

Addie did the same. May God bless her as he sees she needs, p.m. worked 

on a dress and did housework. Aunt Hattie called on my Husband we 

retired about ten. 

18. Similar to a quilting bee, a rug bee consisted of a group of women meeting together to 
make rugs out of carpet rags. 

1882 349 

Friday 8th arose at 5.15. W. fine, did housework and sewing; fasted to day, 

retired before 9. 

Saturday 9th arose before 5. W. fine did housework all day retired abot ten. 

Sunday 10th arose before 5. W. fin attended to home affairs am a.m. was 

not able to go to the Tabernacle, attended Ward meeting in the eve the 

speakers were Elders Miner Buchanen andJ.F. Smith, retired at 10.30. 

Monday 11. arose about 4.30. W. fine did housework and repairing retired 

about 10 

Tuesday 12th arose at 5.20. W. quite warm. Did housework a.m. p.m. 

attended the funeral of Sister Jane [Humphreys] James the speakers were 

Elders Charles Evans of Salem Bro Shaw of Cache Valle, T.V. Willisms of 

S.L. City, Bp Stwart of Draper, Bro Naisbit and Bp McLellen Thorpe Most 

of these Gentiemen had been her school mates and Joined the Church at 

the same time; they spoke of her in the highest terms. Came home about 

dark; retired before nine. 

-¥% Wensday 13th arose about 5. W. fine did housework all day, retired 

about 1 1 . laid awake all night. 

Thursday 14th arose before 5. W. fine did housework allday. Bro D. 

Edwards called as teacher retired about 10. 

Friday 15th arose about 6. W. Windy and dusty, did housework all day 

repairing in the eve retired in good season 

Saturday 16th arose about 6. W. cloudy, rained some, did housework all 

day, millinary work in the eve retired about midnight. 

Sunday 1 7th arose about 6. W. cloudy and cold, attended to home affairs 

a.m. attended Tabernacle p.m. the speakers were Elders T.B. Lewis 

and John Nickleson. Attended Ward meeting in the eve Bro J.H. Moyle 

addressed us who goes east in the morning. Retired about 10. 

Monday 18th arose at 5.25. W. cold and cloudy, did housework all day. 

Transcated Business in the eve; met Bros Lambert and A.H. Cannon. 

returned home at dark, retired abut ten. 

Tuesday 1 9th arose at 5.30 Joseph Smith Sen died Sep 14th 1840. he was the 

first person to receive Joseph's testimony after he had scene the Angel he 

was baptized the day the Church was organized he died from illness con- 

cracted dureing Missouri mobings. was noble in mind and body, filling 

his house with the poor whom he fed, and comforted. 19 Find by reading 

19. Joseph Smith Sr. (1771-1840) was the son of Asahel and Mary Smith and the father of 
the first president of the LDS church, Joseph Smith Jr. Mary Lois may have obtained 
her information from a transcript of a "discourse" by Robert B. Thompson at Joseph 
Smith Sr.'s funeral. This discourse pointed to the Missouri persecutions for breaking 
Smith's health, stating that seeing his sons Joseph and Hyrum imprisoned "was too 
much for his agitated and now sinking frame to bear up under" and that "at this time 
his constitution received a shock from which it never recovered." Tullidge, Life of Joseph 
the Prophet, 299-300. 

350 Before the Manifesto 

further history that in October 1840. the Prophet Joseph preached the first 

sermon on baptism for the Dead. 20 Recived a call from Bro Chrochron 

had a chat on the Signs of the times which was very refreshing. 21 retired 

soon after 1 1 . about 10. 

Wensday 20th about 5.30. W. fine and chilly after the rain on monday 

night; did housework all day. retired about 11. Sister Clara Conrad did at 

11.30 a.m. to day. 

Thursday 21. arose soon after 5. W. fine did housework all day, retired 

about 11. 

Friday 22nd arose early W. fine. Attended Society Conference a.m. 

attended the funeral of our dear friend Sister Clara Conrad, p.m. Bro 

A.M. Cannon spoke beautyfully. Transacted some came home before 6. 

attended to home affairs retired about 9.30 

Saturday 23rd arose before 5. W. warm did housework all day, seweing in 

the eve retired about 1 1 . 

Sunday 24th arose before 6. W. fine Find by reading history of Joseph 

Smith that in laying foundation stones of Temple that the S.E. corner 

stone is laid first and that by the first Presidency. The S.W. is laid next 

and that by the lesser lesser priesthood. The N.W. comes next which is 

also laid by the lesser priesthood. The N.E. is laid by the Melchisedec 

priesthood Which is the priesthood of the Son of God. 22 Spent the day 

at home, fasted, attended Ward meeting the speakers were Elders Willie 

Burton and John Nickleson. retired before ten. 

Monday 25th arose before 5. W. fine did housework all day in the eve 

called on Mattie Morris. Aunt Nancy Effie and Sisters Terry and Rolces 

retired at 9.30 find that Doncarlos Smith presided over the high priest 

20. In a letter from Joseph Smith to the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, dated October 
1840, Smith wrote that he presumed that they had already heard the doctrine of 
"baptism for the dead," which he had first preached at the funeral of Seymour Brunson. 
Joseph Smith then explained the doctrine further, writing that "The Saints have the 
privilege of being baptized for those of their relatives who are dead, whom they believe 
would have embraced the Gospel, if they had been privileged with hearing it." History 
of Church, 4:231. 

21. Early Mormons believed that the second coming of Christ would be indicated through 
certain "signs of the times," including the gathering of Saints to Jerusalem and to 
the New World Zion in America. While early Mormons "were not given to prophetic 
numerology or exact calculations as to the date of Christ's advent," they did "feel they 
were living on the eve of the Second Coming." Grant Underwood, The Millenarian World 
of Early Mormonism, 36-37. 

22. Joseph Smith wrote about the correct way of laying out the cornerstones of a temple: 
"If the strict order of the Priesthood were carried out in the building of Temples, the 
first stone would be laid at the south-east corner, by the First Presidency of the Church. 
The south-west corner should be laid next. The third, or north-west corner next; and 
the fourth, or north-east corner last." These directions follow an account of the laying 
of the cornerstones of the Nauvoo Temple. History of Church, 4:329-31. 

1882 351 

quorum when only 25. years old. was a very promising youth and died 

through exoposure of that age. 23 

Tuesday 26th arose before 5. W. fine did housework all day. retired soon 

after 9. Sister Harris called. 

Wensday 27th arose before 5. W. fine, did housework all day Sister harris 

called retired about ten 

Thursday 28th arose soon after 5. W. fin did housework all day Sister 

Harrison and babe spent the eve with us read for the children from Jacob 

Hamblin. retired about 1 1 . 

Friday 29th arose before 6. W. fine did housework all day retired before 


Saturday 30th arose before 6. W. fine did housework all day repairing in 

the eve retired about 1 1 . 

September October 1882 

Sunday 1st arose soon after 6. W. cloudy and cold rained some attended 
to home affairs a.m. attended Tabernacle p.m. Aposdes E. Snow and G.Q. 
Cannon spoke. Also attended Ward meeting retired about 10. 
Monday 2nd arose soon after 6. W. chilly. Did housework and repairing, 
transacted business up town, my Son Nephi is 12. years old to day; may 
God help him to walk in the straight and narrow way. Retired about 10. 
Tuesday 3rd arose soon after 6. W. fine. Sister Harrison called this a.m. her 
husband better. Began housecleaning, retired about 10 after a good days 

Wensday 4th arose before 5. rain pouring down fast, did housework all day. 
Bro and Sister Reese of Spanish Fork came to stay with us. retired about 

Thursday 5th arose early W. cold attended the funeral of Sister Galaspy 
a.m. p.m. attended Conference p.m. Apostles W. Woodruff and L. Snow 
spoke with great power had a splendid time Bro G. Heiner called to see 
us Cousins Cill Morris and Eliza Morris came to stay Conference with us. 
had a pleasant eve. retired about 11. 

Friday 6th was awaked before 4. looked all over th house but saw noth- 
ing. Was called up again after 5. by Addie saying there was a man in or 

23. Don Carlos Smith (1816-1841) was the younger brother of the Prophet Joseph 
Smith. He was ordained president of the high priests quorum of the LDS church on 
January 15, 1836, and fulfilled several missions for the church during the following 
years. According to Joseph Smith's account, Don Carlos's health was worsened by his 
"administering to the sick" and his work in a damp cellar printing The Times and Seasons. 
These experiences are probably the exposure that Mary Lois refers to. History of Church, 

352 Before the Manifesto 

near her room as I arose and took the lamp in hand saw saw a human 

form standing on the landing, but vanished as I aproched ran quickly 

after him but could see nor hear nothing we were all terrified poor Addie 

has recived a dreadful shock, and looks 5. years older on account of it. 

attended Con a.m. and p.m. poor Addie is nearly heartbroken and I have 

felt a mean influence all day retired in good about 1 1 . 

Saturday 7th arose about 6. W. fine did housework a.m. attended Con. 

p.m. AposdeJ.F. Smith spoke. Miss M. Robison came to day with us. Mrs 

Ide of St Georg called retired about 1 1 . 

Sunday 8th arose about 6. W. very wet attended Con all day Mr Ashton 

called Bro Cannon preached a grand dicours this a.m. Retired about 10. 

Monday 9th arose about six. W. fine did housework all day. Lizzie and Cilia 

Morris and Eliza Morris and Miss Robison went home to day Bro and 

Sister Reese recived their Endowments to day. retired about 11. 

Tuesday 10th arose about 6. W. cloudy Bro and Sister Reese went home to 

day. Addie is still very low spirited had a sever spell to day Sister Harrison 

got hurt to day N.V. Jones called to see my Husband to day this eve. 

Retired about 10. 

Wensday 11th arose before 5. rained most of the night still raining; M 

Addie had a poor night. Sister Harrison suffered all night from the effects 

of her bruse. Did housework all day, retired about 10. 

Thursday 12th arose before 5. W. fine. My Husband left on the early train 

for Malad. Attended to home affairs and went up town retired about ten 

Friday 13th arose at 5.40 W. cloudy did housework all day, retired at 9.30 

Saturday 14th arose at 5. raining did housework and sewing W. wet and 

cold retired about ten. 

Sunday 15th arose at 6. W. dull and cold attended to home affairs a.m. 

attended Tabernacle meeting p.m. Elders Geo Teasdale and Geo Q. 

Cannon addresd us Attended Ward meeting this eve, retired about 9.30 

Monday 16th arose at 4.30 W. cloudy, rained this eve did housework all day 

retired at 9.30 

Tuesday 1 7th arose about 4.20 still snowing did housework all day retired 

about 10 

Wensday 18th arose about 5 W. fine worked on a quilt all day, finished it 

retired about 10. 

Thursday 19th arose about 5. W. fine began to work on anothe quilt Bro 

Harrison made us a vist visit Sister Mollie Burton called this eve retired 

about ten 

Friday 20th arose at 5. W. fine did housework a.m. p.m. attended to home 

affairs also worked on a quilt; Sister Harrison taken very sick, retired at 11. 

Friday Saturday 21st arose at 5.15. W. lovely sewed most of the day, Sister 

Harrison some better Bro Harrison joined our family circle to day retired 

at 11. 

1882 353 

Sunday 22 arose at 5.30 W. fine spent the day at home Sister Harrison 

btter Bro Willson called we attended eve meeting about 10. 

Monday 23rd arose before 5. W. fine did housework and sewing Aunt Eliza 

called; retired about 10. 

Tuesday 24th aroe at 5.25. W. fine did the weeks washing retired about 10. 

Addie concluded to go to St George. 

Wensday 25th arose at before 5. worked on a dress for Addie. retired about 


Thursday 26th arose at 6. sewed a.m. at 2. p.m. Addie started for St George 

took her to the train called on Sister Pollard, and my Daughter Effie 

attended to home affairs retired about 12. 

friday 7th arose about 5. W. fine Grace Pollard Bro Harrison Came from 

Frisco to day at 10 a.m. Did housework all day retired about 11. 

Saturday 27th arose at 5.25. W. fine did housework and went up town, did 

repairing in the eve, retired about 11. 

Sunday 28th arose at 5.30. W. fine, attended to home affairs a.m. attended 

to Assembly Hall p.m. Apostles W. Woodruff and J. F. Smith attended Ward 

meeting this eve Elder J. E. Taylor spoke to us. Retired before 10. 

Monday 30th arose at 5.15. W. cloudy did the weeks washing; my Neice 

Mrs Ridges called retired before 10. 

Tuesday 31st arose before 6. W. cloudy, did the week ironing and houseork 

retired after midnight. 

November 1882 

Wensday 1st arose before 7. W. cloudy worked most of the day on a quilt 

read for the children in the eve; retired about 9. 

Thursday 2nd arose before 6. W. fine attended fast meeting a.m. p.m. went 

up town and prepared for quilting, retired before 11. 

Friday 3rd arose before 6. W. warm and windy, began to rain this eve; had 

a quilting to day my guests, were Sister Gardner Mrs Mollie Burton Mrs 

Cheer Parry Mrs M. Pierpont Misess Emma Ashton and Cora Linzy. had a 

pleasant time, retired about 10 

Saturday 4th arose before 5 W. fine spent a.m. in cleaning; p.m. attended 

14th Ward meeting, and transacted buisness up town, in the eve went to 

see the Torch light prossion in honor of the election of Delegate John T 

Cain 24 Theatre Jamed could not get a fair look into it retired before 10 

24. As a result of George Q. Cannon's practice of polygamy, the U.S. Congress declared the 
seat of Utah territorial delegate vacant, and a special election was held to fill the empty 
seat. John Thomas Caine (1829-1911) was nominated as the People's Party candidate 
and ran on a platform that "repudiated the charges of lawlessness which had been 
made against the people of Utah." Philip T. Van Zile was nominated as the Liberal 

354 Before the Manifesto 

Sunday 5th arose before 5. W. fine, attended to home affairs a.m. I attend 

p.m. and eve meeting retired about 9.30 

Monday 6th arose about 4.30. W. fine did the weeks washing retired about 10. 

Tuesday 7th aroe about 5.30 W. fine reeved a letter from Addie last night 

heard of her again this a.m. did tailoring and transacted business uptown 

retired about 10. 

Wensday 8th arose before 6. W. fine did housework all day retired about 10 

Tuursday 9th arose soon after 5. W. fine ironed most of the day retired at 1 1. 

my Husband called up to Aunt Hattie who is very sick returned before 1 1 . 

Friday 10th arose at 6.30. W. stormy, did housework and sewig retired 

about 11. 

Saturday 11th arose before 6. snowed all day. did cleanig a.m. p.m. went 

up town and did other work retired before 10. 

Sunday 12th arose before six. W. clear and cold, did housework a.m. 

attended Assembly Hall p.m. Aposde Heber J. Qeddy] Grant and Prest. 

John Taylor addressed in an excelent manner. Attended Ward meeting 

in the eve, Elder Wm R. Jones returned Missionary spoke to us and Bp 

Pollard. We Retired before 10. 

Monday 13th about 5. W. clear and cold, washed most of the day, did 

some sewing, attended a concert in the eve accompanied By Nephi Kate 

and George. While there heard of the death of our friend and neibour 

Andrew S. Jonhnson who died at 1. oclock this a.m. We retired about 11. 

Tuesday 14th arose at six. W. fine and cold worked on a quilt a.m. at 12.30 

p.m. attended the funeral of Andrew S. [Smith] Johnson the speakers 

were Bp. Pollard Elias Morris Bp T. Taylor and Prest A.M. Cannon they 

spoke presious words to us, Come home about 3. continued working on 

the quilt George read in the testement Ma explained we had pleasant 

intircours; retired about 1 1 . 

Wensday 15th arose about 6. W fine did housework and sewing, retired 

about 1 1 . 

Thursday 16th arose about 6 W. fine, did sewing a.m. attended Society 

Meeting p.m. In the eve prepared for quilting, retired about midnight. 

Friday 1 7th arose about 5.30 W. fine and cold cooked for my friends who 

came to quilt My bro C.L. Walker is 50 years old to day. There the northern 

sky appeared very red to night and continued for some time. Retired about 9 

Saturday 18th arose soon after 5. W. fine did housework attended 14th 

Ward meeting, transacted business up town retired about 10. 

Party candidate and ran on a platform that "declared that there could be no fair and 
impartial government in Utah 'while the Mormon church is permitted to control the 
law-making power.'" The election took place on November 7, 1882, with Caine receiving 
23,639 votes and Van Zile 4,884. Caine was admitted to his seat in Congress on January 
17, 1883, and became Utah's fourth delegate to Congress. Comp. History, 6:51-58. 

1882 355 

Sunday 19th arose at 5.30 W. fine and cold answered Addie's letter we 
recived yesterday Attended Assembly Hall p.m. the speakers were 
returned Missionaries spoke with great powr Apostl B. Young spoke as 
one sent of God. Attended Ward meeting in the eve had a good meeting; 
retired about 10. 

Monday 20th arose at 4.30. W. cold and fine did the weeks washing Sister 
Rowe called in the eve had a long chat retired after midnight 
Tuesday 21st arose before 7. W. fine and mild sewed most of the day Miss 
Lizzie Kimball called in the eve retired about midnight 
Wensday 22nd arose before 6. W. fin did housework all day repairing in 
the Bro D. Edwards called as teacher. My Husband called as answered an 
important letter to a friend, retired about 11. 

Thursday 23rd arose before 7. W. fine did housework all day repairing 
in the eve Bro Moroni Thomas called. Nephi attended a surprise party 
retired before 1 1 . 

Friday 24th arose before 6. W. fine, did housework all day retired about 

Saturday 25th arose at 6 5.35. W. fine and mild, Husband went to Ogden 
on the early train returned this eve; Sister Harrison taken very sick. We 
retired before 1 1 . 

Sunday 26th arose about 6.30. W. fine, attended to home affairs a.m. attended 
Assembly Hall p.m. partook of the sacrement. The speakers were John 
Morgan Prest of Southern Mission. Aposties W. Woodruff and G.Q. Cannon 
had excelent instruction, attended Ward meeting, had another good dis- 
course from Elder Wm Wood returned Missionary retired before 10 
Monday 27th arose at 5.25. W. fine, I whased all day, did knifing in the eve 
retired before 10 Bro and & Sister Harrison went to there own home to 
day retired 

Tuesday 28th arose at 3.30 W. fine my Husband went to Tintic by the early 
train, sewed most of the day Aunt Nancy and Eli called in the eve. retired 
about 10. 

Wensday 29th arose at 5. W. fine prepared for company retired before 1 1 
Thursday 30th arose about 5.30 W. lovely, continued prepareations for 
company, recived a call from Aunt Hattie. And a visit from My Daughters 
Effie and family. Aunt Eliza and family retired about 10. 

December 1882 

Friday 1st arose about 6.30. slightfall of snow on the ground, did housework 
all day Lizzie Kimball called to day, Aunt Eliza left for home by the p.m. 
train to day recived a letter from Addie to day answered it retired about 10 
Saturday 2nd arose soon after 5. W. fine, attended to home affairs a.m. 

356 Before the Manifesto 

p.m. transacted business up town mailed letter and parcel to Addie 
attended 14th Ward meeting heard a sermon read which the Prophet 
Joseph preached to the relief Society in Nauvoo 25 Had a glorious time. 
Attended to home affairs retired about 10 

Sunday 3rd arose about 5.30 W. fine did housework a.m. attended Assembly 
Hall p.m. a number of Young Missionaries spok. attended Ward meeting in 
the eve Elder H.G. Parkrs and JW. Cummings spoke excelently, retired at 9.30 
Monday 4th arose at 5.30. W. mild and very cloudy, did the weeks washing 
and other work retired before 1 1 . 

Tuesday 5th arose about 6.30. W. mild and cloudy did housework all day 
Aunt Lavina, Orvin and Vinnie Vaughan supped with us, retired before 11. 
Wensday 6th arose about 6.30 W. very mild and fine. Venus crossed the 
Sun to day about 1 1 . oclock Did housework and transacted business in 
town, retired about 1 1 . 

Thursday 7th arose about 6.30. W.lovely. attended Fast meeting a.m. 
Committee meeting p.m. was apointed a new feild of labour, also to get 
up a carpet for the Logan Temple, retired about 11. 

Friday 8th arose about 6. W. very mild, rained some, did housework all day 
retired about 1 1 . 

Saturday 9 arose about 6.30. W. fine did housework all day. At night 
Mr Stringer abode with us, my husband abo baptized him in the warm 
springs, retired about 11. 

Sunday 10th arose at 5.20 W. fine attended to home affairs a.m. Assembly 
p.m. Ward meeting in the eve. recived a letter from Addie retired at 9.30 
Monday 11. arose at 5.30 W. mild rained some washed all day retired about 10 
Tuesday 12th arose about 5.30. W. mild and cloudy attended Stake meet- 
ing all day transacted business retired before 9. 

Wensday 13t h arose before 5. W. very fine, did housework and sewing. 
recived a postal from Addie. Retired at 9.30 Wensday 13th arose before 
5 W. very mild did a good deal of writeing before daylight. Attended 
Assembly Hall a.m. p.m. and eve. heard the revelation read to Prest John 
Taylor retired about 10. 

Thursday 14th arose about 5.30. W. lovely did housework and sewing 
recived a postal from Addie retired about 9.30. 

Friday 15th arose at 3.30. did a good deal of cutting out before daylight. 
Attended Society Conference all day did sewing in the eve retired at 5. 
Saturday 16th arose at 4.30. W. very mild and fine, spent the day in 
cleaning; my Sister Mrs Pratt and my Neice Mrs Ridges called. Bro and Sister 
Souter in the eve, reeved a very intresting letter from Addie retired after 1 1 . 

25. The Relief Society was organized in Nauvoo, Illinois, on March 17, 1842. Joseph Smith 
directed the Relief Society's first meeting and also spoke at several other meetings of 
the organization. Derr, Cannon, and Beecher, Women of Covenant, 27-28. 

1882 357 

Sunday 1 7th arose at 5.20 W. very fine attended to home affairs all day, 

attended Ward meeting in the eve, Cheer and Gron called reeved another 

intresting letter from Addie retired about 10 

Monday 18th arose at 5. W. mild and dull rained in the eve. spent the day 

in housecleaning called on Effie and went up town retired before 10. 

Tuesday 1 9th arose at 5.20. W cold and snowing Sister Rowe called this a.m. My 

Husband came home from Tin tic. Did housework all day retired about 11. 

Wensday 20th arose about 6. W. cold did housework all day. My Neice Mrs 

Ridges called also Cheer Parry. Bros D. Edwards and Wm R.Jones called 

as teachers in the eve their company was very pleasant and the influence 

after they had come; retired about 11. 

Thursday 21st arose at 5. W. cold did housework all day, recived a postal 

from Addie retired at 11. 

Friday 22nd arose before 7. W. mild and fine, did housework and went up 

town, retired about 1 1 . 

Saturday 23rd arose soon after 5. W. dull snowed some did housework all 

day, dressd Katies doll in the eve, Addie and her Cousin Zadie Arrived 

from St George. 

Sunday 24th arose before 8. W. fine attended to home affairs a.m. attended 

Assembly Hall p.m. Apostles H.J. Grant Woodruff and Prest John Taylor 

addressed us the latters address was Grand , spend the eve at home retired 

about midnight 

Monday 25th arose abot 6. W. fine and cold, did housework all day Addie 

and Zadie went riding p.m. Gronway and Cheer Parry supped with us 

Willard Burton arrived from the southern states. We retired at 10.30. 

Thirty years ago to night I took part in a drama and Cristmas sogs songs 

Tuesday 26th arose at 5.30. W. fine did washing and other work Bo Leigh 

of Cedar City called. Nephi and George attended Y.M.M. Addie and Zadie 

attended Y.L.M. retired about 10. 

Wensday 27th arose soon after 6. W. fine, did housework and repairing, Cousin 

Aggie called, retired also Missess Beers Ash ton and Linzy. retired about 11. 

Thursday 28th arose soon after 7. W. fine prepard for company Aunt 

Hattie, cosins Richard and Sallie Nell and Lidia Effie Barbara and babes. 

Billy and Dint Fancy and Nellie and Party had a very plasant time, my 

Husband came home from Tintic retired about 1 1 . 

Friday 29th arose about 7. W. snowing some wind most of the day Cousin 

Aggie called, retired about 10 

Saturday 30th arose at 5. W very windy and cold , did a good deal of 

repairing and housework Addie and Zadie attended a party in connxion 

with Johnnie Parry Fancy Nellie and Elias [Morris] Jones, chatted with 

the Girls about my early life retired after 1 . oclock. 

Sunday 31st arose before 8. W cold and fine spent the day at home 

attended to home affairs a.m. spent p.m. reading retired at 10.30. 


"Arose from My Pillow to Behold a 
Great Fire" 

January 1883 

Monday 1st arose at 4. had a good time reading Deseret News and 
Exponant till 7. Did housework received calls from Cousin Wm C. Morris 
Mrs Baker Sister Souter Bro D Edwards and Bp Pollard, retired about 

Tuesday 2nd arose about 6.30. W. fine and cold, (yesterday the same) Did 
housework and sewing, retired at 10. Zadie and Addie visited Aunt Aggie 
Wensday 3rd arose before 6. W. cloudy and cold, did housework all day; 
Bro Lewis of Sandy dined with us. Addie and Zadie attended a party in 
the ward, retired after 1 1 . 

Thursday 4th arose before 6. W. fine, payed a visit to cousin Aggie in com- 
pany with Mrs L.P. and Annie Musser Aunt Aggie and Cousins Lona had 
a very plasant time, re my Husband went to Tintic by the early train this 
a.m. retired at 9.30. 

Friday 5th arose at 4.30. read till 6. did housework all day W. fine; my Sister 
stayed over night with us. Addie and Zadie attended a party with Elias 
Jones, we retired after 1. 

Saturday 6th arose at 7.30 W. fine rested a.m. did housework p.m. attended 
meeting in the Assembly Hall in the eve. retired about 10. 
Sunday 7th arose at 5. north Wind blowing and snow falling; read till 7. 
attended Conference all day also in the eve, had a good time retired 
about 10. 

Monday 8th arose at 5.30 W. fine did housework all day, accompanied my 
Husband to the Theater at night witnessed (His Amber Witch) ' retired 
after one 1. oclock. 

Tuesday 9th arose before 8. W. fine did housework and the weeks ironing, 
retired at 9.30. 

Wensday 10th arose before 6. W. fine did housework all day retired after 10. 
Thursday 11th arose before 6. W. fine did housework and sewing, retired 
about 10.30. 
Friday 12th arose soon after 6. W. fine and cold did housework most of 

His Amber Witch was a "society play" starring Annie Adams and presented by the Salt 
Lake Dramatic Combination. Deseret Evening News, January 6, 1883. 




(Jourtesy of Special Caller lions DepL, j. Wiltarrl Marrioll Libreiry, University of Utah 

East Side of Main Street in Salt Lake City in the 1880s. 

the day, assisted Addie in prepareing for a sociable in honor of returnd 
Missionaries Wm R. Jones W.C. Burton and James Barlow retired after one 
Saturday 13th arose before 8. W. cloudy and cold, did housework a.m. 
attended 14th Ward meeting p.m. and transacted business in town; did 
repairing in the eve retired after 12. 

Sunday 14th arose before 8. W. fine attended to home affairs a.m. attended 
Assembly Hall p.m. Bro Penrose spoke excelently. Spent the eve at home 
guarding the children retired about 10. 

Monday 15th arose about 6. W. very cold and fine sewed most of the day; 
Ed called this eve, our former friend Wm D. Williams droped dead to day. 
We retired at 9.30. 

Tuesday 16th arose at 5. read till after 7. W. very windy and cold, did house- 
work all day retired about 11. 

Wensday 1 7th arose before 7. W. very cold snow on the ground still snow- 
ing did housework and sewing. Addie started to the University to day; 2 my 
Husband arrived from Tintic this eve, retired about 11. 
Thursday 18th arose at 6.20. more snow on the ground W. clear and very 
cold. At 11. a.m. attended the funeral of Wm D. Williams Held in the 
Opra House did housework p.m. retired about 1 1 . 

Friday 1 9th arose in good season W. terroably cold, did housework all day 
retired about 1 1 . 
Saturday 20th arose about 5. W. horriable cold, did Tayloring all day fasted 

Addie apparently attended Deseret University in Salt Lake City. 

360 Before the Manifesto 

retired at 10.30. 

Sunday 21st arose about 5. W. milder spent the day at home attending to 
home affairs. Attended Ward meeting in the eve Bros W.C. Burton and 
James M. Barlow returned missionaries spoke, retired about 10 30 
Monday 22nd arose about 6. W. still very cold, did housework all day, 
retired about midnight Mr Stringer stayed over night 
Tuesday 23rd arose before 7. W. fine and cold did washing and a good deal 
of other work. Sisters Ella and S.E. Russell called. My Husband went to 
Tin tic this p.m. Elias Jones Went home to day retired about 10. 
Wensday 24 arose before 7. W. cloudy and mild did housework all day; 
attended a lecture in the eve delivered by Apostle Joseph F. Smith, which 
was exelent, he solomnly said that adultry should be punished with death 
and that it went shoulder to shoulder with murder and an adulterer could 
never enter the Celestial Kingdom. Had a pleasant chat with the children 
on pirimids . retired about 11. 

Thursday 25th arose at 6. W. mild and cloudy heavy snow this eve, Did house- 
work all day, retired at 9.30 my husband retimed from Tintic this eve. 
Friday 26th arose at 4.30. W. mild plenty of snow on the ground. Did house- 
work all day. Miss Lizzie Kimball spent p.m. with Ad die Retired about 10. 
Saturday 27th arose at 4.30. W. mild and fine spent a.m. in cleaning and 
attending to home affars generally p.m. attended 14th ward meeting had 
a good time, called on Sarah Bowen, took comforts to her. Called on Bp 
Pollard, with tithing for Nepi and Gorge, called on Effie. did repairing in 
the eve retired about 1 1 . 

Sunday 28th arse before 6. W. very mild and fine attende to home affairs 
a.m. Attended Assembly Hall p.m. Attended Ward meeting in the eve had 
two more excelent addresses. Retired about 10. 

Monday 29 arose before 5. W. wet and mild, did washing and repairing; 
retired about 1 1 . 

Tuesday 30th arose about 8. W. very went and mild, did housework all day, 
retired about 1 1 . 

Wensday 31 arose at 5.20 W. very mild, attended to home affairs a.m. 
Entered p.m. upon my new feild of labour by visiting block 6 to 8. in 
Cmpany With Sister Eliz Jones. Came home after dark, retired about 1 1 . 

February 1883 

Thursday 1st arose about 5. W. very cold and snowing, attended Fast 

meeting pr a.m. finished visiting the Block, attend Committee meeting 

attended to home affairs, retired before 12. 

Friday 2nd arose before 7. W. clear and cold, did housework all day retired 

about 11. 

Saturday 3rd arose about 7. W cold and clear did sewing all day retired at 

1883 361 


Sunday 4th arose before 8. W. fine and cold, did housework all day, wrote 
in the eve a sketch from the bible retired about 11. 

Monday 5th arose about 7. W. still very cold, did housework a.m. spent 
p.m. with Barbara who is very sick retired after 10. 

Tuesday 6th arose before 6. W. fine and cold, did housework am writing 
p.m. retired about 12. 

Wensday 7th arose before 6. W. clear and cold washed all day, retired about 

Thursday 8th arose before 6. W. fine and cold, did housework a.m. tailor- 
ing p.m. retired about 11. 

Friday 9th arose about 6 W. fine did housework all day, retired about 10. 
very very tired 

Saturday 10th arose about 7 . W. fine spent a.m. in cleaning p.m. attend 
14th Ward meeting called on Effie did reparing in the eve, retired about 

Sunday 11th arose about 7 . W. fine did housework a.m. at noon attended 
the funeral of Robert Parry of Newmarket North Wales. Attended Ward 
meeting, Sisters Morgan and Jones of Spanish Fork abode with us over 
night retired about 12. 

Monday 12th arose before 7. W. milder, did the weeks washing retired at 1 1. 
Tuesday 13th arose about 6. W. very mild and windy; did housework all 
day, retired about 10 

Wensday 14th arose before 6. W. fine very windy, blinding snow after dark, 
did housework most of the day, attended the funeral of Mother Philips. 
Retired about ten 

Thursday 15th arose before 6. W. cold lots of snow, did housework all day, 
Sisters Morgan and Jones stayed over night sang songs for them had a 
pleasant time retired about 1 1 . 

Friday 16th arose before 7. W. fine did housework a.m. Attended the 
funeral of Mrs. E. Shearman p.m. Attended to home affairs spent another 
pleasant eve retired after 11. 

Saturday 1 7th arose before 7. W. fine did housework and repairing; our 
friends Went home on the p.m. train We attended a lecture by Bro 
Fotheringham. retired about 10. 

Sunday 18th arose at before 6. W. fine at 10. a.m. was called to attend to 
Ann Mcdonald who is supposed to be dying, called on Effie came home 
before 4. oclock. Attended Ward meeting watched with Ann Mcdonald all 
at night in company with Sister Hauly 

Monday 1 9th W. fine came home about 1 1 . a.m. rested and did repairing 
Bro Dan Thomas, Miss Lizzie Kimball Aunt Lavinia and Vinnie Vaughan 
called, retired about 10. 
Tuesday 20thW. fine arose in good season at 11 a.m. attended the funeral 

362 Before the Manifesto 

of Elder John Vancot [Van Cott]. Came home about 3. oclock. My Sister 

spent p.m. and eve with us very peasandy. litde George is nine years old to 

day, retired after midnight. 

W 21st arose at 7. W. fine washed and did other work, retired at 9.30. 

Thursday 22nd arose soon after 5. read till 7. W. cold and wet. at 10. a.m. 

attended the funeral of Sister Ann Mcdonald followed the remains to the 

cemtry came home about 2. spent p.m. attending to home affairs and 

reading. My Husband left for Tintic this a.m. We retired before 10. 

Friday 23rd arose before 6. W. cloudy and wet did housework all day Sisters 

Ball and Powell called, retired about 1 1 . 

Saturday 24th arose about 6. W. fine fine did housework all day, repairing 

in the eve, Chatted with Addie and Zadie about bygone days; retired after 


Sunday 25th arose about 7. W. fine attended to home affairs a.m. attended 

Assembly Hall p.m. the speaker was Elder G.G. Bywater. Attended Ward 

meeting, Apostle Woodruff and Elder CW. Penrose addressed us. had a 

good time, retired about 10. 

Monday 26th arose before six. W. fine did washing and other work retired 

after midnight 

Tuesday 27th arose before 7. W. fine did housework all day, Sisters Foster 

and Parker called as teachers also Bro Evan Philips litde Clara Bell Ridges 

and Sister Hauley called, retired after midnight. 

Wensday 28th arose before 7. W. very fine visited the Block came home 

after dark, did writing in the eve retired about 1 1 . Thur 

March 1883 

Thursday 1st arose at 6.30 W. fine attended to home affairs at 10.30 
attended fast meeting had a good time Bp Pollard gave a great blessing to 
little Willie Fidkin. said that he should go to the Nations of the earth, bap- 
tize hundreds, do many mighty works and wonders. Many of the brethren 
toched on the principle of Celestial Marrage, an excelent spirit prevailed, 
at one p.m. finished visiting the Block, at 2. attended Committee Meeting 
had a good time, came home at 4.30 attended to home affairs did repair- 
ing in the eve, retired about 10. 

Friday 2nd arose at 4.10. W. fine read till 7. did housework a.m. p.m. vis- 
ited Effie, did a good deal of sewing came home before dark, read for 
the Children and they for me. Bp. Crain abode with us over night retired 
after midnight 

Saturday 3rd arose about 7. W. find worked among the paper rags all day, 
Cousin Lizzie Morris Rollins came from Centerville, Cousisin Willford 
Ridges abode with us over night retired before 12. 

1883 363 

Sunday 4th arose about 7. W. mild and cloudy, attendd to home affairs 
a.m. attended Assembly Hall p.m. Bro Penrose spoke, Cousin Annie 
Morris called, also Cheer and Gron. Attended Ward meeting Elders Davis 
and Fowler spoke excelendy, retired about 10. 

Monday 5th arose at 4.20. wrote in my Journal till about 6. W. very fine and 
mild did washing and other work attended S.S. Union in the eve. retired 
about 10. 

Tuesday 6th arose before 6. W. fine did housework a.m. worked among 
paper rags p.m. Miss Lavinia [Charlotte] Parry of Logan called, had very 
pleasant converse with her on Logan Temple, and the work of the Saivour. 
read in the eve, retired about ten. 

Wensday 7th arose at 4.20. W. fin spent the day in cleaning and washing, 
retired about 10 

Thursday 8th arose early W. fine spent most of the day in cleaning, retired 
about 10. 

Friday 9th arose before 6. W. fine attended Society Conference all day, 
retired about 8. 

Saturday 10th arose very early W. fine spent the day in cleaning repaired 
in the eve retired about 10. 

Sunday 11th arose before 6. W. fine did housework a.m. p.m. wrote a peice 
for the Exponant. attendd Ward meeting in the eve. retired about 12. 
Monday 12th arose in good season. W. very fine did housework and wash- 
ing Sister Harrison. Cousin Mattie and Sister Rupp called, attended the- 
atre at night, retired after midnight. 

Tuesday 13th arose soon after 7. W. fine did housework all day, retired 
after 1 1 . 

Wensday 14th arose soon after 6. W. fine attended the funeral of Bro 
Warren [Christopher C. Warne] a.m. Attended to business up town p.m. 
attended to home affairs Bro Wm Jones called as teacher in the eve. 
retired about 1 1 . 

Thursday 15th arose before 6. W. fine did housework a.m. p.m. attended 
a surprise party on Aunt Nancy Morris it being her 50th birthday came 
home about 8. retired ten or 11. 

Friday 16th arose early W. fine attended to home affairs called on Effie 
a.m. a surprise party came on Addie and Zadie. in the eve had a good 
time retired after 1 . oclock. 

Saturday 17th arose about 7. W. warm did repairing a.m. attended a 
Matteneea Concert in the theater by E. Stevens class p.m. it was a grand 
affair. Came home at 5. attended to affairs retired about 10. 
Sunday 18th arose before 6. W. fine but cooler did housework a.m. 
attended Assembly Hall p.m. the speakers were Apostle G.Q. Cannon, 
and Delegate John T. Caine. had a good time, attended Ward meeting in 

364 Before the Manifesto 

the eve, Apostles G.Q.Cannon and W. Woodruff addressed us had a time 

of refresshing. retired about 10.30. 

Monday 19th arose soon after 5. W. fine did housework and washing 

retired about 9. sadly tired. 

Tussday 20th arose soon after 4. still very tired. W. fine did housework a.m. 

visited My Neice Mrs A Ridges p.m. accompanied by little Kate and my 

Neice Zadie Walker came home after dark, read for the children in the 

eve. retired about ten. 

Wensday 21st arose soon after 5. W. fine, did housework a.m. A 3. p.m. 

attended the funeral of Mrs Mary Ann Price lea led the singing. Returned 

home at dark. Aunt Nanccy Eli and Annie Called retired about 11. 

Thursday 22nd arose soon after 6. W. fine. Did housework all day, read for 

the children in the eve retired at 10. 

Friday 23rd arose before 6. W. fine did housework, transacted business up 

town, did repairing in the eve, my husband went to Tintic this a.m. retired 

before 10. 

Saturday 24th arose 5. rain gently falling, shower a.m. fine most of the day, 

Spent the day in cleaning did repairing in the eve, my Husband returned 

from Tintic. Zadie returned from Cousin Aggies, retired before 1 1 . 

Sunday 25th arose at 4.15. W. cloudy, read and wrote till 7. attended to 

home affairs a.m. attended Assembly Hall p.m. Ward meeting in the eve, 

retired about 10. 

Monday 26th arose about 5.30. W. cloudy and windy, did housework and 

washing, Zadie went out to Aunt Aggies this p.m. did repairing in the eve 

rtired at 10 

Tuesday 27th arose at 5.30. still feeling tired. W. cloudy, did housework 

and repairing, attended Mr Phill Robinson's leture at the Theatre 3 in the 

eve, retired at 12. 

Wensday 28th arose arose before 6. W. cloudy did housework most of the 

day, called on Effie and little Mira [Almyra] Conrad, retired soon after 9. 

Thursday 29th arose at 4.10. rain fell dureing the night, did housework 

and dressmakeing, retired at 10 

Friday 30th arose at 4.40. W. fine wet did housework and dressmakeing 

spent part of p.m. with Effie. Miss Lizzie Kimball spent p.m. and eve with 

Addie. Did repairing in the eve retired at 11.30. 

March 31st arose at 5.40. snow a.m. and eve did housework most of the 

day, Miss Alice Worthin abode with us retired at 11.30 

This was the "farewell lecture" of Phil Robinson, a journalist, before his return to the 
East. The Deseret Evening New.s reported that Robinson "has made many warm friends in 
Utah by his outspoken and intelligent expressions of the true situation of Utah affairs." 
Deseret Evening News, March 27, 1883; March 28, 1883. 

1883 365 

April 1883 

Sunday 1st arose about 7. W. fine and cold, attended to home affairs a.m. 
attended Assembly Hall p.m. Ward meeting in the eve retired after 11. 
Monday 2nd arose at 5.30 W. cloudy, washd a.m. did sewing p.m. Missess 
Sarah and Emma Ashton called, my Husband came home from Tintic 
started last Saturday a.m. Retired at 8.30 sadly tired. 

Tuesday 3rd arose at 3. read wote and rested till 6. did housework all day 
Sister Tole called also cheer Parry. Sister Foster and Parke Miss Worthin 
abode with us over night retired at 10.30. 

Wensday 4th arose at 6. W. cloudy rained hard this p.m. visited the Block 
a.m. attended Committee meeting p.m. Sister Worthin, S. Dalton, Mrs 
C Vixon, A Snow and Earnet Hardy, this eve Cousin Becca and Sister 
Turner, abode with all night retired about 1 1 . 

Thursday 5th arose about 4.30 W. damp, did housework a.m. attended Con 
p.m. Cousin T.C. Morris Mrs Turner Miss Mooller and Mattie [Martha 
Ann] John abode with us over night retired after 12. our old friend Joseph 
[Hyrum] Armstrong called. 

Friday 6th arose about 6. W. [blank] did housework ap a.m attended p.m. 
Addie attended the theatre with Bro Joe Bendy retired about 10. Our old 
friend Sister Margret Williams of Cach Valley came this a.m. 
Saturday 7th arose about 6. W. fine attended Con. a.m. did housework 
p.m. My Sister and Mrs. Lovrage called this eve Addie accompanied Mr D. 
Williams to the opra House retired after 1. 

Sunday 8th arose about 7. W. fine attended Conference all day, Bro David 
Thomas called this eve a host of Young folks spent the eve with us had 
a grand sermon from Aposdes J.F. Smith G.Q.. Cannon EM. Lyman and 
Prest Taylor. Rain pouring down st to night retired about midnight. 
Monday 9th was waked about 6. oclock by the news of another little 
Grandson being borne to us last night about 10. ocloc 4 W. wet and cold 
did housework all day. My old friend Sister Mary Rolands called also Sister 
Olive Parry. Isaac Morris went home to day. Addie attended the thetre 
this eve with Mr David Williams. I accompanied my old friend Sister 
MargretWilliams to the theatre this eve retired two housr after midnight. 
Tuesday 10th arose about 6. W. cloudy rather cold did housework all day 
Wm P. Gr Jones called to day, also Bro Henry Puegh. Our friends Mrs 
Williams and Son and Miss Mollie John went home on the a.m. train Mrs. 
Turner on the p.m. retired about 11. 

Marvin Owen Ashton (1883-1946), the third son of Effie Morris and Edward Treharne 
Ashton, was the grandson of Mary Lois Walker and the father of LDS apostle Marvin J. 

366 Before the Manifesto 

Wensday 11. arose about 5.30. W. cold snow on the ground did housework 

a most of the day; called on my Daughter Effie found her and Babe well. 

Bro Armstrong visited us retired at 9.30 

Thursday 12th arose about 5.30. W. wet did housework all day Bro 

Armstrong called on special business Messrs Bendy and Hardy spent the 

eve with us, retired at 12. 

Friday 13th arose before 6. W. cloudy did housework Miss Mattie John and 

Mrs David Williams left on the p.m. Train called on Effie allso Mrs Terry 

and Mrs allcock. retired about 1 1 . 

Saturday 14th arose at 6. snow on the ground, W. fine did housework all 

day Addie accompanied Bro Bendy to Provo this p.m. Did reparing in the 

eve retired at 10. 

Sunday 15th arose at 5. read till 7. W. fine groud frozen attended to home 

affairs a.m. attended the funeral of Sister Allcock's Baby, also called on 

my Daughter Effie attended Ward meeting in the eve, Bro James Ure Sen 

spoke excelently retired before 10 

Monday 16th arose befor 6. W. fine washed most of the day retired very 


Tuesday 1 7th arose at 5. W. changeable attended to home affairs a.m. went 

to a carpet bee p.m. at my friend's Sister Ridges, Addie came home from 

Provo this eve has had good time, retired after midnight. 

Wensday 18th arose soon after 6. W. fine did housework all day my Neice 

Colarbell Ridges spent p.m. with us Sister [Mary] Thomas Wife of John 

Thomas the tailor died to day retired about 10. 

Thursday 19th arose before 5. W. fine and windy, attended to home affairs 

a.m. p.m. attended the funeral of Sister Thomas, called on Effie found 

her and Baby well, retired before 9. 

Friday 20th arose bfore 5. W. cloudy and damp, did housework all day 

retired at 10. 

Saturday 21st arose before 4. read till after 5. W. fine, attended to home 

affairs a.m. attended 12th Ward meeting p.m. had a good time had a long 

talk with Sister Unger. Miss Lizzie Kimball called retired at ten. 

Sunday 22nd arose at 6. snowing fast continued all day; spent p.m. at home 

guarding the children, attended Ward meeting Bp's Lunt and Pollard 

spok well , retired about 9. 

Monday 23rd arose at 5. snow falling all day, washed most of the day, 

retired about 10. 

Tuesday 24th arose at 6. dreadfull wind last night, W. Windy and cold, did 

housework all day, retired about 9. 

Wensday 25th arose soon after 5. W. clear cold and windy did housework 

all day, my Neice Clara Bell Ridge, and Sister Tole visited us, retired at 


Thursday 26th arose at 6. did housework all day retired about 10. W. fine 

1883 367 

Friday 27th arose at 6. W. fine attended to home affairs a.m. called on 

Cheer Parry and Sister Harrison and Sister Jenkins. Retired after one 


Saturday 28th arose after 8. attended the Funeral of Aunt Betty [Elizabeth 

Godbe] Taylor. Wife of Elder James Taylor Father of Prestjohn Taylor. 

Attended to home affairs retired about 10 

Sunday 2989 arose about 5. W. lovely attended to home affairs a.m. spend 

p.m. and eve with Effie. attended retired about 10. 

Monday 30th arose at 6 W. fine, did housework and washing Elias Jones 

and John Parry spent the eve with us. retired after 10. 

May 1883 

Tuesday 1st arose at 5. W. wet. did housework all day; attended Y.F.M. in 

the eve Miss Thomas lectured retired about 10. 

Wensday 2 arose at 6. W. moderate spent the day visiting the block, called 

on Effie in the eve retired about 10 

Thursday 3rd arose about 5.30 attended to home affairs, attended fast 

meeting a.m. Committee meeting p.m. attended to home affairs, retired 

about 10 

Friday 4th arose at 5. W. fine, attended to home affairs a.m. called on Effie 

p.m. did needle work while thir retired at 10.30. 

Saturday 5th aros before 5. fine did housework and attended 14th Ward 

meeting, retired about 10. 

Sunday 6th arose before 6. W. fine spent the day at home, attended Ward 

meeting in the eve. retired about 10 

Monday 7th arose about 5.30. W. fine did housework and washing, retired 

about ten. 

Tuesday 8th arose before 5. W. fine did the days work and ironing, retired 

about 10. 

Wensday 9th arose before 5. W. fine did housework and made calls on Cher 

Parry, Sister Willson, Sister Thompson, Sister Warterfall a new comer, minstered 

to her wants, also called on Sisters Burton and Rhodes, retired before 12. 

Thursday 10th arose at 5.30. W. fine did housework and repairing my old 

Ship-mate Sister Alice Needham died to day retired about 11.30. 

Friday 11th arose at 5.40 30. W. fine worked as yesterday. Addie recived 

several letters amongst others one from Mr Bendy, Bro Edward L. Parry 

of Manti called this eve retired before 12. 

Saturday 12th arose at 5.40. W. fine attended to home affairs all day, Mr 

Roberts of Provo dined with us, Sister Thomas of Mill Creek called also 

Sister Tole. dreadful wind this eve retired about 10. 

Sunday 13th arose at 5.15. W. changeable attended the funereal of Sister 

368 Before the Manifesto 

Alice Needham a.m. rested p.m. Attended Ward meeting in the eve 

retired about 10. 

Monday 14th arose before 5. W. cloudy rather cold, did the weeks wash 

a.m. rested p.m. wrote to my Brother, Sister Rhodes callede. This is my 

48th birth day, may God help me to be faithful that I may dwell with His 

people for ever is my most earnest desire retired about 10. 

Tuesday 15th arose soon after 5. W. fine did housework a.m. transacted 

business p.m. retired about 9.30. 

Wensday 16th arose at 4.30. W. fin Addend did hous e work a.m. attended 

Society meeting p.m. retired about 9. 

Wensday 16th arose at 4.30. W. fine did repairing housework and the weeks 

ironing retired about 10. 

Thursday 17th arose about 5. W. fine did housework a.m. attended sewing 

meeting p.m. retired about 10. 

Friday 18th arose soon after 5. W. fine spent most of the day with Effie did 

Millinary work had a pleasant tim with Effie Sister Bell Harris was put in 

the Penitenitary to day for not telling whos Wife she was. 5 Retired about 


Saturday 19th arose before 5. W. fine did housework all day. retired about 


Sunday 20th arose about 5. W. fine attended to home affairs a.m. p.m. 

attended the funeral of Bro JW. Cummings. In the eve called on Bro T.F. 

Howells on geneological business, retired about 11. 

Monday 21 st arose about 6. W. fine, did housework and cutting out. retired 

about 10. 

Tuesday 22nd arose at 5.30. did housework all day Bros Wm Jones and J. 

Britt called as teachers retired about 10. W. fine. 

Wensday 23rd arose at 6 5.30. W. fine did housework all day retired at 10. 

Thursday 24th arose before 6. W. fine did housework all day retired about 9. 

Friday 25th arose at 4.30 W. fine did housework and repairing Bro Cottom 

of St George called Also Sister Eliza Jones, retired at 10.30. 

Saturday 26th arose soon after 6. W. fine did housework all day Mr Robins 

of Provo dined with us. Addie recived a letter from Mr Bendy. Retired 

before 11. 

Sunday 27th arose before 6. W. fin attended to home affairs a.m. attended 

On May 18, 1883, Belle Harris was put in the Utah penitentiary for contempt of court. 
When testifying before a grand jury in a polygamy investigation, she refused to answer 
whether or not she was married and who her husband was. The Deseret Evening News 
described Harris as "a lady with a nursing infant, having another child from whom she 
is forcibly separated, torn from her home in Monroe, Beaver County." Harris was a 
granddaughter of Emer Harris, the brother of Martin Harris, one of the three witnesses 
to the Book of Mormon. Deseret Evening News, May 18, 1883; May 19, 1883; Chronology, 

1883 369 

Tabernacle arm and Ward meetings redred abot 1 1 . 

Monday 28th arose about 4r 4.30. did housework and went up tow sent 
papers to Moroni, retired about 9.30. 

Tuesday 29th arose at 5. W. fine did housework and sewing, retired about 11. 
Wensday 30th arose before 5. W. lovely, did cleaning till after 9. 
Accompanied by Husband. Addie, Zadie, George and Kate, had a 
delightful drive to Camp Duglas [Douglas] . and the 8th Ward squar wit- 
nessed the games there had a very pleasant time came home before 3. 
ocloc retired about 9. 

Thursday 31st arose before 4. W. windy and dusty, did housework and 
sewing, my Sister abode with us over night retired after midnight. 

June 1883 

Friday 1 arose about 5. W. fine did housework most of the day Addie and 
Zadie spent the day at Calders with the University Students, retired before 10. 
Saturday 2nd arose at 4.30. W. fine did housework and sewing, attended 
14th Ward meeting had good time. Lizzie Rollins and her Motherinlaw 
came from Bountiful, retired about 10. 

Sunday 3rd arose at 5. slight shower day fine did housework a.m. attended 
Tabernacle p.m. called on my Nephew R.P. Morris and family; retired 
before 10. 

Monday 4th arose at 5. W. fine, did housework and washing cousin Lin 
Musser called, retired at 1 1 . 

Tuesday 5th arose about 5 W. fine did housework all day Sister M.E. Jones 
called on Sister Kimball to bid her good bye retired about 10. 
Wensday 6th arose before 5. W. fine did housework all day Sister M.E.Jones 
calld also Cousin Aggie retired about 10. 

Thursday 7th arose before 5. W. fine did a good deal of cleaning; at 10. 
attended Fast meeting had a good time Effie had her baby blessed she 
and Babes spent p.m. with us. retired before 10. 

Friday 8th arose before 5. W. fine and cold fire comfortable, sewed all day, 
retired at 12. 

Saturday 9th before 5. W. fine and rather cold, sewed all day recived a let- 
ter from my Nephew MW. Pratt, recived one yesterday from my brother, 
retired about 10. 

Sunday 10th arose at 4.15. W. warm attended to home affairs a.m. guarded 
the children p.m. visited a french family after evening meeting, retired 
about 10. 

Monday 11th arose at 4.30. W. fine, at 4 p.m. went to Liberty Park, to a 
gathering of the Pratt famly in honor of my Sisters birthday, had a pleas- 
ant time, retired before 10. 

370 Before the Manifesto 

Tuesday 12th arose about 4.30. W. fine continues cool, Husband better, 
the Ward spends the day at Liberty Park most of the family gone, spent 
the day doing housework and sewing, read for the Children in the eve. 
retired at 9.30. 

Wensday 13th arose at 4.30. W. fine a shower of rain p.m. Did housework all 
day read for the children in the eve, retired before 10. Husband better. 
Thursday 14th arose before 5. thunder and rain dureing the night. W. 
fine, did housework some repairing retired before 10 bgan coppying my 
composeitions Frid 

Friday 15th arose at 5. heavy rain and thunder last night did housework 
all day, Miss Cora Linzy and Miss Emma and Lizzie Ashton called this eve, 
retired about 1 1 . 

Saturday 16th arose about 5. W. fine and cool fires comfortable, sewed 
most of the day, Mr D. William and Miss Mattie John called Also Missess 
Georgeanna [Georgiana Snow] and Jophene [Josephine] Snow and 
Misses Mollie and Eliza Lunn of St George, retird about 11. 
Sunday 1 7th arose before six W. fine attended to home affairs a.m. attend 
Tabernacle meeting p.m. In the eve my old friends Joseph Armstrong 
and Wife, and Sister Sarah Chatterly of Cedar City called we spend the 
eve very pleasantly converseing and singing, retired at 12.30. 
Monday 1 8th arose before 6. W. warm, accompanied my friends to Sister Griggs, 
spend an hour with her Did housework and cutting out, retired about 9. 
Tuesday 19th arose about 4.30. W. warm, our friends left us before noon, Bro 
C. Stevens of Weber called Began housecleaning p.m. retired about 10. 
Wensday 20th arose about 5. W. fine and warm continued house-clean- 
ing retired about 9. was waked at 12 30. by an explosion, arose from my 
pillow to behold a great fire , my Husband observed that it appeared to 
be in the direction of his warerooms and office, 6 in five minutes he was 
off, a few minutes later we recived a telephone saying that it was burnt 
down , also Savages Ast Bayor H.B. [Hiram Bradley] Clawsons warerooms 
and several other placs includeing the Council house the Tabernacle and 
Tithing Office also caught fire, the windows of all the principle places in 

According to a newspaper account, shortly after midnight on June 21, 1883, the 
premises of H. R. Clawson caught fire. Clawson had a large amount of "powder" on his 
property that exploded, spreading the fire to the Council House, a bakery, shoe shop, 
furniture shop, and other buildings, including Elias Morris's business at 21 W. South 
Temple. This fire caused six thousand dollars in property damage to Elias Morris's 
business, which — combined with a loss over construction work done for the Mammoth 
mine — caused him financial difficulties. An account in the Deseret Evening News said 
that as a result of the fire, Morris "is compelled to make nearly a new start; and he 
resumes on a broad basis, so that the business fabric may reach a desirable height. He 
can be found at his now charred and dilapidated stand, receiving orders for work in his 
line as briskly and almost as cheerfully as ever, and will shortly be found in brand new 
premises." Deseret Evening News, June 21, 1883;July 19, 1883. 

1883 371 

town were broken. We waited for his return until daylight, at 5. he came, 
at 9.30. we went to see the ruins, continued housecleaning Cheer Parry's 
Baby was born to night retired about 9. 

Friday 22nd arose about 5. W. warm cleaning the order of the day, 
Husband returned from high Council at 1.5. retired, complains of simp- 
toms of sever illness, 

Saturday 23rd ar arose at blout 5. W. quite warm did housecleaning and 
repairing Husband sick retired soon after 10. 

Sunday 24th arose before 6. W. warm attended to home affairs a.m. Miss 
Lund dined with us. spent p.m. Miss M. Lamb called. Attended Tabernacl 
p.m. spent p.m. eve at home (Husband sick) retired about 11. 
Monday 25th arose at 4.30. W. warm did repairing gardening and house- 
cleaning, Husband better Nephi sick; retired soon after 9. 
Tuesday 26th arose before 5. W. warm, admistered holy oil to Nephi, anon- 
iting him in the name of the Lord from which time he began to amend; 
Mother Williams called retired about 11. 

Wensday 27th arose about 4.30. W. very warm Nephi is about to day, for 
wich I feel to praise God. Sister Williams abode with us over night had a 
long chat with her about work for the dead. Attended the funeral of Sister 
[Caroline C] Chatfield who died yester day. Continued housecleaning, 
Sister Harrison called retired about 10. 

Thursday 28th arose soon after six W. very warm. Nephi gone to work, con- 
tinued housecleaning 

Friday 29th arose about 6. W. very warm did housecleaning and worked on 
a pair of slippers retired about 10. 

Saturday 30th arose before 4. W. hot did cleaning all day. My Husband 
is fifty eight years old to day, there is a very pleasant party gotten up for 
him, my eldest daughter and Husband are there retired about 10. 

July 1883 

Sunday 1st came about 6. W. hot, attended to home affairs a.m. attended 
Tabernacle p.m. called on Sister Willson in the eve, retired about 11. 
Monday 2nd arose about 6. W. hot did housework and sewing retired 
about 10. 

Tuesday 3rd arose soon after 4. W. fine did housework and sewind and vis- 
ited part of my block, Miss Mamie Lamb called, retired about 10 
Wensday 4th arose before 5. W. cooler attended to home affairs a.m. p.m. 
went to Washington Squar, saw the Bycicle races, Base Ball games 7 and 
the Baloon asend, retired at ten 

The rivalry between Salt Lake's gentile and Mormon baseball teams made baseball 
popular in the area between 1877 and 1879. Baseball lost popularity in Salt Lake City 

372 Before the Manifesto 

Thursday 5th arose at 6. Wether has been cooler for some days nights 
lovely, attended fast Meeting a.m. Committee Meeting p.m. called on 
Sister Ward who seems to be fast passing away, had quite chat with her 
on the percutions she had endured for the truths sake, attended to home 
affairs retired at midnight. 

Friday 6th arose at 5. W. lovely, did housework and sewing, Addie sick this 
p.m. retired at midnight 

Saturday 7th arose at 5. W. fine Addie some better, attended Stake 
Conference all day, had a very enjoyable chat between meetings with 
Bro's A Giauque and Wm Sheerman, also with Sister Hannah T. King and 
Sister Smith, and Mcalister came home at 5. attended to home affairs, 
retired at 10. 

Sunday 8th arose at 5 W. hot attended Con most of the day, at 5. p.m. 
attended the funeral of Bro J.B. Toroto spent the eve at home retired at 10. 
Monday 9th arose to 5. W. hot thunder shower p.m. did housework all day 
retired at 9. 

Tuesday 10th arose at 4.30 W. hot did washing and sewing, attended 
Primary Meeting in the Conty Court House, had a good time, retired 
soon after 10. 

Wensday 11th arose soon after 5. washed beding wash most of the day , did 
sewing also, retired before 9 

Thursday 12th arose about 5. W. hot washed wool most of the day, did sew- 
ing also retired at 1 1 . 

Friday 13th arose soon after 4. W. hot did housework a.m. sewing p.m. 
retired before 10. 

Saturday 14th arose soon after 5. W. hot, did sewing and housework a.m. 
attended 14th Ward meeting p.m. sewing in the eve retired at 11. 
Sunday 15th arose about 5. W. hot attended to home affairs a.m. attended 
Tabernacle p.m. Prests G. Q. Cannon and Taylor spoke with great power, 
attended Ward meeting in the eve, had a good time called Misses Lund 
and Miss G. Snow also Mr Wolley, also Cheer Parry and baby, retired at 9. 
Monday 16th arose about 4.30. did housework gardening and sewing, 
retired at 10. 

Tuesday 1 7th arose at before 6. did sewing and went up town retired early 
Wensday 18th arose about 5. W. hot did housework all day retired in good 
Thursday 19th arose about 4. W. hot did housework and sewing Miss Lund 

when the gentile-dominated Deseret Club baseball team became largely professional. 
The sport revived again after 1883 as a result of business promotion. This interest in 
baseball was reflected in the larger United States, as sports in America came to include 
spectator, as well as purely recreational, activities. Schlereth, Victorian America, 223-25; 
Alexander and Allen, Mormons and Gentiles, 117-18. 

1883 373 

called, abode with over night took her to see Sister George retired at 1 1 . 

Friday 20th arose before 5. W. hot, did housework Most of the day, Effie 

and babes spent p.m. with us retired about 10 

Saturday 21st arose about 5.30 W. fine did housework all day retired at 10. 

Sunday 22nd arose at 5.30. attended to home affairs a.m. visited Sister 

Waterfall whos babe is very sick attended Ward meeting in the eve, called 

on Sister W. baby is dieng retired before 12 

Monday 23rd arose about 5. W. very warm, did housework and attended 

the funeral of Sister Waterfalls baby retired at 10. 

Tuesday 24th arose before